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New Study Finds Worrying Climate Trend in Karamoja Over Last 35 Years (20.03.2017)

Released in Kampala today, the ‘Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security and Livelihoods in Karamoja’ found that temperatures have been rising in Karamoja over the last 35 years.

KAMPALA, Uganda, March 20, 2017 – A new study carried out by the Government of Uganda and its partners has found a new weather pattern that threatens to worsen food insecurity in the Karamoja region if no action is taken.

The study found that the average monthly rainfall in the region increased over the last 35 years and that the rainy season is now longer by two months. However, the rains – which now fall from around March to the end of the year – increasingly varied in volumes. This unpredictability was found to undermine agricultural production, thereby threatening to aggravate food insecurity in Karamoja.

Released in Kampala today, the ‘Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security and Livelihoods in Karamoja’ found that temperatures have been rising in Karamoja over the last 35 years.

The rising temperatures threaten to increase the frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in the region, therefore reducing availability of water for crops and animals. This too undermines food security.

A large majority of people in Karamoja, particularly women, were not aware that changes to the climate had been taking place over decades, the study states. However, most of the people that had perceived changes to the climate had not taken any action to adapt, typically because they did not know how to do so. Where trees were planted as an adaptation measure, the sale of charcoal and firewood were also a common measure that people took in response to climate-related crop failure.

Sponsored by the Swedish Government, the study was carried out in 2016 by the Ministry of Water and Environment with support from the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and the CGIAR Consortium’s Research Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.

The Uganda Minister for Water and Environment, Sam Cheptoris, said today, “These are significant findings that threaten any hope for Uganda achieving its Vision 2040 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), if no immediate action is taken.”

Cheptoris said that his Ministry was already calling for a national and regional response, advocating for climate change sensitive approaches across all Government sectors, educating the population about climate change, and undertaking emissions profiles.

“Karamoja’s population is heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, which is highly vulnerable to climate change,” said El Khidir Daloum, WFP Country Director for Uganda. “However, little has been known previously about the impacts of climate change on food security, and in particular, the ability of households in the region to adapt.”

WFP hopes that the findings and recommendations of the study will contribute to efforts toward appropriate adaptation measures while helping to identify policies that will safeguard the most vulnerable communities in Karamoja.

The study recommended that the Government and its partners increase investments in water harvesting and agroforestry schemes, education of the people, improved access to climate change information and the cultivation of drought-resistant crop varieties.

Within the Ministry of Water and Environment, the study was carried out by the Climate Change Department and the Uganda National Meteorological Authority.

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1.6 million People affected in hunger crisis and other growing issues in the agricultural sector in Uganda!

isingiro-relief-703x422

The Republic of Uganda has certain areas that have been affected with the drought and the lacking rain, which has affected the yields and output of food. The areas that has been in dire straits since El-Nino is in Teso, Karamoja and West Nile; these areas are in different stages, but all as worrying as the 1.6 million people are in a crisis situation, while 26% of all population or 9.3 million people are in a stressed situation. Let’s take a deep breath and look at the numbers coming from the offices of Prime Minister Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda. That has delivered this numbers and they are worrying.

An estimated 1.6 million people (5% of the total population) are in Crisis situation. Those populations are found in Central 1 (0.58 million); Karamoja (0.12 million), Teso (0.2 million), East Central (0.38 million) and South Western (0.31 million) regions. This population has widening food consumption gaps with deteriorating dietary diversity and high malnutrition rates. They are found in Central 1 (0.58 million), Karamoja (0.12 million), Teso (0.2 million), East Central (0.38 million) and South Western (0.31 million) regions. The affected population includes the poorest households with poor food consumption score, low meal frequencies of up to 1 meal a day and low dietary diversity of less than 3 food groups. They have poor purchasing power as their incomes are low and no food stocks at household level. They are mainly coping through food assistance, remittances from relatives, begging, stealing food, wild food gathering and irreversible sale of productive assets to buy food. This population currently needs assistance to bridge the widening food consumption gaps and avert worsening malnutrition” (Office of the Prime Minister, 2017).

