MinBane

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Archive for the tag “Socialism”

UK: 39 Labour MPs letter to Jeremy Corbyn asking him to sack Shawcroft (29.03.2018)

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Opinion: The rich are so poor nowadays!

“The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little.”Franklin D. Roosevelt

Well, this time in history will be remembered, in the times that the multi-national corporations have most of them fled their regional scenes and put their headquarters and main operations into tax havens. Therefore, with this in mind, the states and republics that actually is where they make the profits get less tax and get fewer monies to spend on public services. That does not make them poor, but smart someone might say. This is legal and the openness of the economies let them do it, but to be frank, we should question this big giant corporations for their fleeing fortunes abroad.

The corporations are not alone in all of this, the rich people themselves cannot sustained this, they cannot afford to pay reasonable taxes, and they need tax-relief so they can salvage their Monte Carlo and their Lamborghini’s. They have their massive mansions and stalls of cars, but cannot pay the percentages on the tax as ordinary working-class do. In addition, the working-class use decades on end to pay down the mortgage on the house and loan on their Ford Fiesta. If they can even afford a house and a car at his point.

The American enterprise and experience is really seeing it, as they plan to repeal and replace Obamacare, because the wealthy are too broke or to selfish to help the working-class who made them rich. That the working-class and industrial worker are falling behind as new schemes to outrun their possibilities. The corporations and the believers of free economies want more flexibility, but do not give equal wages or compensations. Therefore, the loser in the transactions are the workers and not the companies. Secondly, the states earn less without added productivity.

It is naive that the businesses care about other things than the bottom-line is vicious, like the wealthy have the capacity to share the spoils, which they have earned on the commoners and the citizens. Therefore, the spoils, which in some industries entails sweatshop workers and exports to the Western hemisphere with grand profits for the clothing and appeal giants. Something that the workers in Bangladesh or Pakistan doesn’t see anything delivered back, than a filthy industrial complex and possible health hazards for their hours work on end for a lousy T-shirts.

The others are the ones who are doing mining and extraction for the technology and IT businesses that has no issues with the illegal and militias taking controls over mining fields and black-market trading of rare earth minerals or cobalt for that matter. As long as the giant companies trading computers, smart-phones and whatnot get their profits. Certainly, the CEO and other leaders in the corporations should worry of the implications and the lives destroyed while their businesses are earning loads of monies. There should be some sort of certification of the weak trading points; if they knowingly paid, some of the monies on technology could fund militias and illegal armed conflicts.

This is real poverty, that we have systems, salary structures and imports that hurt local areas, while the businesses earn fortunes, that again is flying on the merry to a tax haven in the pacific through a shell-company set-up by lawyers in Panama. In addition, this is legal and just, by law and in society. That the same companies telling their workers that they cannot afford more wages, since they have to stack millions upon millions in the British Virgin Island. So that the shareholders and stakeholders can earn profits for the toils and sweat of fellow workers.

So when I hear that the workers cannot ask for bigger salaries, while the states and republics create tax-holidays and tax-breaks, incentives for “investments” while the big-men are doling away vast fortunes in the middle of the day. Like a legal heist, a theft of both tax and salary, the salaries that could be used more in the system to gain growth, and secondly the added tax that could build roads and infrastructure that the company could need. However, hey, we do not need proper roads and wages, as long as the rich can travel to Monaco and St. Tropez whenever they feel like it. We are foolish to think otherwise!

When you hear that the rich has to get tax-breaks and their taxes cut, know that they are poor in spirit and heart. They may have vast fortunes and riches, but their hearts are empty. They do not see the problems of the day-to-day basis of the ones creating their empires. They do not see the people who buys their labeled products and services. They only see the bottom-line, the empty shells companies’ accounts and the schemes to hide the monies. That is because these wealthy people are so poor; they cannot afford to be like the rest of us.

The wealthy are so poor, they are so poor that they have to avoid taxes or pay taxes, because if they were paying taxes they would be like us. They would have the same responsibilities and have the same understanding of welfare and public services. Therefore, since they do not need the public service, they can afford to travel abroad for health-care; they can afford to send their kids to private schools and can afford to import goods. Then they do not need the support and the base line of the republic or the state. Like you and I do. Therefore, with that in mind, which is why they are so poor. Their poverty is in the mind and in their spirit; they cannot be a part of us, because they want to shield themselves from us. Still, earning our monies and taking our cheap labor, no problem!

