I am going to discuss the Social Media Ban was between 17th February to 21th February in the middle of the elections the Government pushed it through Uganda Communication Commission who gave instructions to MTN, Airtel and Uganda Telecom (UTL) to cut the mobile-data and also Mobile-Money; which is important component for many Ugandans as the banks are greedy and has steady fees on having cash on the accountants there.
UCC explain why people can’t get on Social Media on the 18th February:
“Uganda Communications Commission UCC has finally come out to explain the very poor internet access that hit the country from midnight to the start of polling day 7.00am February 18 – and later. They switched it off, they said” (…) “Many people found it difficult to access social media, especially Facebook, twitter and WhatsApp” (…)”Mutabazi said many parties breached this and took their campaigns onto social media, the Electoral Commission asked them to act. Godfrey Mutabazi is the current Executive Director of Uganda Communications Commission” (…)”Leading Ugandan telecom MTN on their part came out with statement. “The UCC has directed MTN to disable all Social Media and MobileMoney services due to a threat to Public Order and Safety” (Musoke, 2016).
The great explanation from PM Ruhakana Ruganda:
“Briefing the media on Saturday at the Prime Minister’s Office in Kampala, Rugunda cleared the air on the recent controversial shutdown of social media platforms and mobile money services by the Uganda Communications Commission (UCC)” (…)”There had been reports that some elements had been planning to create violence and mayhem [ahead of the general elections]. So government decided to take some specific steps to ensure that the country is secure,” he said” (…)”he also said: “”Social media and mobile money services should be restored any time from now. Gov’t will be able to handle any distortions that may arise from the social media now that the main part of the elections is done” (Kizza, 2016).
The Surge of VPN:
The great news was the people found a solution and downloaded VPN, even UCC, NRM and other entities to spread the news did so; even the numbers might not be the total but at least 1,5 million people downloaded ways of rerouting the internet access through a VPN instead through the direct Airtime or Mobile-Company services. This was by some 15% of all usage of internet at a certain time used through VPN in Uganda. That is staggering numbers! To VPN services confirmed to a tech-site “TMSruge” that Lifehacks and TrustZoneApp confirmed over 525,000 at one time.
The most interesting is the report not confirmed yet but possible:
“They revealed to the President that data usage per day is $4,000,000 million while mobile money transactions generate $6,000,000 per day. Added together, telecom companies demanded that Uganda pays $10,000,000 per day their investment is not generating income. Power hungry as he is, the President instructed the Minister of Finance Matia Kasaija to sign a quick memorandum of understand with the telecom companies, committing Uganda to pay the above sums of money – $10 million per day of switching off”.
This here is not totally verified, by it gives an indication of how much money the government have used on the closing down the services of the mobile-companies; they are in Uganda to earn money and would stop having operations if they lost money by keeping their business. So it seems reasonable to get compensations for not being able to do business while having license to do it. As the Government want to have business and investors, therefore they have it in them… to pay them to hinder the public access to the services to shut-down the experience and information spreading through the social media and gotten funding through mobile-money.
As you can see the opening of the services after 5 days of shut-down would mean $ 10, 000, 000 million X Days, and its 5 days so the total bill on the Government to try to shut down the Social Media access $ 50, 000, 000 Million. That is a BIG amount of money and the way it happen while such great amount of public started using another ways of getting information and sending information says the diligence of the people to finds ways to do what they want, especially when it doesn’t contain any fear or danger.
Even if the UCC at some point during the Social Media ban they told all the users it was “Treason” and that they would fine and arrest the ones that did use the services; though it still was banned. The issue is that the UCC has to try and collect information on 1, 5 million people and citizens, it is not a court, they have the right to take out Transmitters and Jam broadcasts, and cut technical issues as the Social Media ban though not as effective as the government of Uganda wanted it; and by thinking the possible agreement between them as the Government did it, the Commission should struggle with it. The police struggle enough with the constant movement of RDCs and DPCs as IGP Kale Kayihura doesn’t trust anybody then his boss. I don’t know how they can jail the major part of people for defying their desperate move to ban something that all youth and grown people use to communicate with each other. That is a way you will not succeed in this day and age.
