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Archive for the tag “Sudan”

Sudan: A long journey ahead, even with the signed agreement

I want to be hopeful and see the best results, as the Transitional Military Council and the Forces for Freedom the Declaration of Change (FFC) signed a constitutional agreement. Which entails stipulated codes, power-sharing and timeline for a possible peaceful transition post Omar Al-Bashir.

However, the generals and warlords of the military, the ones who has been the henchmen of the 30 year old dictatorship still lingers in power. They will still have seats and command authority in the Sovereign Council. This being the likes of Gen. Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo aka Hemiti. The man whose been in-charge of Janjaweed or the Rapid Support Force. Which is known for its brutality and senseless killings in several of states in Sudan. Therefore, with the likes of him around, he will surely not give way easy to any civilian.

That’s why I am afraid that the ones in the TMC and the ones whose close allies to Al-Bashir, see this transition period and this temporary council as a bargain-chip, also the key thing. It buying time and legitimacy. As the African Union, European Union, Arabian allies and others are supporting the Constitutional Declaration and the transitional period. Without any consequences to the old guard, that did all the shady work for the previous leader. They get away with it, without even costing them anything.

So, yesterday was the signing, the handshakes, the beautiful speeches and the glimmers of hope. What time will show, if these people actually will usher in civilian rule or configure ways to takeover. The generals, the warlords of the TMC will surely use all their tricks in their possession to get the upper-hand. It would be shocking if otherwise.

Let me be clear, I hope for peace and civilian rule, where the justice prevails, where the liberty and freedom of the citizens are there. I really do, but with certain elements still lingering around. I am not sure if they want that to succeed. Because, that initially means they will loose power and have to listen to civilians telling them how to move. I am not sure if they want to shaken by them or even questioned by them. Especially, since they been allowed by previous leadership to roam around without any fear or intimidation. As long as they are loyal to the President.

That is why I am worried and hopeful. I hope for a better tomorrow. A place within the timeline of the agreement. That military becomes a tool of securing the territory and not a tool of oppression. I hope that the allies in the FFC with other units of civilian organizations gets the opportunity to run a civilian run government. However, that is a long-shot, it is built in the hope, that the henchmen and the warlords, actually stick this to agreement. That is what I am not so certain about, but I hope I am wrong. Peace.

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UN Experts report that War-Lord Hemiti of RSF sells weapons to the CAR!

The now deputy of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) Mohammed Hamdan Dagolo aka Hemiti or Hemmeti, who shows that his continues to finesse funds with illegal and illicit arms trade to the Central African Republic (CAR). Not just to anyone there as well, he has sold arms and equipment to the FPRC (The Popular Front for the Rebirth of CAR) and UPC (Union for Peace in CAR).

This means that Hemiti has no problem to sell weapons to other armed groups across the Sahel region or even greater Africa. As long as he earns on others misfortune. Don’t believe that a man like this beliefs in peace and such. He is only in it for the long-con and the wealth. That is why the recent news of trading weapons to the CAR.

This shows that his a warlord, that the International Community has embraced with the acknowledgement of the TMC and the whole Post Al-Bashir paradigm. While he does what he did as an enforcer for Al-Bashir, but also does it with more power behind now. As he is a high ranking commander and also state official, not only a militia leader, who does the bidding of the central government. That is worrying, as his now implicated in illicit arms trade.

