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Archive for the tag “Togo”

World Bank working paper reveals astonishing amount of aid money to the African continent going directly into tax havens!

The World Bank working paper named ‘Elite Capture of Foreign Aid – Evidence from Offshore Bank Accounts’, which was finally released yesterday is a devastating read. Not because of the facts in it, but because of the extent of the misuse and theft of aid money. The World Bank are now proving by small samples how much of their loans, grants and funds, which is given by donors to the WB, which happens to be moved to tax havens by the regimes that needs it. That is eating of the plate of the poorest and living lavish on others people’s dime.

Just in the Annex, the truth really comes forward, where it is only a small samples, but showing the distasteful enterprise still. Like from table one. You can see that a certain amount of African countries have taken out huge funds into havens deposits and non-haven deposits.

The report explains this about the table one: “The table shows the 22 countries in our main sample and presents summary statistics for the main variables in our analysis. The sample includes all countries for which annual disbursements from the World Bank are equivalent to at least 2 percent of annual GDP on average. Sample mean is the average of the 22 countries in the sample. Annual WB aid (% of GDP) is annual disbursements from the World Bank as a fraction of annual GDP. Annual ODA aid (% of GDP) is annual Official Development Assistance (ODA) from all sources as a fraction of annual GDP. Haven deposits is foreign deposits held in the 17 countries classified as havens. Non-haven deposits is foreign deposits held in the countries not classified as havens” (World Bank Feb 2020).

Nation Haven (million USD) Non-Haven (million USD)
Burkina Faso 32 88
Burundi 103 19
Eritrea 8 11
Ethiopia 64 155
Ghana 76 446
Guinea-Bissau 8 16
Madagascar 193 232
Malawi 31 82
Mali 27 133
Mauritania 32 150
Mozambique 40 161
Niger 29 79
Rwanda 149 41
Sao Tome and Principe 4 8
Sierra Leone 32 82
Tanzania 145 437
Uganda 73 188
Zambia 117 306

When you add into the A6 Table of the modestly aid-dependent countries. You see yet more African countries, where the money a flowing out of the coffers. Where surely not all aid is going where its supposed too.

The report explains table A6 like this: “The table shows the 24 countries for which annual disbursements from the World Bank are between 1% and 2% of annual GDP on average. is the average of the 24 countries in the sample. Annual WB aid (% of GDP) is annual disbursements from the World Bank as a fraction of annual GDP. Sample mean is the average of the 22 countries in the sample. WB aid disbursements is annual disbursements from the World Bank as a fraction of annual GDP. Annual ODA aid (% of GDP) is annual Official Development Assistance (ODA) from all sources as a fraction of annual GDP. Haven deposits is foreign deposits held in the 17 countries classified as havens. Non-haven deposits is foreign deposits held in the countries not classified as havens” (World Bank Feb 2020).

Nation Haven (million USD) Non-Haven (million USD)
Benin 42 96
Cape Verde 14 20
Central African Republic 18 53
Chad 11 91
Comoros 7 27
Democratic Republic of Congo 910 93
Cote d’Ivoire 387 787
Gambia 24 82
Guinea 54 114
Kenya 1277 1784
Lesotho 11 28
Senegal 253 487
Togo 82 146

Without going into deep technicalities of these operations, neither how the World Bank came through these numbers. We can see there is a staggering amount of funds that disappear and goes missing. Which was supposed to go to development or directly to support the state functions. Which happens to end up in tax-havens, surely by someone closely associated with the state or heads of state. Since, these sorts of amounts couldn’t have left the nations without the approval of the executive or head of state.

We can also clearly see, that some aid is directly feeding the rich and keeping tax-havens alive. Giving them financial stimulus and also covering the expenses of the elites in the respective places. There is certainly a mismanagement and a need for more oversight from the World Bank. But also more mechanisms to stop the misuse of aid. If it is supposed to help and not just create a very vastly elite in the nation in question. Because, with this sort of operations, they have clearly achieved that. Peace.

Extraordinary Session of the ECOWAS Authority of Heads of State and Government: Communique (09.02.2020)

Opinion: Francafrique is alive, as Paris axe Arikana Chihombori Quao!