This poor people need help, they need guidance, their riches might fall out of their hands, might be lost in coup d’état or worse than they get bankrupt. Than they need the states to salvage their business or their bank, with our tax-monies, without any hesitation, but when it was booming. That was the time they had no need of paying taxes or paying amends to the state through the regulations. Like we do and pay for our right to live and use the needed services of the states.

In these interesting times of ours, we have the riches seeking to pay-less, while the working-class is footing the bills or trying too. While the republics and states make it harder for public service and make it more expensive to pay for the needed services. This are all made in the hands of the wealthy and the multi-national corporations, without considering the implications of the commoner, the working-class nor the middle-class that are all sinking on the behalf of the rich. Certainly, the belief that the trickle-down economy should be a project avoided, but to many still have faith in the paradigm. While very, few have any social mobility or have the capacity to go from one class to the next. Peace.

Opinion: A failed rebellion from the Labour MPs as the Members votes to keep Jeremy Corbyn!

labour-ballot-2016

The United Kingdom politics seems to have changed a lot since the Brexit Election. Theresa May thinks she the second coming to the Queen and tries to the Iron Lady while triumphant acts like a winner; even if she just inherited the honourable Prime Minister government and traded seats to loyalist for her. Well, other news has been the disgraceful and despicable attacks on Jeremy Corbyn and his allies in the Labour Party. The Main Opposition party that has been under fire for their activity and nativity under the Brexit campaign; that has backfired on the central leadership and ended is disarray in the socialist party.

There we’re very few MPs in Public who we’re behind Jeremy Corbyn like Kate Osamor and few other rare Members of Parliament that we’re silent through the storm after the Brexit.

This happens as the knowledge of the rebel MPs who fled the ship and wanted to axe their leader without any concern of how recently he was elected. These we’re the likes of Peter Kyle, Emma Lewell-Buck, Peter Glass, Chris Evans, Heidi Alexander, Steve Reed, Lucy Powell, Ruth Smeeth, David Wayne, Chris Bryant, Ian Murray, Jess Phillips, Andy Slaughter, Lillian Greenwood and Angela Eagle. All of these MPs wrote letters resigning from the Shadow Cabinet and later worked to do what they could to marginalize their leader. They even had a vote in Parliament where they Opposition voted no-confidence in Corbyn.

In a big party as Labour there would be natural that their more than one major wing. In the Labour Party of United Kingdom, you have the Blairites, the once that you cannot spot the difference between if they are Liberal-Democrats (Lib-Dem) or Conservative Party (Tories) as they acts are the same, but hints of collective consideration when they need too. Than you have the Right-Wing socialist and Labour Unionist that is core bases of the Party. These two wings are the ones that have fought for control of the party. The Legacy of Tony Blair and his New Labour is hunting the Party like a vindictive disease that it cannot kill off. Instead the internal squabbles strengthen the Theresa May government and her brash tone towards the world. While the looking non-member possible voter feels that Labour Party is not the first choice because they cannot control themselves.

There been enough scandals and wrong methods from the leadership under Corbyn. But he has been a backbencher and not a key player until late. The once behind him and the core leadership should have backed him and given him better advice and made sure that certain Anti-Semite slurs wouldn’t be associated with the party and some of the MPs who are loyal to Corbyn. As much as Corbyn should have used a stronger force in the Brexit campaign to gain momentum for what he believed in at that junction. But let’s be clear, the coup d’état that the Shadow Cabinet Ministers are not how to run a party; it is how to ruin a party. Some of these should just flee the Labour Party; ask for forgiveness in their role of disfranchising the Unions and Members of the Party. Or be noble and find a new home. The rebel MPs should beg for forgiveness for weakening the party and their causes. This has wasted time and efforts for the cost of Labour.

labour-right-in-racist-attack

The Corbyn Administration better use the time wisely and enter a method of sending their message and making sure programs offered the public can be sold and understood in Brighton and in Swindon.

Certainly the rebel MPs are the key losers today, but also the party because of the internal destruction and maladministration that has led to this effort. The Labour Party can become vital if their principals are in order and if the leadership are true to their balanced message. In a big party as Labour if there weren’t fractions, we as followers of them should be worried. Than there would an authoritarian leader who demands what the rest of the party should think and have on their mind.