You can wonder what is the plan of the Republic when they know that the people have poor purchasing power, while the dwindling yields of the small-farming in these regions, doesn’t have the purchasing power of central regions. The trades and lacking production has equally hurt these citizens in Teso and Karamoja. Therefore the drought and lacking rain-fall has made the situation worse, as much as the rising refugee camps also getting aid and support from United Nation organization. While the republic have not galvanized agricultural structures and supported the citizens in dire need. This shows that the state has forgotten the reason for its existence. But there are more!

An estimated 9.3 million people (26% of the total population) are experiencing Stressed situation. Those populations are in East Central (1.88 million); South Western (1.24 million), Teso (1.1 million) and West Nile (1.04 million) regions. This population has minimum adequate food consumption, employing insurance strategies and are unable to afford some essential non-food expenditures. The prolonged dry spell due to La Nina phenomenon coupled with increasing incidences of crop and livestock pests and diseases such as Cassava Brown Streak, Cassava Mosaic, maize stalk borer, striga and Banana Bacterial Wilt grossly affected production reducing the availability and accessibility of food for this population. The low crop and livestock production negatively impacted household food stocks leading to increased reliance on markets for food. Increasing demand from external markets has induced food price increases, making it difficult for poor households to access food from the market. Deteriorating water and pasture conditions mainly in the cattle corridor have resulted in migrations of livestock keepers, reduction in livestock production and increased spread of livestock diseases. The over whelming influx of refugees from South Sudan has increased demand for food and services in West Nile region” (Office of the Prime Minister, 2017).

So it is bad that 1.6 million people are lacking resource, possibility to produce food, but also that the state doesn’t deliver help or aid to the people. The other numbers of affected people, shows even more the systematic defaults of the state to achieve good production of agricultural output, as the problems with crops, livestock and diseases that shown with Cassava Brown Strak, Cassava Mosaic, Maize Stalk Borer, Sriga and Banana Bacterial Wilt. All of these should be worked on and nourished by the state, through agricultural programs that stops the spread of diseases. This should be important at this stage by not only the Office of the Prime Minister Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda. Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries Hon. Vincent Bamulangaki Ssempijja should have used the institutions to find solutions to the added strains in the agricultural industries, together with one of his State Ministers.

That the Ministry of Agriculture and Hon. Ssempijja has been lacking guidance as well as funding, most been shown when the millions of affected citizens are the result of little or no plan on important industry as it is. Where so many work and could need state structures to help and guide. There are lacking instruments and use of government institutions to help out in the dire need. Even find out ways to stop the growing problems that makes such a big part of population affected. When a state has 26% of it affected by various issues and the State can find ways to sort it out, than that should be priority, not to buy airplanes and cut taxes for the MPs, but to fix the agricultural yields and water-irrigation that needs. Peace.

Reference:

A Publication of the Office of the Prime Minister – Department of Relief, Disaster Preparedness and Management – “The Official Government of Uganda Inter- Ministerial/Agencies Monthly National Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning Bulletin

15th FEBRUARY to 15th MARCH 2017” Volume 01. Series No. 01. Issues No. 04.

UN, World Bank, insurance sector tackle climate vulnerability (06.10.2016)

un-idf

NEW YORK, 6 October 2016 – A new public-private partnership between the leaders of the United Nations, the World Bank and the insurance sector has adopted a risk management strategy that seeks to harness insurance to promote economic recovery and resilience to climate hazards and disasters.

The Insurance Development Forum (IDF) said that it has decided to contribute to achieving the G7 “InsuResilience” target of providing 400 million of the most vulnerable people in developing countries with increased access to direct or indirect insurance coverage against the impacts of climate change and related natural catastrophes by 2020.

“For many developing countries with scarce resources, rebuilding is often beyond their means. Typically, a disaster is followed by appeals to bilateral, regional, and international partners for aid relief and financial support,” said Ms. Helen Clark, IDF Co-Chair and Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme.

“This support, however, often falls well short of what is required. Systemic lack of funds and recurrent inefficiency of recovery initiatives on the ground impede progress. Insurance can be an efficient, fast-disbursing mechanism to build back better in vulnerable countries and communities hit by disasters, but also to reduce risks and the costs of risks in the long term.”

The IDF was first announced at the COP21 UN climate summit in Paris in December 2015 and officially launched in April 2016.