Arikana Chihombori Quao, the African Union Ambassador to the United States, which was terminated on the 7th October 2019 after her open criticism of the Western Powers hold of the African Nation.

She’s been vocal and righteously so against the French hold of the former African colonies it has agreements with, military, monetary and direct trade enriching itself on the spoils of the African continent. Which is all true, that is why all the big-men from the previous colonies are favourable and steady visiting Paris and meeting the heads of state there. That is why, the interests of Paris comes before the needs of the citizens of the respective Republics. They are all Francafrique doing.

That is why Emmanuel Macron has no issues boosting dictators, standing by autocrats who secure the monetary gains of the Central African Francs (CFA). This is boosting the Reserves of France, they are earning on the printing and monetizing the currencies of these Republics. They are all in the hands of the French, controlling and monitoring the monetary policies and the economic policies made in the respective republics. This is how to keep the governments, either by the hook or by the crook.

Secondly, they are also kept by a military pact and a resource sharing agreements, which means the extraction industry of the French gets first deals, if it is Total or anything else. Will get a first rights to extract or be able to trade commodities. That is why you see in former North African Republic, which was colonizes you see Renaults, Citroen’s and so-on. You are not seeing so many American or British cars there, but French produced cars in abundant. That is because, the French still has a foothold and advantages, which the Republic have to abide too.

Therefore, what the axed and sacked AU Ambassador to US said about the French is true. It maybe hurt the pride of the French. But you don’t need to say anything substantial to hurt their pride. You can just dismiss their champagne and they will cry havoc. In addition, the French know they need Francafrique and they would miss out important market, funds and resources, which it cannot live without. The banks, the industries and military would suffer a hit. The French will not say this, but the reason for axing shows this.

The French is weak, the French isn’t as great or has the power to flex without its state under passive control through the measures of the CFA and other Post-Colonial agreements made with Big-Men in the Francafrique. That is just the way it is and because someone with a title said it. It had to be silenced.

However, if the French didn’t want it undressed or questioned their role on the continent. They should have maybe answered it with words or numbers. Instead, they are verifying her words by axing her and pushing the Chairman of AU to get rid of her. Peace.

Chinese Investments in Africa: It is not a free-lunch, the tab has to be paid!

African leaders should not turn the continent into a giant collector of donations and loans from wealthy nations—they must find other plausible means to help established their economic security so as to minimize poverty. This incoherent blunder on the mainland must be scrutinized.”Duop Chak Wuol

As The 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) is scheduled to happen on the 2nd and 3rd December 2018, there is time to remember how the Chinese is operating on the African Continent. The Chinese isn’t coming with empty giving hands of donations or even charity. They come with intent of interests and needs of resources from the continent, by offering loans, serving and building through state owned enterprises (SOE) in various of countries, whether it is roads, ports or railroads are built by Chinese Companies, by Chinese Workers and often on Chinese loans. Therefore, they might end up as Chinese owned enterprises, whose vital for transportation and export of needed minerals and whatnot from the continent.

Instead of coming with loans and direct-aid with strings like Western Powers has done over the last few decades, the Chinese are coming with friendly loans, but the Heads of State should know that the Chinese doesn’t play. They want value for money and expect a return, if it doesn’t they might snatch the new crown-jewel or anticipate to get perks from the state. If that is some sort of trade-off or licenses to extract mineral resources or even minor taxation like toll-roads, where the piece of cash will be sent to Beijing and not the capitol of the country where the road is built. That is how these people operate. They are not in it to play or be giving, but gain advantage and have the upper-hand.

This can be shown by what the State Media in China writes in Xinhua Net wrote today and what a CARI report on the same funds are saying. The Chinese portray the funding as investments on the Continent, as the funds are most likely pushed as loans, which burdens the states and that they have to repay. Loans are not given, but issued because of lack of direct funds to build those infrastructure and investments done. So, what I am saying isn’t mere speculation, but a narrative that has to sink in.

Chinese Investments:

China’s investments into Africa surged by more than 100 times from 2000 to 2017. In the past three years, annual Chinese direct investment into Africa was about 3 billion dollars on average. By the end of 2017, China’s investments of all kinds into Africa totaled 100 billion dollars, covering almost every country on the continent” (Li Xia – ‘Facts & Figures: China-Africa ties: cooperation for shared future’ 02.09.2018 link: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-09/02/c_137438845.htm).