We might never see the agreement or the MoU, this here is still not facts, it is information spread on pages that are Anti-NRM and will be for the use of destroying the NRM-Regime and look bad. So there might be other numbers and such, but the thought that the Government had to pay the Mobile-Companies had to get compensated for the Social Media ban and the stop of Mobile-Money services. This here could be true. The other ones is verified and even government officials explaining the situation. So they believe that they did it for national security. Seem more like that wanted the world not to know the situation as they rigged the election and making the population enemies as the Social Media ban blocked them for addressing their lives online and keeping in touch through the apps and such there. They really looks foolish for banning it, while getting discredited for their actions against the rights to free speech and justice as individuals to express themselves even online during general elections. That has been tampered with, while the people didn’t accept it; therefore they went and used Social Media anyways! Peace.
Kizza, Joseph – ‘Social media, polls: Gov’t assures public on security’ (20.02.2016) Link: http://www.newvision.co.ug/new_vision/news/1417666/live-prime-minister-addresses-nation#sthash.8ucwxRCR.dpuf
Musoke, Ronald – ‘UCC “switches off” social media in Uganda on polls day’ (18.02.2016) link: http://www.independent.co.ug/news/news/11023-ucc-qswitches-offq-social-media-in-uganda-on-polls-day#sthash.2BwQEl2h.dpuf
ARTICLE 19 is deeply concerned by the decision by the Uganda Communications Commission to block access to social media while millions of Ugandans head to the polls on election day.
This morning, the Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) blocked social media sites. UCC’s Director of Corporate Affairs, Fred Otunnu cited “national security” and that the platforms were being “used to campaign on voting day”. He added that Uganda Electoral Commission had complained about alleged online campaigns that were continuing after 16 February, when all election campaigning was required to cease.
Henry Maina, Regional Director of ARTICLE 19 Eastern Africa explained that “this ban on social media platforms is part of a number pervasive systemic measures by the government of Uganda to limit freedom of expression and access to information during the election period. Blanket bans on social media cannot be justified under international law and are wholly disproportionate.”
“At a time when the world’s gaze is on Uganda and the Presidential elections, we call on the Ugandan authorities to immediately revoke the blocking of social media and allow Ugandans to exercise their right to freedom of expression, as well as their right to participate in a free and open election process,” added Maina
As the day has gone and some first results is coming. I will not comment on them now, as they are not as interesting as the reactions and violations of democratic values and vile display of disgrace of the public will from the authorities and the ruling party in Uganda.
As the Uganda Communication Commission together with Electoral Commission banned Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook, even mobile-money transfers services. As this could give biased news and dangerous bribing of voters, as the voters has not been bribed during the pre-election period at all. Well, the public found other ways of finding the social media and avoid the issue with Uganda Telecom (UTL/Mango), MTN and Airtel. As they download different VPN services on their phone and still got in to the social media outlets. The actual numbers of downloads this day was staggering 1,432,653. By my reckoning also the apparent ghost that will also in total vote in the election when the tally is done.
At one point of the day the Special Forces Command took control of Nakasero Referal Hospital as it had a technical and importance for the authorities as the Presidential guards needed to secure the premises.
In Gaba a suburb of Kampala the public first waited for hours. This happen:
“In Gaba at St Dennis church a full box was brought with ballot papers already ticked in favor of the incumbent who triggered a riot by locals. Military, Police and black mamba security in tinted cars without number-plate were seen patrolling the place. Voting has ended”. As well as the actions contained this as well: “The voters set fire on all the ballots boxes brought”.