It is led by a Steering Committee, chaired by Mr. Stephen Catlin, Deputy Executive Chair of XL Group Ltd., with Co-Chairs Ms. Clark and Mr. Joaquim Levy, World Bank Group Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer. Other Steering Committee members include Mr. Mark Carney, Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the Financial Stability Board, and Mr. Robert Glasser, the UN’s Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction, as well as 13 insurance industry CEOs. Additional governmental and public sector organizations are expected to engage in the coming year.

The IDF adopted its insurance-based strategy when it met on the sidelines of the recent UN General Assembly session. It approved a proposal to create a Technical Assistance Facility (TAF), which will assemble public and private insurance industry resources and tools necessary to support governments in building public-private partnerships that will better manage the financial consequences of climate events and natural disasters while increasing the use of insurance in emerging markets and developing countries. Work has begun to secure funds for the programme.

The IDF’s work is linked with a string of UN agreements adopted in 2015 to set the global development agenda for years to come. They include the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on climate change.

“With growing natural disaster losses it is essential that governments learn how to incorporate risk management fundamentals into their planning, budgeting and governing processes so that their citizens can be better protected,” said Mr. Catlin.

Joaquim Levy, IDF Co-Chair and World Bank Group Chief Financial Officer stated that “many emerging market and developing countries lack sufficiently developed insurance markets, which does stifle growth and has a negative impact not only on business but on general welfare, notably among the poorest. The lack of insurance instruments or broader risk-pooling or risk-mitigation mechanisms is also evident in the public sector, affecting government’s ability to respond to natural disasters and other large-scale events”.

Mr. Rowan Douglas, chair of the IDF Implementation Committee and head of the Capital Science and Policy Practice at Willis Towers Watson, said, “We all recognize a unique moment and opportunity to make a huge step forward in the protection of lives, livelihoods and communities – realizing the benefits of insurance across public, private and mutual and cooperative sectors.”

The IDF focuses on members of the “Vulnerable Twenty Group”, which was set up in 2015 and groups the finance ministers of countries highly vulnerable to a warming planet in dialogue and action to tackle global climate change.

UN To Build The Resilience Of Communities In Karamoja (05.02.2016)

FAO Uganda Information Bulletin January 2014

FAO, UNICEF and WFP launch joint resilience strategy to improve well-being of Karimojong

KAMPALA Three United Nations agencies in Uganda are implementing a new multi-year resilience strategy to help transform the lives of vulnerable people in the Karamoja region of North Eastern Uganda.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) are combining their efforts to empower households and communities and to strengthen government capacities. Together, they will work to enable the people of Karamoja to recover, reorganize themselves and move forward after experiencing external stresses and disturbances, including droughts or floods.

The Joint Resilience Strategy for Karamoja Region will focus on four areas: diversifying livelihood strategies and intensifying production in order to increase household income and improve food security; improving basic social services to strengthen vulnerable households’ human capital; establishing predictable safety nets; and strengthening disaster risk management support.

The FAO Country Representative, Mr. Alhaji Jallow, said, “This is an extremely significant development. It is a commitment to collaboration, efficiency and demonstration of results in Karamoja.”  Working collectively, he said, the agencies will multiply the impact of their work, reduce transaction costs for communities and the government, and allow individual organizations to more powerfully use their experience in strengthening service delivery systems.

Karamoja is vulnerable to multiple stresses and shocks, including climatic, economic, conflict and health-related challenges. According to the regional Resilience Analysis Unit, the main shocks and stresses for Karamoja include erratic and uneven rainfall, livestock disease outbreaks, crop pests, high food prices, food insecurity, livestock losses, inadequate access to education and health services, and inadequate access to water and sanitation.

The Country Representative of UNICEF, Ms. Aida Girma, said, “This collaboration will strengthen basic services for children and women that will increase their resilience to shocks and help to keep them alive, healthy, in school and protected.” She also said that building household resilience cannot be sustained unless the overall system to deliver the services is strengthened.

The acting WFP Country Director, Mr Michael Dunford, said, “While Karamoja continues to face significant socio-economic challenges, partly due to climate change, opportunities for development have never been more ripe. With increased security, reduced poverty levels and a renewed commitment by the government, partners can achieve more through enhanced collaboration.”

Each of the three agencies has more than 20 years’ experience working with communities in Karamoja. Together, they represent 90 percent of the United Nations’ activities in the region.