Chinese Loans:

From 2000 to 2017, the Chinese government, banks and contractors extended US $136 billion in loans to African governments and their state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Angola is the top recipient of Chinese loans, with $42.2 billion disbursed over 17 years. Chinese loan finance is varied. Some government loans qualify as “official development aid.” But other Chinese loans are export credits, suppliers’ credits, or commercial, not concessional in nature. China is not Africa’s largest “donor”” (China Africa Research Initiative – ‘DATA: CHINESE LOANS TO AFRICA’ Version 1.1 August 2018).

They might try to conceal the reality, just like make-up is used on the face to fade the age or even marks that shows stress or pimples. However, the Chinese cannot be able to lie about their intent. They would not offer these sums of cash, without expecting a turnover or even profits. The Chinese wouldn’t allow all these billions of US Dollars spent on these nations to be spoiled and lost on the streets of Lome, Harare, Addis Ababa or Nairobi. They anticipate a return on the loans, either straight cash or getting pieces of the built infrastructure to advance the value of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

That the Heads of State in Africa should be concerned as they are getting in debt traps, instead of being in cycle of positive growth, they are getting new loans to pay the old ones. They are using the same creditor to secure new loans on top of the old-debt. That is how it will continue, until a point where they cannot pay the defaulted debt and the Chinese would then come to snatch something of value to recoup the failing debt. Because they don’t want to write-off the big money without having anything in return. That is what the Chinese has done in Sri Lanka and might start elsewhere. There might be soon more control of port in Djibouti or railroad of Kenya, even the Ethiopia-Djibouti railway line too. As they want their value of money.

They might be all smiles and photo-ops in Beijing these days, the smiles and added loans to dozens of countries. The added “investments” and deals struck, but the Chinese will not do so without getting something in return. To think otherwise, is to be naive and think they don’t have an agenda by doing it.

There is nothing like a free-lunch and the people will learn that, the Heads of State will not directly pay the debt, but the states will do so. Maybe not in this decade or next 5 years, but sooner or later. The bill for the coffee and biscuit will come. Than it is all eaten, but tab still has to be cleared. Peace.

A spiteful chant: Where did humanity go?

Where did humanity go in our time? When did we cease to care about other people’s struggle and their causes? When did that cease to matter? Because in our time, the rich and wealthy are securing more and more resources, while the poor is having no ways to get out of it. The states are closing their borders, stricter rules for refugees and asylum-seekers. While in dictatorships, the harassments and the internally displaced numbers are rising. The rich countries are investing in warfare, but not taking charge for the fleeing refugees from the crisis. They are trying to pay the states in regions and close the borders in migration routes. There is no heart, just cash-money. The heart has left, and the ignorance is rising.

The deaths of civil wars, the displacements of draconian laws and of dictators doesn’t matter. The lack of dialogue and of political freedoms, that doesn’t matter either. The lack of compassion and of political will change is also okay. As long as the troubles from afar doesn’t touch us. However, we will seal of the borders and make sure the innocent victims of internal disputes and skirmishes hopefully can cross the border to the closest country and not seek refugees in Europe or in the United States. Because, we cannot mange to show some humanity and heart.

The blood in your veins should boil, but for most. We don’t give a damn, they don’t give a fig. If their villages are burned to the ground by the military. If the Police is detaining people without any justification. If the state is securing the demise and death on fake imports. All of that doesn’t matter, as long as it doesn’t happen where we are.

This is the despicable. This is the reality. Our time, our reality, what our representatives put forward and make sure to build big invisible walls and mechanisms to close borders. To make it less achievable and costly to cross. Even more dangerous, as the perils of death and destruction at home isn’t better. But to leave can also cost your life, either by crook or by the book. Secondly, there will be nobody to even care to look.

This should be disgusting. Knowing that people are dying fleeing civil-wars and dictatorship, than when they are entering our safe havens; there is no one caring for their ills and troubles. They will just shrug it off like dirt on their shoulders and move on. There is lack of solidarity and heart. I hope in my time, that the Republic’s and Nation’s that close their borders never start warfare with themselves. As the ones who saw what we did. Might also give us no helping hand. They might say, we saw what your parents did to us. Why should we save the kids to such despicable people? Why do you deserve safe haven, when you couldn’t help our kind in need?