Even early in the day there we’re little or no voting material in vast amounts of polling stations in Wakiso District and Kampala Capital City as the Electoral Commission hadn’t delivered the ballots-papers to the stations. As people came early as the voting starting 07.00 and was to end with the new time 16.00 but with the late arrival nearly at 13.00 or 14.00 even as late as 14.54 that gave the long waiting ques simmering anger at the incompetence or deliberate plunder of time of the people in the area. Even the with the UCC and Telecom bans the Electoral Commission wanted people on Social Media around 14.00 to tell that the Polling stations in the affected areas would be officially open to 19.00 as the people should be able to do their civic duty.
In Kajanisi, Kampala a Police Officer was arrested and taken away as he held over 600 ballots-papers pre-ticket for the NRM and President Museveni. Radio One report that Kajjansi B health center polling station in Kampala closed after 3 boxes with pre-ticked ballots in favor of President Museveni and Peter Sematimba were found in a car. Live Bullets in Namuwongo Taking Place. Police and Military Have Intimidated Voters hence forcing them NOT to cast their votes, remember, voting had just begun late at 2:03pm
As of Makindye:
“9:18PM Voting at 22 polling stations in Makindye affected by late delivery of voting materials postponed till tomorrow: Electoral Commission” (NBS TV, 18.02.2016).
In Fort Portal:
“At public library polling station in south division, Fort Portal, 450 ballot papers were received yet the number of registered voters is 429, an excess of 21 ballots. And yet Nyakagongo parish Headquarters in East division received less ballot papers than the number of registered voters. They received 10 booklets some containing 46 ballots, some 50 and others 49 instead of all containing 50 each booklet. There was a total of 500 ballot papers. They have 471 registered voters. They started voting at 7:15am Report: Scovia Atuhaire & Felix Basiime (Daily Monitor, 18.02.2016).
“Polling agents in Kizungu, Masaka Sports Club have confirmed to Kampala FM that they were not given basins where voters will tick from. This has therefore delayed the voting process since they (agents) too can not afford buying basins” (Kampala FM, 18.02.2016).
More about elections in Masaka:
“Unindentified people have been with fifty Museveni pre-ticked ballot papers at Kaboyo Primary school polling station in Lwengo. The voters who were present at the polling station did not allow police to take the culprits and instead resorted to caining them. They were later on told to go back home and the pre ticked ballots were burnt”.
“Karamojong tribeswoman casts her ballot at a polling station during the presidential elections in Kaabong in Karamoja region”.
“NRM’s Evelyn Anite slips her ballot paper into the ballot box in Koboko Municipality in northern Uganda”.
Early in Apac Town today:
“Voting in Apac town area commenced by 07.10 am. Most polling stations have not had chaos yet, as they voted, Police are all round in Polling stations. Most of the busiest business centers are closed. The number of people in town has also gone down and a few petty businesses are going on” (Rupiny Newspaper, 18.02.2016).
“Last evening, 170 polling officials in River Oli Division in Arua district threatened to boycott work unless Electoral Commission increases their allowances. They include polling assistants and presiding officers. Geoffrey Drani, one of the affected presiding officers, told URN during their recruitment Electoral Commission promised to pay presiding officers Shillings 60,000 and 40,000 for polling assistants. He however, says they were shocked yesterday to receive appointment letters showing that they will receive Shillings 20, 000 each day. According to Drani, as a result, they have declined to sign the appointment letters until Electoral Commission increases the money”.
“No incident has been registered while in Alebtong, Amolatar, Otuke and part of Lira districts by 9:00am the voting have not started despite the fact that many electorate turned up to cast to their votes. “You cast you votes and you come back and continue with your business,” said Betty Akello shorting after voting at VH primary school polling station. Patrick Okello of Omoro Sub County in Alebtong said at Onyeroiye polling station business is going on well and the turned up was overwhelming. “We think the turned up will be 80% because people are voting seriously,” he said” (Rupiny Newspaper, 18.02.2016).