About FAO

FAO leads international efforts to defeat hunger. It helps countries to modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices and ensure good nutrition for all. FAO focuses special attention on developing rural areas, home to 70 percent of the world’s poor and hungry people. For more information visit: www.fao.orgor follow FAO on Twitter @FAOnews

About UNICEF

UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere. For more information about UNICEF and its work visit: www.unicef.org or follow UNICEF on Facebook and Twitter.

About WFP

WFP is the world’s largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. Each year, WFP assists some 80 million people in around 80 countries. Follow WFP on Twitter @wfp_media @wfp_africa

Second day of Presidential Rallies in Uganda and other reports affecting to these elections

Obiang - M7

The candidates have been to different venues. The kick-off of the election season was yesterday. This is just the second day of the rallies for the 8th candidates in the race. Still I will promise I can’t have the ability to follow it as tight until 18th February 2016. So now from now on the will be other types of articles and blogs from me. It’s heavy to know and get all the report and fit in one piece. With the information from all of the different camps and parties involved. But here are some of the basics of the second day, also other actions that has happen. Not between the venues of the candidates, but initially the bigger picture.

Because in the Parliament they have discussed the Public Finance Management Bill of 2015, AGAIN, TODAY! This offers certain advantages to the government and less accountability for the Parliament. This gives the Government an opportunity to take short-term loans without thinking… That should get people rise their eyebrows and sneezing because of the BS from the NRM-Regime to achieve their goal. A free-way to bank and not due diligence on the short-term loans, that should not be a possibility, because that opens up so many worm-holes and pigeon-holes for an embezzlement and added corruption, last but not least. Something that make the economy even more volatile ads up more problems that can lead bigger inflation and higher prices, and last also devalue the shilling. Because of the more flow of monies and less control of the flow of currency in the country, that ends with less value of monies in general.

If you wonder what it is about read this:  

My blog piece about the Public Finance Management Bill of 2015 Amendment

Here I continue on the reports and news of the day!

Bank notes Uganda

Handouts during elections:

“This is particularly not surprising since a large percentage of the electorate is extremely poor and vulnerable to monetary handouts. But besides cash handouts voters have also been compromised with petty handouts that are largely consumptive and have no long term impact on their lives. All this is conduct that is contrary to the electoral law but seems to have grown unabated” (…)“During elections inflation tends to skyrocket, which creates problems for the economy”, Muhumuza, an economic analyst with KPMG, says. “The inflation, he says, has a far reaching impact that not only slows down economic growth but has the potential to wipe out gains” (Ladu, 2015).

Express concerns of paying debts:

“The petitioners told the secretary general, Justine Kasule Lumumba, recently at Parliament that the purpose of their request was to express their dissatisfaction over recently concluded party primaries, explaining that the postponement caused them to incur a lot of debts.“The NRM Electoral Commission (EC) kept postponding voting in the primaries; the delay caused a big financial strain on aspirants, because we had borrowed money” (Kiwuuwa, 2015).

NRM hires a VJ to Campaign for Museveni:

“Famous local movie translator Commonly VJ Jingo (now a Ssalongo) is now in monies following a new deal from Kyadondo that indicates that Jingo will be bagging Ugx. 200 million to provide mentions for NRM’s party flag bearer President Museveni during the presidential campaign due next year” (Newz.ug, 2015). I know I am late to the party, but still worth noticing right!

Crime Preventers

DP on the Crime Preventers:

“DP Deputy Spokesperson, Alex Waiswa told journalists at the City House in Kampala that they have learnt from credible sources that this brutal act was executed by crime preventers in the area. “We strongly resisted the creation of crime preventers having forecast such incidences; these groups have been formed and passed out at such an elective period with the sole aim of bogging all attempts by the opposition to the take over power in the 2016 general elections,” Waiswa said. “I want to assure Ugandans that no amount of attack or intimidation on us shall hinder our candidate and the group to continue campaigning and subsequently take over power in 2016,” Waiswa noted” (Segwa, 2015).