That is what I worry about, because we never know when the tide change, when society start to deteriorate or self-destruct. That is within us and we never know. We could be next, right now it is our brothers from afar, next time it could our closest neighbor or even ourselves. Than, they will remember our cold hearts and lack of compassion in the times of need. Peace.

ECOWAS: Portant Adoption des Sanctions Personelles visant a Favoriser la Restauration de la Gouvernance Democratique et le Respect de l’Etat de droit en Republique de Guinee Bissau (04.02.2018)

African Union Open-Ended Committee of Ministers of Foreign Affairs on the International Criminal Court Convened its 6th Meeting on the Sidelines of the 32nd Ordinary Session of the Executive Council of the African Union (27.01.2018)

Did you know? That President Adama Barrow of The Gambia pardoned Yahya Jammeh!

There are some men of Nobel character out there, but they are usually hidden and in silence. Today, I will have to write of one of them. This has actually happen back-in-January of 2017, but only gotten a whiff of it this week.

The world knows of the democratically elected opposition leader and Presidential Candidate Adama Barrow of the Republic of The Gambia. That in the midst of January 2017 he was sworn-in on the 19th January, as President Yayha Jammeh fled to Equatorial Guinea. It didn’t look like he would leave, but international pressure and also resignation of his own cabinet members forced this. That ECOWAS sending forces from Senegal into Gambia, also gave the former President no-hope of a longevity of his presidency. Jammeh had a dictatorship for 22 years, even killed his opposition and harassed them.

But this is all well-known facts about the state of affairs in Gambia. That the one winning election and the who had to sworn-in in Senegal and needed Ecowas troops to get rid of the 1994 Coup d’etat General Jammeh who never wanted to leave his post. Even if someone else won over him with a coalition victory years after.

Now today after months in-charge and the dictator disposed. The act that the new president did, shows his character and his real quest to power. It shows that he can actually prove his manhood and bravery. Adama Barrow should never be underestimated. Because he came to Gambia after fleeing on the 26th January after swearing-in on 19th January 2017 in Dakar, Senegal.

So what was so noble and great happen on 30th January 2017, when Gambia Gazette No. 4. on 31st January says this:

Whereas by Section82(1)(a) of the 1997 of the Republic of The Gambia, the President may exercise his Prerogative of Mercy in respect of any person convicted of any offence” (…) “And Whereas His Excellency the President considers the circumstances of the convicted prisoners named in the schedule, as warranting the exercise of his Prerogative of Mercy” (…) “Now Therefore, I Adama Barrow, the President of the Republic of The Gambia, in exercise of the powers conferred on me by section of 82(1)(a) of the Constitution of the Republic of The Gambia, do hereby grant pardon to the persons named in the schedule hereto” (…) “Done at Banjul this 30th Day of January 2017” (Gambia Gazzette No. 4, 31.01.2017).

This here proves that someone was pardoned by the newly elected President, just days after he was returned and sworn-in. Just starting his rule and his first term in power. The peacefully elected President decided to pardon 39 people. Of these 39 people, one person is a standout, one person who has looted the Republic and been a torn in the flesh of the people. The one they couldn’t stand or be the head of state anymore. The 25th Person who was pardoned by Barrow, was no other than Yahya Jammeh!

Barrow who has nothing to win by doing this, who has nothing to gain, still gave way for Jammeh and even as he is in exile in Equatorial Guinea with his wealth. He still hasn’t have to fear the law or repercussions from law-officials and law-officers of Gambia. Since he is pardoned. He is a free and rich man in exile, that is the gift Barrow gave him, just days in power and as Commander-in-Chief. Barrow had no need to do this. He could have prosecuted him and tried every single way of freezing the accounts and get the tax-funds looted back to Gambia. Instead he pardoned him and let him go. So that Jammeh should have less grievances against the now ruler of Gambia. There shouldn’t be anything personal or anything that creates friction between them.