“Elections of the MP kween district have been postponed until further notice reason the symbols for the candidates didn’t match instead vice versa I mean interchanged for FDC was in independent and for independent in that of FDC”.
The Woman Parliamentary MP Vote for Yumbe was cancelled today! (88.7 Arua ONE FM, 18.02.2016).
If you ever thought Kahinda Otafiire would go away silent as the audio-tape of his bribing tactics as he tried to buy the seat from his opponent that beat him in the NRM Primaries during 2015. 2016, has not been his year and continues as he has been jailed today as he has been distributing bribes of UGX 20k to voters in Mitooma (theInsider.ug, 18.02.2016). Doesn’t seem that the UCC bribe act with stopping mobile-money service stopped Otafiire from acting up! (I was not supposed to write that or think that, my bad!).
“The shame of Kiruhura, after yesterday all night harassment, detention and forceful eviction of opposition supporters in Kiruhura. Today what we are witnessing is, because of fear instilled on our supporters by the security and armed militias last night, they have stayed away from the polling stations”.
“Police was forced to fire teargas to disperse hundreds of Apollo Yeri Ofwono’s supporters who had threatened to set a blaze the home of the prime minister of Iteso cultural union Paul Sande Emolot in Tororo municipality. Ofwono’s supporters raided Emolot’s home on suspicion that it was used to bribe residents to vote for the incumbent Member of Parliament Sanjay Tanna” (New Vision, 18.02.2016).
Later in the day Dr. Kizza Besigye arrested:
“Besigye was arrested when he joined his supporters and they stormed a house in Naguru, a Kampala upscale suburb arguing that there is alleged vote rigging taking place”. Kizza Besigye have after the arrest by the Police in Naguru, been taken to Kasangati Police Station. That is currently detained.
“Video footage of an FDC raid on a reported safe house in Naguru being used to allegedly tick ballot papers led by Rtd. Col. Dr. Kizza Besigye in which he was also later arrested for trespassing” (NBS TV Uganda, 18.02.2016).
Shawn Mabiru says this about the detaining of Besigye:
“He was in his home district where he voted when he got information that there was an illegal tally centre manned by the NRM and police” (…)”He walked in and saw them pre-ticking ballot papers. They arrested him and took him to an unknown place”.
In Lira yesterday:
“Lira Magistrate Court today released on Court bail seven people who were arrested over the weekend on allegation of defacing posters belonging to NRM Presidential Candidate Yoweri Museveni. Willy Omodo Omodo the GO Forward Candidate for Oyam North MP, Ibrahim Olong who is contesting for Lira Municipality Mayor and Abura James Walter Youth Councillor for Lira Municipality. Others are Mungu Richard Jakisa the News Editor at Radio North, Otim Innocent , Tile David and Patrick Awongo (Radio Wa 89.8 FM, 17.02.2016).
In Kihihi yesterday:
There was reports that the locals “delivered” and got a 100 Rwandan nationals ferried to vote in the election the 18th had come to Kihihi district to vote for President Museveni. They all stayed in Kihihi Police Station. As they wanted them to ship them home and let Ugandans vote in their election.
In Kayunga County yesterday as the government was kind yesterday:
“Kayunga District distributed more 66 heifers worth 102 million shillings to farmers under the Luwero Rwenzori Development Programme” (17.02.2016); the Government all of sudden share their funds just the day before the election, nothing suspicious about that at all…
The magic is that President Museveni has gotten over 3000 votes while the original papers from the Electoral Commission are saying the total voters are 2098!
Rushere Primary School:
The tally shows another magical result for President Museveni he got 760 votes, Kizza Besigye 2 votes. The magical part is that the School and Polling station has 437 votes!
Fear level at certain places:
As the results are pouring in and the tallies are counted. The Army is deploying heavy forces in Luwero and Nakaseke!