FPRC and UPC have continued to acquire weapons, ammunition and pickup vehicles from and/or through Sudanese territory, with the complicity of elements from the Rapid Support Force, which is led by Mohammed Hamdan Dagolo, alias “Hemmeti” (…) “As detailed in annex 4.6, between January and May 2019, new pickup trucks were purchased in Nyala, the Sudan. Vehicles belonging to FPRC and RPRC, some featuring mounted machine guns, were observed in Birao, Bria, Ndélé and Kaga-Bandoro. In January 2019, the Panel observed a strengthened military capacity in Birao, which coincided with tensions between FPRC and RPRC and with the positioning of a reported 60 vehicles and armed Rapid Support Force elements on the Sudanese side of the border” (…) “In late March, 18 FPRC elements, including “Generals” Adoum Kanton, Fadoul Bashar and Kader, travelling in pickup trucks between Nyala, the Sudan and Birao, Central African Republic, were arrested by Sudanese military intelligence in possession of weapons, ammunition and military uniforms purchased in Nyala. Abdoulaye Hissène reportedly purchased at least four of those loaded vehicles (see annex 4.6). On 8 April, Bashar Fadoul, who had been released immediately by the Sudanese military intelligence, and “General” Kingar reportedly returned to Nyala, where they purchased 20 boxes of 7.62×39 mm ammunition and 50 AK-type assault rifles from Rapid Support Force elements” (…) “In early February, immediately after the negotiations in Khartoum, a UPC trafficker also transported 500 rocket-propelled grenade rounds, AK-type assault rifles and ammunition, which he had ordered from individuals in Chad and picked up in Ndélé (see annex 4.7). The trafficker declared that the weaponry was needed to attack MINUSCA armoured personnel carriers in the event of a new military operation. In April 2019, that same trafficker reportedly purchased 260 grenades and grenade launchers in Chad (see annex 4.7). Similar types of grenades have been observed in the Central African Republic since 2010” (UNSC, 2019).

This here says it all. It cannot be understated. That the leadership of Khartoum, the RSF and Hemiti is now officially trading illicit arms and does it without any concern of the people in the Central African Republic. That is the sort of leader Hemiti is.

His actions and decisions to do this, to give the armed groups in CAR the ability to attack the peacekeepers of MINUSCA. That they are getting greater gear, more advanced weaponry, but also the ability to prolong their warfare. This is what the Sudanese government is sponsoring, they are earning fortunes on. Even as there is a arm-embargo with the peace-deal. That didn’t matter, because, the merchants of death doesn’t care. Peace.

Reference:

(United Nations Security Council – ‘Letter dated 30 July 2019 from the Panel of Experts on the Central African Republic extended pursuant to resolution 2454 (2019) addressed to the President of the Security Council’ 30.07.2019).

Sudan: No child should be buried in their school uniform – Statement by Abdullah Fadil, UNICEF Representative in Sudan (29.07.2019)

KHARTOUM, 29 July 2019 – “I am devastated about the fatal shooting that led to the death of at least five high-school children and scores of serious injuries in El Obeid, North Kordofan.

“We express our sincere condolences to the families, the students and the community.

“The children, aged between 15 and 17 years old, were protesting the commencement of the school year amid the political uncertainty in Sudan.

“No child should be buried in their school uniform.

“UNICEF urges all those involved in the violence to protect children at all times and keep them out of harm’s way, in line with their obligations under International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Principles.

“UNICEF calls on all parties to respect the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Sudan Child Act 2010 and refrain from committing grave violations against children, including the recruitment and use of children in armed forces or armed groups.

“UNICEF calls on the government to investigate and hold all perpetrators of violence against children accountable.

“UNICEF will continue to work with national partners and the international community to protect and uphold the rights of children in Sudan.”

Sudan: Hemiti in command of the TMC at the handshake, will it be so at the Sovereign Council too?

I am worried about legitimizing the Transitional Military Council and their powers, as the Forces of the Freedom and Declared Change (FFC) signed off a very similar deal to what was unleashed to the media on the 5th July 2019. The deal signed today between the parties initial the same and the differences between the parties still has to be ironed out.

What is worrying is seeing Gen. Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo aka Hemiti signing the deal, as the representative of the TMC. This means the Rapid Support Force aka Janjaweed has the initial power in the TMC and that even the leader  Abdel-Fatah al-Burhan Abdel-Rahman isn’t all that. Since Hemiti is the one handshaking the FFC and being the front-man. Meaning his the one and is just named deputy in the TMC to stall for time as well. Because, he knows his position and everyone will not accept him.

The RSF have already been in the middle atrocities in Darfur and South Korodofan states for years, where they have killed, raped and vilified the population. They are now taking over post from the UNAMID in the midst of these negotiations and their power is just growing. While the FFC are seemingly hoping this pragmatic deal will help them along the way to a civilian rule. As the years of switching power and having a Sovereign Council will not enable the military to take total control of the Republic. Even if it seems to be trading in shallow waters.