Soroti Boma Grounds 090915 P6

Orders on Tear-Gas from IGP Kale Kayihura today:

The Deputy Spokesman Polly Namaye: “The Police Policy is to ensure as little engagement with the public terms of crowd control. We will only use means such as tear gas where absolutely necessary” (…)”The decision, according to the source, could also informed by the fact that the force wants to avoid using expired stock” (The Insider, 2015).

Seven Amama Supporters detained:

“Even Amama Mbabazi supporters are currently detained at Namataba Police Station. Go Forward’s PRO Mayanja Nkangi says they have been told those in police custody committed the offence of ‘driving a car with machines’. Mbabazi is expected to hold his second rally this afternoon in Mukono” (Investigator, 2015).

Amama 101115. Banda Stop

Police action in Mukono:

Also in Mukono there was a Brass Band playing for the Go-Forward candidate before the rally. The Police have stopped this brass band from playing.

NRM reaction to the Go-Forward rally:

Earlier today the NRM had a procession in Mukono. It just had to happen the day that Amama Mbabazi and the Go-Forward team were coming to town. After this they held an Anti-Amama Protest in town.

Deflections to Go-Forward:

“The Iganga District vice chairperson, Mr Ezra Gabula, has declared his support for former prime minister Amama Mbabazi, saying President Museveni has lost track and is no longer focused enough to lead the country” (Sigira, 2015).

Go-Forward rally in Mukono:

At the Mukono Rally of the Go-Forward one of the speakers Mugoba-Nsonga tells Ken Lukyamuzi: “You have two weeks to join Go-Forward lest you are no longer part of the party president”.

Mathias Mpuunga said this after the rally:

Thnx Hon. Betty Nambooze & Mukono! Time to offer leadership and not excuses!

Amama 101115 Buganda

Who Plans the Go-Forward rally in Oyam:

The loser of the NRM Primaries Omodo Omodo is making arrangements for the Go-Forward and Amama Mbabazi’s rally in the area.

NRM Poor Youth deflects from Go-Forward back to Museveni:

“Thomas Kategere who is also the National Resistance Movement flag bearer for Kamuli district LC5 chairperson on Monday crossed to Museveni`s camp when he drove all the way from Kamuli to attend the latter`s first presidential campaign rally in Luwero district” (Okello, 2015).

FDC Party and Dr. Kizza Besigye rallies toaday:

Dr. Kizza Besigye 101115 P1

Dr. Kizza Besigye on the Road:

He had an early stop at Rwamabondo. He will later hold a rally at Kyamate Grounds.

Inside the village of the Karaja County in Ntungamo district. In the village he had to stop to greet supporters and even held a speech to the greeting public. At the village level more than hundred people left their NRM-Cards to the Dr. Kizza Besigye and told that they would not vote for Museveni and NRM no more.

Dr. Kizza Besigye 101115 P2

Dr. Kizza Besigye wsa in Rwasahamire: “It took us many hours to get here because of a poor road network”.

Dr. Kizza Besigye 101115 P3

Dr Besigye has addressed our supporters in Kitwe in Ruhaama county of Ntungamo district. He is expected to arrive at the main rally in Ntungamo municipality around 7.

Hon Ibrahim SSemujju Nganda stated this today:

“In November 2013, Parliament’s Government Assurance Committee released a report indicating that since 1986, Mr Museveni had not fulfilled pledges totalling to 817 whose worth was estimated at Shs13 trillion in key areas such as roads, hospitals, schools, airports, bridges, electricity and industrialisation. And he insists on running for another term of office?”

Muntu 101115

Dr.Kizza Besigye statement after the rallies today:

“To all the evidently change hungry people of Ntungamo. I want to say thank you for the warm welcome accorded to us. The dug up roads we witnessed today in a district where many NRM bigwigs originate is evidence that we should work for change. A type of change that will see us have better roads regardless of how remote our subcounty is. To the people of Rubare and Kitwe thanks for braving the rain as you waited for our arrival. With this spirit of defiance against heavy rains we shall surely win this election. Let us lift our country through a spirit of sacrifice and commitment like we have exhibited today. I would like to encourage those who have turned in their NRM party cards to remain steadfast and resolute. It is as well very touching to see you pull out your 1000, 500, 100 shillings to finance this campaign. You have given new meaning to the name ‘The People’s President’. Mwebare munonga. Ruhanga abarinde”.