The one in exile should kiss his pinky-ring. He should watch over his estate and his wealth in joy. The people of Gambia should know what sort of man they have elected. There we’re no need to act this swift and give this pardon. But he did for his reasons. Clearly, the wise man forgives, but never forget. Barrow seems smart, but hopefully will not be conned. He was saved by ECOWAS and the International Pressure on Jammeh. Now he has showed his character and it deserves praise. Not because Jammeh deserved it. He didn’t he should been behind bars and paid-in-full. But Barrow gives way and shows hope of a better future. Since the leadership of this way. Gives hope for a tomorrow. Peace.

Documents:

Joint Declaration by the Economic Community of West African States, the African Union and the United Nations on the Political Situation of the Islamic Republic of The Gambia (23.01.2017)

jammeh-21-01-2017

ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commend the goodwill and statesmanship of His Excellency former President Jammeh, who with the greater interest of the Gambian people in mind, and in order to preserve the peace, stability and security of The Gambia and maintain its sovereignty, territorial integrity and the dignity of the Gambian people, has decided to facilitate an immediate peaceful and orderly transition process.

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia, January 23, 2017 –

1.    Following the Decision of the Summit of the ECOWAS Authority taken on 17th December 2016 in Abuja, Nigeria, Mediation efforts, including visits to Banjul, were undertaken by the Chair of the Authority of ECOWAS Heads of State and Government, HE President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the Mediator, HE  President Muhammadu Buhari and Co-Mediator on The Gambia, HE former President John Dramani Mahama, along with HE President Ernest Bai Koroma to mediate on the political impasse with Sheikh Professor Alhaji Dr. Yahya A. J. J. Jammeh.

2.    Following further mediation efforts by HE President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania and HE President Alpha Conde of the Republic of Guinea Conakry with HE Sheikh Professor Alhaji Dr. Yahya A. J. J. Jammeh, the former President of the Republic of The Gambia, and in consultation with the Chairperson of the ECOWAS Authority of Heads of State and Government, the Chairperson of the African Union and the Secretary-General of the United Nations, this declaration is made with the purpose of reaching a peaceful resolution to  the political situation in The Gambia.

3.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commend the goodwill and statesmanship of His Excellency former President Jammeh, who with the greater interest of the Gambian people in mind, and in order to preserve the peace, stability and security of The Gambia and maintain its sovereignty, territorial integrity and the dignity of the Gambian people, has decided to facilitate an immediate peaceful and orderly transition process and transfer of power to President Adama Barrow in accordance with the Gambian constitution.

4.    In furtherance of this, ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commit to work with the Government of The Gambia to ensure that it assures and ensures the dignity, respect, security and rights of HE former President Jammeh, as a citizen, a party leader and a former Head of State as provided for and guaranteed by the 1997 Gambian Constitution and other Laws of The Gambia.

5.    Further, ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commit to work with the Government of The Gambia to ensure that it fully guarantees, assures and ensures the dignity, security, safety and rights of former President Jammeh’s immediate family, cabinet members, government officials, Security Officials and party supporters and loyalists.

6.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commit to work with the Government of The Gambia to ensure that no legislative measures are taken by it that would be inconsistent with the previous two paragraphs.

7.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN urge the Government of The Gambia to take all necessary measures to assure and ensure that there is no intimidation, harassment and/or witch-hunting of former regime members and supporters, in conformity with the Constitution and other laws of The Gambia.

8.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commit to work with the Government of The Gambia to prevent the seizure of assets and properties lawfully belonging to former President Jammeh or his family and those of his Cabinet members, government officials and Party supporters, as guaranteed under the Constitution and other Laws of The Gambia.

9.    In order to avoid any recriminations, ECOWAS, the AU and the UN commit to work with the Government of The Gambia on national reconciliation to cement social, cultural and national cohesion.

10.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN underscore strongly the important role of the Gambian Defence and Security Forces in the maintenance of peace and stability of The Gambia and commit to work with the Government of The Gambia to ensure that it takes all appropriate measures to support the maintenance of the integrity of the [Defence and] Security Forces and guard against all measures that can create division and a breakdown of order.

11.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN will work to ensure that host countries that offer “African hospitality” to former President Jammeh and his family do not become undue targets of harassment, intimidation and all other pressures and sanctions.