The TMC seems to be in the hands of Hemiti, who has also been abroad and talked with Saudi Arabia and others allies to support his cause. Surely, they would like a compromised and bought war-lord like him. Not a civilian one, who answers to the public and not the direct donors of the Middle-East. Especially, when the Sudanese are sending battalions to fight in the civil-war of Yemen. That is just the approach of the day.

I am not seeing it positive today, that they had a PR Stunt and a presser, where they released a signed document, which states the same and answers few questions on who really has the power. Where they have agreed upon a transitional Sovereign Council, and will configure its mandate, as well as the legal basis for it all. It is surely a lot of power that is on the line, also the struggle for supremacy and loss of it in the end.

I have a hard time seeing this changing over a document and a handshake, the RSF and its allies will pursuit the legal and armed basis for their hold of the Republic. I don’t see this giving way, but only stalling for time and hoping the public give way. Not that I want that, but the men behind the scenes acts like this and stalls for time.

I do not trust Hemiti and his motives, I don’t think his the man to give trust too. His not a fella I would have signed any deal with, because I knew he would change the terms and switch to gain power. When he can and then he will. Will act up and take total control at the Sovereign Council? Why wouldn’t he? He got the power by the little finger and would just snap it to take it. There is no denying this and maybe, that is why Al-Burhan is not visible today at the handshake. Peace.

Statement attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on the situation in Abyei (17.07.2019)

The Secretary-General conveys his deepest condolences to the family of the deceased peacekeeper and to the Government and people of Ethiopia.

NAIROBI, Kenya, July 17, 2019 – The Secretary-General is saddened by the incident that occurred earlier today at the Amiet Market in Abyei, during which two United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) peacekeepers, conducting a routine patrol, came under attack by unknown assailants. One peacekeeper was killed while the other was wounded. Five civilians from Abyei region were also killed in the incident.

The Secretary-General conveys his deepest condolences to the family of the deceased peacekeeper and to the Government and people of Ethiopia and wishes the injured peacekeeper a speedy recovery. He extends his sympathies to the families of the civilians killed.

UNISFA has deployed peacekeepers to the area to enhance security and determine the circumstances behind the attack.

Sudan: FFC holds vigil marches nationwide, while RSF blocks all roads into Khartoum and arrests activists in Darfur!

Today, there are reports of demonstrations all-across the Republic. This is the the Forces for Freedom and Change is calling for a mass vigil on July 13 to commemorate the victims of the June 3 massacre. Today, the citizens has gone to the streets to show remembrance and showing the military that they will not be intimidated by them. The footage of the massacre of 3rd June 2019 has been shown worldwide and the TMC’s crime has been viral for the last few days. Therefore, they NISS, RSF and the army, better respect people’s will today.

Even if the TMC are continuing their mischief elsewhere.

Like in Darfur:

Today, there was 28 people who has been arrested in Darfur. They have been “accused” of belonging to the Forces for Freedom and Change. This is the sort of acts the TMC are doing, while they are negotiating with the FFC.

While during negotiations between the TMC and the FFC. The TMC is requesting a clause in the agreement, that gives them immunity from prosecution and freezing of assets. This is a clear acts of washing their hands of the blood and getting a free ride in the new Sovereign Council.

The Sudanese Professional Association (SPA) spokesperson have gone out to the media, saying that the negotiations are still happening with the TMC. As the discussion of the text and the agreement are still being ironed out. So, things are still being drafted and the clauses are not fixed yet.

The TMC and FFC are supposed today to look over the power-sharing agreement and the text itself. To agree upon it, as this is yet another step for the 3 years and 6 month transition period for the Sovereign Council.

There are footage of demonstrations today in various parts of Khartoum, Omdurman, Medani in Jezira State, Kassala in Eastern Sudan, El Obeid in North Kordofan, Port Sudan and in Gedarif in Gedarif State. All of this is showing that the FFC and the civilian organization of the civil disobedience and protests on the streets as they wanted. So, we are seeing the FFC asking for accountability and righteous actions for the fallen martyrs in the recent massacre done by the TMC and their armed groups.