Amama Mbabazi message during the elections today:
“I ask all voters in this election to keep vigilant and report any suspicious incident. I would like to thank the team from Karamoja that is vigilant and have reported the following anomalies. In Abim district, the District Registrar is withdrawing a Presidential booklet (50 ballots) from each polling station and taking to unknown destination claiming that some polling stations were in short supply/under served. We question this logic because it is not only President being voted for today but all Members of Parliament as well. There are 60 polling stations in Abim and this amounts to 3000 votes being taken away. South of Amudat in a place called Karita subcounty, our agents with polling agent letters and supervisors have been chased away by Crime Preventers who are armed. Tell us what is happening at your polling station” (Mbabazi, 18.02.2016).
There will come more in the coming days as the ministers, local council men and all the elections results will come and people will react to the new 10th Parliament and who will become the new president in Uganda, as the results hopefully get rid of President Museveni as his rigging time should be over and let the people’s will shine. Peace.
The Social networks are supposed to be down as the Electoral Commission in accord with Uganda Broadcast Commission have decided that showing the election is an dangerous activity; so it is not allowed on the polling day; and also the Money transfer services through cellphones will also be discontinued for the moment. As Airtel, MTN and Uganda Telecom have disbanded WhatsAPP, Twitter and Facebook. The people have started to use VPN and Tunnelbearer App to cross the barricades to the social to address the world of the events unfolding.
“CONFIRMED: Uganda Communications Commission (UCC): Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, mobile money services blocked due to ‘security reasons’. UCC says Facebook, Twiiter, WhatsApp, mobile money services will be unblocked ‘after assessing the security situation” (NBS TV, 18.02.2016).
Well, that is just the Social Media, the more important the ballots and Polling stations! There the democracy in action is happening. Following this; more to come!
“Mzeei Haruna Kabirizi shares his disappointment with the delay in the voting process. Agip Polling Station, Kisuggu #UgandaDecides Video: Mabala Rachel” (Daily Monitor).
The general reports is that in Kampala, Makindye and Wakiso district the voting material has not come in expected as the Electoral Commission says is systematic difficulties. While the voting has started in Gulu, but not in Nakawa or other parts of Kampala; this here must been seen as deliberate actions to get the people to wait for hours, to see if they really want to vote in the elections. No voting has started in Kawempe, the reports comes of all the different voting stations in the city. If it starts it starts hours after anticipating opening time. Instead of early morning it’s about lunch time, and with the new voting regulations the polling stations closes earlier then in previous elections!
“Presidential candidate Maurine Kyalya’s National ID details not in the voters register. The biometric system seems to only be having details contained in the voter location slips that were distributed late. Its widespread”.
Happening now Bumirambako In Busia polling station….Many People Are Being Denied To Vote While Their Names Appear on The Register Bse They Don’t Have National ID.
“At Kiwafu Primary School like a number of places in Entebbe Municipality, presiding officers and other polling officials didn’t turn up because of little pay. Now polling assistants who are not so versed with the exercise are in charge” (Daily Monitor, 18.02.2016). 10pm and Mpala polling station still in entebbe has no voting exercise taking place. No ballot papers.
“There is a heavy presence of the members of the fourth estate in various polling centres in uganda. Am here at Rukungiri as a UN Observer. Besigye is about to cast his vote here at Rukungiri”.
There has been mix-up of ballots and the election in town is called off apparently.
“DOKOLO SOUTH PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION CANCELLED – It was called off this morning by the returning officer Benjamin Ewal” (Urban TV, 18.02.2016).
This here is the beginning. I will come with more as this comes. This here will be as crazy and amazing as the NRM Primaries on steroids. As Dr. Badru M. Kiggundu doesn’t have the arrogance as Dr. Tanga Odoi in the NRM EC. This here will continue to shade the darkness of the dictatorship of the NRM regime. The proof of the fear of spreading information is the UCC censorship of the Social Media today, as the ironic shut down of mobile money as he voters been bought with cash-money buy the ruling regime for several weeks now and even pictures of Ministers and even the Prime Minister giving money for votes in recent weeks. This here is more a following then an analysis or commentary. But the ironic measure has to be said! Well, continue to vote and try to vote as the material arrives at the Polling stations! The Regime is stifling the process deliberately. Continue to stay strong! Peace.