TIC PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS:

Maureen Kyala 101115

We congratulate TIC presidential candidate Mr. Mabirizi Joseph and his colleague Mrs. Kyala Walube on a successful first day of campaigns. Mabirizi left Kampala a bit late which caused problems for Iganga- the Iganga rally has been rescheduled to tomorrow mid morning before proceeding to Bugiri and Namayingo. Kaliro was great.

Today Maureen Faith Kayala had a rally in Busoga. At the rally she promised to make Joseph Mabirizi her VP.

Reports saying this about one of the candidates:

Gen. Biraro is still studying the situation. He won’t rush, victory is his, he projects a 80% sweep.

M7 and NRM continue to have campaign rallies:

Museveni 101115

Yoweri Kaguta Museveni in Nakeseke:

He had to take a helicopter to the venue. Where he has asked the public vote for him and he is “your best choice”.

Journalist Detained because of the crowd photoes of the NRM rallies:

Five Journalists and photographers who were covering President Museveni rallies in Nakaseke and Nakasongola were arrested and detained. They were forced to delete all there photos and videos. The journalists and photographers had covered poor turn up of Museveni rallies. They was later released after deleting the photos.

A nice combo from one of the rallies:

Nakasongola crowd combined of this kind of crowd!

Crimes preventers + Army men at Nakasongola Barack + Army men’s wives + Army men’s children + Nakasongola police men and their women + Some few NRM supporters -Nakasongola residents = Museveni crowds.

Bebe Cool works the crowd at President Museveni’s Nakasongola rally.

The singer says the incumbent will retain the presidency “because he does 4 rallies a day, with the same crowd within a single district while others do one at most two a day and have even resorted to manufacturing pics to seek false confidence” (NBS TV, 2015).

In Amolator the Lango Chief Yosam Odur gave him a spear and shield. So Museveni got respect from the local folks here.

This is what I have from today. It should seem as enough. Second day of Election rallies. There been a lot and also lots of action on the ground. Hard to cover it all and give an edge that Daily Monitor, New Vision and all the other media houses does. So this is my go at it. I will follow the election, but I can’t do it this heavy in the coming days. But will try my best so that the cover of the election gets a bit fair.

Reference:

Kiwuuwa, Paul – ‘NRM losers seek audience with Museveni over debts’ (10.11.2015) link: http://www.newvision.co.ug/news/675512-nrm-losers-seek-audience-with-museveni-over-debts.html

Ladu, Ismail Musa – ‘Election handouts: The scourge eating the economy’ (10.11.2015) link: http://www.monitor.co.ug/Business/Prosper/Election-handouts-scourge-economy/-/688616/2949400/-/q09kal/-/index.html

Newz.ug – ‘NRM hires VJ Jingo to campaign for Museveni, bags Ugx. 200m’ (09.10.2015) link: http://newz.ug/2015/10/19/nrm-hires-vj-jingo-to-campaign-for-museveni-bags-ugx-200m/

Okello, Dickens H. – ‘Another Poor Youth Leaves Mbabazi for Museveni’ (10.11.2015) link: http://www.chimpreports.com/another-poor-youth-leaves-mbabazi-for-museveni/

Investigator – ‘#AmamaTrail: Seven Amama Mbabazi Supporters detained as Baryamureeba Suspends his Campaigns’ (10.11.2015) link: http://theinvestigatornews.com/amamatrail-seven-amama-mbabazi-supporters-detained-as-baryamureeba-suspends-his-campaigns/

Segwa, Nixon – ‘DP, TDA- Go Forward Threaten to Counterattack Crime Preventers’ (10.11.2015) link: http://www.chimpreports.com/dp-tda-go-forward-threaten-to-counterattack-crime-preventers/

Sigira, Yazid Yoli – ‘Iganga District boss crosses to Mbabazi camp’ (10.11.2015) link: http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Iganga-District-boss-crosses-to-Mbabazi-camp/-/688334/2950424/-/wtnra8z/-/index.html

The Insider – ‘Kayihura tells cops to go slow on expired teargas’ (10.11.2015) link: http://www.theinsider.ug/kayihura-tells-cops-to-go-slow-on-expired-teargas/

IGAD and OCHA – Joint Communique on South Sudan (9.2.2015)

IGADOCHA2

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