Therefore, today is important, not only what the FFC and TMC is able to iron out in the power-sharing agreement, but also, if the TMC can let the public demonstrate, protest and hold rallies without violence. Even if there reports of arrests in Darfur. There are also reports of anti-riot police in designated areas, hopefully they will not act all out. Also reports of RSF/Janjaweed blocked the bridge of Manshia with barbed wire from stopping demonstrators to get to Sharg Al-Neil in Khartoum. There is also reports that the RSF/Janjaweed has blocked all bridges in to the capital, so demonstrators cannot enter peacefully into the capital on foot. Let’s hope this doesn’t escalate, as there are reports of RSF elsewhere in Khartoum on stand-by. Hopefully, nothing will spiral, but with these guys you never know.

Time will tell how this will go. But today is an important day in concern of the power-sharing agreement and with the peaceful protest. That the authorities, the military and the RSF isn’t acting out and adding more violence. Even when writing this, there is no reports of tear-gas in Khartoum 2.

Let’s see how this pans out. Peace.

Sudan: UN experts denounce Internet shutdown, call for immediate restoration (08.07.2019)

GENEVA – UN human rights experts* have denounced measures taken by the authorities to shut down the Internet in Sudan, saying it stifles free expression and association.

“In the past few weeks, we have continued to receive reports on Internet blocking of social media platforms by the Transitional Military Council,” the experts said.

“The Internet shut down is in clear violation of international human rights law and cannot be justified under any circumstances.** We urge the authorities to immediately restore Internet services. The Human Rights Council has unequivocally condemned measures that intentionally prevent or disrupt access to information online, and recommended all States to cease and refrain from such measures.” 

Noting that peaceful demonstrations to demand democratic transition continue to take place in the country, the experts highlighted that the Internet shutdown adversely impacted peoples’ human rights.

“The internet shutdown forms part of a larger effort to stifle the free expression and association of the Sudanese population, and to curtail the ongoing protests,” the experts said. “Internet services have been shut down several times since the beginning of the year, the last time on 10 June only days after security forces violently dispersed a sit-in and killed and injured more than a hundred protesters.”

“Access to information and communication services is crucial at times of protests. Restricting or blocking access to Internet services not only adversely affects the enjoyment of the rights to freedom of expression, assembly and participation, but it also has severe effects on protesters demands’ regarding economic and social rights,” the experts added.

Reportedly, Sudanese internet provider Zain-SDN was found to have the most extensive blocking scheme, covering all key social platforms, followed by MTN, Sudatel and Kanartel.

The UN human rights experts stand ready to provide any assistance to the authorities in this context.

ENDS

Opinion: I been told with time things will be better, but does it?

Well, in troubling times, as things are moving both forward, backward and sideways. It seems that we can defer from enterprising the idea, that everything gets better with time. Surely, this doesn’t mean we as folk doesn’t change, broaden our minds and expand our patterns of thought. No, we might do this, but this doesn’t change the narrative nor the times we are seeing passing by.

We are not a single leaf in the wind. Neither are we a recycled raindrop, awaiting next part of its existence to become evaporated before becoming clouds and be rained down upon us, yet again. Even if life goes in cycle and we as human beings are repeating history, sometimes even without knowing.

The ignorance of out times, as we are silent to the death of immigrants, as we are deaf to the pleas of separated kids in camps in the United States. The silence and lack of outcry, as the US tried to start a war in Iran and tried to enforce an coup d’etat in Venezuela. This is all happening, but no worries. As well, as the European Union have favourable deals with the Libyan, Egyptian and Sudanese Governments to stop immigrants from coming to the shores of Italy, Spain and Greece. That is just we do to each other, instead of giving a helping hand in need, we let people drown with excuses of nationalism, border security and fear of the unknown.

We are living in a time, where there is no problem to silence the media, weaponize social media and misuse state resources to suppress dissidents. This is happening all over, not only in dictatorships, but also in the “free world”. Where leaders are using their means and using their techniques to sophisticated silence and letting the ones defying their stance suffer. There are plenty of journalists in the recent time died by poison, being arrested and tortured. Plenty of opposition leaders in exile and struggling to regain their vitality. That is all happening, but nothing contemplating on the reasons for this.

The weaponization of social media with bots and big media, where the hacking, leaks and misuse of information combined with blind narrow-minded followers, who doesn’t think of the consequences of the acts nor they think of what the message they are spreading. The parties, the leaders are letting their camps all go out into the battlefield. Build their borders filled with landmines, barbed-wire and trenches. In this field, everyone who disagrees is traitors, radicals or even stupid individuals who has no sense. While the bombs, the hypocrites and the vilified commentators should just be blocked or silenced. Because, they are just fake and frauds, while the almighty leader is the ones to listen too.