Museveni start as President in 1986:
On the 29th of January 1986 Yoweri Museveni was inaugurated as president, who in the last week battled for the capitol city Kampala and overthrow of Tito Okello. Museveni himself on the matter: “Mere Change of Guards” (…)”Nobody is to think that what is happening today, what has been happening in the last few days is a mere change of guards” (…)”This is not a mere change of guards. I think this is a fundamental change in the politics of our government” (…)”Any individual, any group or person who threatens the security of our people must be smashed without mercy” (…)”The people of Uganda should only die from natural causes which are not under our control” (Rule, 1986). Museveni’s thoughts on democracy: “the right of the people of Africa” and about government: “the masters but the servers of the population”. He continued: “The solution is to have enough strength to ship the whole garbage and put it where it belongs, on the garbage heap of history” (Rule, 1986).
Libyan support for NRA/NRM:
“Idi Amin’s former Minister of Finance, Brig. Moses Ali, along with an economist, Dr. Suleiman Kiggundu, Ugandan Muslim clerics Shiekh Ali Kulumba and Shiekh Obeid Kamulegeya, and a businessman called Habib Hassan Kagimu are the men who introduced Yoweri Museveni, the leader of a news fighting group the National Resistance Army (NRA), to Gaddafi in 1981 and so started the Libyan sponsorship of the NRA guerrillas” (…)”Libya then started air dropping heavy field guns and rocket launchers into the NRA camps in Luwero Triangle in central Uganda in 1982, greatly boosting the NRA guerrillas and making possible their victory in Jan. 1986” (…)”Brig Ali was in jail in Kampala when Gaddafi first visited Uganda led by Museveni in 1987. Ali had to be taken out of jail after Gaddafi asked about his whereabouts” (…)”In the early days of the new NRM government, several officers and men of the new national army, the National Resistance Army (NRA) were sent to Libya for military training. Gaddafi also helped supply the Rwandan guerrillas, the RPF, with weapons in 1990 in the early stages of their invasion of Rwanda. The Libyan weapons were airlifted into Uganda and then the Museveni government passed them on to the RPF rebels” (…)”When Uganda failed to repay money she owed Libya, the debt was swapped for Libyan shares in the Uganda Telecom phone company, the Crested Towers and National Housing and Construction Corporation housing estates in Kampala and the Windsor Lake Victoria Hotel in Entebbe” (Dispatch, 2011).
In the 1986 – Creating an oil company:
Libyan has sent a trade delegation (both medical and financial teams). President Museveni has discussed to have a Joint Holding Company with Doctor Mukhtar. Both Government of Uganda and Government of Libya announced that their examining opportunities to set up an Oil Company. Since 1979 war against Amin the Libyan Peoples Bureau had 6 six employees, the staff has now a higher profile in Kampala. Ugandan government is naïve about it, but the largeness of Libyan interference in the oil company, Uganda can still control it through. Government of Uganda is in to secure oil supply and also setting up a company, because of NRMs distrust in the operations of the multinational capitalism. This company is to secure the supply of oil, in that they also would like to be a part of the Mombasa Refinery from the Government of Kenya (WikiLeaks, 1986).
Suits Museveni well:
The Libyan style of leadership where it’s all centered on the president. If Museveni need to be accommodated in any manner, he can just pick up a phone and call the Cornel Gaddaffi. The Americans describes the Libyans as radicals and calls Museveni’s action towards them as a risk, for him and also the interest of USA (WikiLeaks, 1986).