12.    In order to assist a peaceful and orderly transition and transfer of power and the establishment of a new government, HE former President Jammeh will temporarily leave The Gambia on 21 January 2017, without any prejudice to his rights as a citizen, a former President and a Political Party Leader.

13.    ECOWAS, the AU and the UN will work with the Government of The Gambia to ensure that former President Jammeh is at liberty to return to The Gambia at any time of his choosing in accordance with international human rights law and his rights as a citizen of the Gambia and a former head of state.

14.    Pursuant to this declaration, ECOWAS will halt any military operations in The Gambia and will continue to pursue peaceful and political resolution of the crisis.

Opinion: How can the world be surprised that Yahya Jammeh took the State Coffers with him to Exile?

yahya-jammeh-ordering-3

The brother has had control of the whole Gambian Republic since 1994, been eating of the Central Institutions, the donor aid and all sorts of tourism schemes for two decades. He would not have accumulated 13 Luxurious cars in a hot minute. That takes time to invest, find out which that matches his wardrobe and, which that is decent for his wife. Yahya Jammeh has been living lavish and extended that lavish lifestyle to Equatorial Guinea.

Surely, the fellow soldiers who was with him on the day of coup d’état that he would turn into the one they got rid-off. Well, history tends to repeat itself and it has ambushed Jammeh. What surprises me is not that he looted the state coffers, emptied the accounts and allocated it all into the safe haven of Equatorial Guinea. He and his acts in charge of the Republic expect that, Jammeh follows his own modus operandi and that should be sufficient.

I am not defending the acts, but more wondering where the others has been while covering men like him. I am surprised that the local currency isn’t depleted, that the food-stocks is empty, that the army has only knock-offs from the Soviet Army and is barely having more than pangas as working weapons. That is what I would expect of man like Jammeh. That he would leave all institutions flat-out broke and without work force or educated peers to steer the ship. To keep the Central Government that he put into ‘State of Emergency’ on track after a hazardous year, where he finally lost an election to Adama Barrow.

Why should he leave Gambia in a well estate and well-funded with working institutions when he is not running it anyway? He cannot even live in the country and stay in the country that he had been running for two decades. With this in mind, why should he leave anything else than that. Not that his record and reputations would be saved by him graciously leaving. He has already starved opposition in prisons, keep dissenters at bay and used all kind of tricks to control the state. So not like, he will offer mercy and give the people loafs of bread after he is not there. This is coming from the man who said this: “if you didn’t vote for me, don’t expect anything”; I know I am paraphrasing, but the emotion and the reality is the same!

Certainly, the outcome is good, the elected President Barrow get to start his reign in a broke, but free nation. A nation who has support from fellow ECOWAS nations and can find proper ways to fill the coffers and start to rebuild it immediately.

We should expect that he emptied the National Treasury and the Consolidation Funds or whatnot the call it in Gambia. That is what person’s like him do that and that is how they do their trade. Not that it is about justice or rule of law; it is their way and their way of earning their profits. This is not nostalgia or any sorts well he deserves to empty the state coffers. More, well he done it for 20 years already, one more emptying the coffers would not make the giant difference. Not that it justify it, it is morally and legally wrong to steal the taxpayers monies. No doubt, but when he has done so with impunity, you can ask yourself if he would change on the way out the door? Because when he been running the meetings and been the Chairman of the Board he has obliged himself with the state funds.

Certainly, Barrow and the Gambian Republic wished it otherwise, but the republic can now start all over without a torn in their flesh. As Jammeh even leaves with parts of court and his elite. Therefore, some of his loyal leadership that he has created is not there anymore. The men, who ate of Jammeh plate, will not be there to haunt the new regime and administration. Surely, I will without a doubt not be surprised even if he tries to install new party regime in Gambia from a far and use the funds to destabilize the Gambian Republic. Therefore, he can hope to become the Gambian saviour for the second time, with his second coming. This time on a plane from Malabo and Equatorial Guinea. That is for the future to happen and to appear. For now, we can certainly know that the Jammeh Regime, ended where it started, with looting the state coffers in the sake bringing down a dictator in 1994. While installing himself as another one.

Now, it is time for the International Community to support Barrow, give him space to build together create and support peaceful transition of power, from Jammeh and to the citizens of Gambia. Peace.

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