While this is happening, the wars are steady, they are not stopping. The trade-wars, the Brexit is pumping in its sketchy way. The troubles of Yemen, Syria and Ukraine continues, like wars of old. The slavery trade of Mauritania continues as well as possible slave-ships on the outside of Libya. While, the Amnesty and Human Rights Watch, appeal to the International Community, the Western Sahara is still a punchline for the Pan-African Political Parties, but the world is not caring about the plights of the people there, as long as the big-companies can fish outside the coast there.

The peacekeeping missions are lacking funding, as the missions are staying and lingering, also paying off dictators to send military forces to conflict zones in Sahel, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia and so on. The former colonial powers of France, Belgium, United Kingdom and others are still holding their grips of former colonies, as they have new units to treat the new leadership and “open markets” for their products. If they need, they will kiss the rings of dictators and others, to just get the needed resources for a dime.

We are living in fabulous times, we are living times of adventures of freedom, liberty and justice. Where labels of Fairtrade, trade-unions and others are continuing to pushing the envelope, but still not seeing thing true. As the illicit trade practices continues in many markets and by plenty companies, multi-national earning fortunes on their production units paying little or none to its contractors. This wouldn’t been acceptable in the industrialised world, but in the developing world it is dandy. Some in our time, even says these people should be grateful to even have a job. That is how dark our time is.

They says things are getting better with time, are they? There was a promising generation of leaders in the 80s and 90s, but they became alike the former dictators and militaristic regimes of the past. There are little resemblance of the past positive movement. While we are celebrating mediocrity and lacklustre approach to the future problems. We are supposed to be content and think this spoils of our times is good.

While we are not even able to solve the crimes of the 70s and 80s, while struggling with the aftermath of the politics done in the 90s and 00s. We are supposed to be all smiles, as the first decade of this millennium is here. The millennial’s can vote and we are supposed to promise them a greater future. When we are leaving behind the same old issues, with the same old greed and the lack of will to accept the mantle given to us.

Things was supposed to get better time, but apparently they are not. Maybe I am in a dark place today, but I do not see it. Because, we didn’t make it better, we didn’t push it to a greater place, we just let it be and watched a game of football. We didn’t care and didn’t sign up for a party, NGO or even go in a demonstration. We just looked and wonder, when is our turn?

Well, it isn’t given to us, just like the leaders of our day wasn’t given to them either. They fought and took it. If we want change, maybe we need to do the same. Because, things aren’t getting better. I see darkness, I see sinister acts going unpunished and the innocent dying for no fucking reason. Peace.

Sudan: Did the International Community legitimize the TMC to soon?

Well, it is a hard bargain to ask this question, if the international community, the troika, United Nations, European Union and United States; Did they in an combined effort legitimize the Transitional Military Council with their 5 July 2019 Agreement with the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC)?

Because, everyone has jumped on the bandwagon and praised the deal as an effort to get peace and stability. But what sort of peace and stability will it be? Will the NISS and RSF still be in the streets to create fear and intimidation for the citizens? Will the generals and warlords of the TMC really respect the civilians in the Sovereign Council or are they just stalling for time?

I do not have the answers and do not intend to have them either. I am just wondering if this was happening to fast. As I saw even the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) saluting the agreement. IGAD and African Union all joined the league of favourable partners like the TMC and FFC had to get it done. So, that the Ethiopian and AU Joint Mediation looked good or something. Because, they couldn’t loose now and see more demonstrations.

This is all post National Congress Party (NCP) and Post- Al-Bashir, alas, even as the henchmen of him is lingering around in the TMC and is most likely in corridors of power as long as the three year and 6 months transitional period is lingering on. This is all done in an effort to stop the demonstrations and protest only to get things to go back to “normal”. Whatever that means and at what cost.

We can wonder if the NCP and TMC plans to hijack the process, ensure the most juicy parts of the Sovereign Council, take the parts where they are initially in control and give minor positions to FFC to ensure stability. This all being done in backdoor deals and negotiations, as they don’t really intend to proceed to civilian rule. They are just using the three years and 6 months to buy time and hope international community forgets it all and continues to buy their petroleum. Don’t be amazed if that is the trick of the current arrangement.