Relation between Uganda and Libya in 2007:
Libyan Africa Portfolio (LAP) bought shares of 51% of the Uganda Telecom Limited (UTL). The shares were bought from UCOM a German, Swiss and Egyptian consortium. LAP has also bought other assets in Uganda. They gotten 60 % of the textile company Tri-Star and also was awarded with the tender to build the oil-pipe that goes from Uganda to Kenya. Museveni has promised Coronel Gaddaffi that he will not sell the unrefined oil. He has also praised Gaddaffi for his collaborated effort to support Uganda (WikiLeaks, 2007).
Relation between Uganda and Libya in 2008:
President Museveni said Libyan president Gaddaffi: “is a problem” and for his wish of making the “United states of Africa”. He also commented on Gaddaffi’s “imitations” towards smaller and tinier African nations with bribes and pressure. This has led to that these nations haven’t participated as strongly or corporative in international forums, organizations like United Nation and international meetings. Because of the tension between Gaddaffi and Museveni, this has led to him having radar on his plane when he flies international airspace to get additional information of the airspace (WikiLeaks, 2008).
Relation between Uganda and Libya in 2009:
TamOil the Libyan owned company who is run by director Habib Kagimu. The company hopes that it gets the contract to build the pipeline between from El Doret, Kenya to Jinja, Uganda (WikiLeaks, 2009).
Museveni on Gaddaffi in 2011:
In his own words said Gaddaffi was wrong to support Idi Amin with weapons and arms. This he could use during the battles of the 70s (Museveni, 2011).
He knows that Gaddaffi supported him because he was seen as Muslim country oppressed by Christians. The second mistake Gaddaffi did after Museveni’s reckoning: he was not polite in AU and respected the regional collaborations in Africa. If he could he would ‘Overrule’ it. The third mistake by the Cornell was to interfere in internal matters of others. Like his actions towards the kings in Uganda. Fourth mistake is that he was like other Arab leaders and did not support the cause of South Sudan. Also not a direct mistake but he commented that as a radical Gaddaffi didn’t distant himself enough from terrorism (Museveni, 2011).
First is that Gaddaffi always has had an independent approach to foreign affairs. Not being an Western countries, where he also did an effort to get rid of British and American Military bases. Second positive was how we able to use and rig the oil-prices, from the meager 50 cents a barrel to 40 dollars a barrel. Fourth is the economic progress of Libya. With that was the current time Museveni wrote in the value of GDP of $89, 03 Billion, which is the same size of South Africa in 1994 and the same time Spain (Museveni, 2011).
Thanks for reading. Peace.
Dispatch.co.ug – ‘Uganda’s long complicated relationship with Gaddaffi’ (07.04.2011) Link: http://www.dispatch.ug/ugandas-long-complicated-relatioship-with-gaddafi/1745/
Wanock, Frank & Conway, Patrick – ‘Post-Conflict Recovery in Uganda’ (1999) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank
Rule, Sheila (NY Times) – ‘REBEL SWORN IN AS UGANDA PRESIDENT’ (30.01.1986) Link: http://www.nytimes.com/1986/01/30/world/rebel-sworn-in-as-uganda-president.html
Yoweri Kaguta Museveni – ‘Article on the Libyan crisis’ (20.03.2011) Link: http://www.scribd.com/doc/51285348/Museveni-attacks-West-over-Libya
WikiLeaks – ‘MUSEVENI AND THE RADICAL MUSLIMS’ (16.07.1986) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/86KAMPALA2314_a.html
WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA: MARCH ECONOMIC REVIEW’ (14.03.2007) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/07KAMPALA457_a.html
WikiLeaks –‘A/S FRAZER’S JUNE 13 MEETING WITH UGANDAN PRESIDENT MUSEVENI’ (18.06.2008) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08STATE65820_a.html
WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDAN PRESIDENT SEEKS OIL SECTOR SUPPORT IN IRAN’ (04.07.2009) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/09KAMPALA561_a.html