Don’t expect the United Nations Experts to cry havoc for long, the IGAD are working for their member states, not challenging them. The AU will only make a fuzz, but not directly support regime change. Unless, the donors of the AU and AU Commission pushes it in that direction. The EU will support the Sudanese regime as long as it stops the refugee flood passing through the borders of the Republic. That it will do at any cost and the US will continue to support it, as long as they trade oil with them. This is just the way the world operates, and the Russians will be happy to trade military hardware and mercenaries to eager foreign currency into their Federation.

Therefore, was the world to quick to assess and scream of joy over the Peace Agreement between the two parties, making the TMC a friendly associate, whose still has the upper-hand but really not given up much after a massacre and continued oppression of the public. Because, the lack of internet, electricity and masses silenced by NISS/RSF continues. The case is still open to see a practical change in ways to operate from the TMC.

Maybe the TMC got the get-go from Saudi Arabia and therefore, just let it go. So, that they can do their ills in silence and have less public scrutiny, because they made a deal. Then, the NGOs and the UN will not be as persistent on their tail. They can run around with their bad acts and no one will act upon it. Only a few minor actors, but they cannot really change anything.

The TMC got legitimized, maybe to quickly for comfort… Who knows, maybe I am wrong. I hope I am, but these tend to trickle down with time. Peace.

Sudan: Dimming light of hope for a possible civilian rule..

Yesterday, the news was broken that the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) had agreed to peace deal. This deal certainly is a made in way, that gives way for both parties, but surely betray a lot of the ideals that the FFC had and the public had in the demonstrations. Maybe, the FFC soften it up and trying to sell it out. In hope for a negotiated and secured future, even putting trust in the TMC.

The reason why I say that is that the deal per now is a 3 years and 3 months of temporary leadership. Where it will first get 6 months to secure the peace. Than as a part of these 6 month, the Military will lead the new Council for 21 months, while the Civilian leadership will after this get a period of 18 months.

The Sovereign Council, which it has been named, will consist of 5 people from the FFC and 5 members from the military, as well as one civilian member agreed upon by both parties. Making it a Sovereign Council of 11. There will be a Legislative Council and a Council of Ministers, which will be formed after the new structure of government.

There will now be a joint technical committee made by African Union lawyers and the mediators of Ethiopia to finalize this agreement, as it will be finished by Saturday. Certainly, this is all a win for the military, as they will be by the table and no just co-exist with the civilian rule. They will have a say and possible have one man more than the FFC. This meaning, the FFC and the civilian will still be at the mercy of the army.

That is why this is possible a hard bargain, if the TMC have done this to buy time. They have really bought a lot for very little, as they seems like reasonable, while the foreigners are praising the deal. While the TMC don’t have to pay the price for the violence or the killings of demonstrators. Neither, the arrests nor challenged on the silence of the internet or electricity elsewhere. The TMC have gotten very much and legitimacy by doing very little. Even as these negotiations has been going on, the men of civilian leadership have been arrested and intimidated. Clearly, that has not cost the TMC anything and they have even gotten a sweet deal.

Even today, the day after the power agreement in Rabak, White Nile State, the Rapid Support Force (RSF) used their trucks on civilians, who after prayers went around chanting and celebrating in public places. Then the RSF came with 5 trucks and dispersed all off them. This is what the TMC does, while they are making nice to the world.

Let see if the TMC will backtrack or even try to overpower the Sovereign Council, as there are even expectations that the TMC will get the First President of the Council in question. This will surely avoid possible bloodshed, but if the TMC doesn’t get the will. Than, the RSF might be used by the TMC again. That might be the reason why the FFC accepted this half-baked peace-deal, as they saw the stalemate as troublesome. Since, the TMC have not shown their trustworthiness of late.

Time will tell, even if they get the PR shots and the showing of the world of a declaration and peace agreement tomorrow. At this point, I am not sure if this is good or bad, as time will tell if the TMC will honour the deal or not. If they will slowly try to overpower and misuse the legitimacy the Sovereign Council gives them. That is what worries me, but that is because I have a hard time trusting war-lords, as they want to grab as much as possible and uses negotiations only to buy time. Peace.

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