If the Corbyn Administration doesn’t handle the rebels, then the friction between them will continue until next election. Even if the Theresa May Cabinet postpones the Article 50 into oblivion as she really wants to and just having a Brexit Minister and having boy-scout Boris Johnson proud-cocking around Europe to ask for forgiveness for his previous insults of the past. Even with all this in mind Corby and his loyal leadership around him has to consolidate and get a clear message, while handling the men and woman who did what they could to oust him. They tried to have both MP Angela Eagle and MP Owen Smith instead of him. The reaction of the matter is now clear as the Members wish to have Jeremy Corbyn longer staying with the helmet.

Certain tabloids and media houses should ask mercy to Corbyn for their attitude and stinking press of slur of ignorance and fixation on getting him axed. Like they wanted to destabilize the party in the wish to strengthen May Government! It isn’t just me who see that clear vindictive attitude of British press towards Corbyn? It was factory made press of banality and obstructive behaviour that we’re out of this world. The only one getting as much bad press, but deservingly so is Donald Trump and he speaks venom; that is not the ways of Corbyn.

observer-khan-corbyn

Let’s be clear, if the Labour Party wants to be serious contender and become a Party of the People again. Then they have to consolidate and retaliate with fierce precision against the rebels while giving them limited options. MP Owen Smith can now go back to his constituency and try to win over with this lobbyist smile and “make this election the most important in the party history”.

If Labour want to reign again, then they have to go internally and fix, amend and show progress of stature and credible socialist message that can bring belief of a better future for workers, households and industry. Not only trading the Blairites for getting voters now. Corbyn, congratulation on your second victory in Inner-Party Election; now it is time to work! Peace.  

Malema hints on proposal to scrap water, electricity bills for the poor (Youtube-Clip)

“EFF leader, Julius Malema says his party will propose scrapping of water and electricity bills of the poor. But the pro- poor mandate may not be viable. Economists say wiping off the bad debt is feasible but its the tax payers that could end up footing that bill” (SABC Digital News, 2016)

President Robert Mugabe 1976 Interview (Youtube-Clip)

Owen Jones meets Michael Moore | ‘Trump is like the sound of dying dinosaurs’ (Youtube-Clip)

“With the release of his new documentary, ‘Where to Invade Next’, director Michael Moore tells me that a vote for Brexit would be like asking for relegation from the Premier League. We also chatted about Donald Trump’s chances of becoming the next American President, whether Bernie Sanders should carry on fighting Hillary Clinton and why Moore believes Tony Blair is more responsible for the Iraq war than George W. Bush” (Owen Jones, 2016)

The ironies of Socialism versus Neo-Liberalism; why I believe in a Keynesian approach instead of the Socialism or the Neo-Liberalism

Socialism churchill

Well, it is about that time, I make mockery of two statues of civilization and ideas that rules the world while not hoping the blindly followers of either comes to attack my person, my thoughts or my widely allegation on the parts. Both of the political views and framework have made a difference and is the reason why we have societies like we have today.

The main parts of socialism is that there is policies and regulations that fit for social and bigger government who cares for the citizens, like subsidized health-care, schools, university, transport and local government. Through taxes and higher fees on produce as the socialism need funding for the ability to make the government organizations and government programs. The Government need more taxes to able to serve the public with what they expect through the socialistic view, while the taxes are set-up in a way that the ones with more income is generating more revenue is supposed to pay more tax; than the ones that are paid less.

So with the big-government and grander government policies comes the address of the public will and citizens loses power, but that for the price of cheaper health-care, schooling and other government institutions. That stops the higher prices and free-market pricing of health care that lets major parts of the society might even be able to pay for the needed operations. So the reasoning and hateful measurement against big-government is wrong in some parts as the people are stronger when we work together and divide the expenditure on the whole society; instead of billing the whole ordeals on the single individual.

free market

Neo-Liberalism is not as straight forward as this is supposed to be measurement to weaken the state, make it liberal and little. Give more power to person instead of the government and give more choices to the citizens of the given country. The issue is that Neo-Liberalism has come with certain ideas and prospects. For instance the New Public Management (NPM) is a Neo-Liberalistic idea. NPM have given the societies and the government who added these policies more watchmen and ombudsmen then before. They have given the power away from the departments and created institutions under the departments with specialist and experts that sets the standard and gives advice to the department. While the departments still need manpower, so need also the lower-expert-institutions. So you have two fronts with specialist working the same field and advising each other. So before NPM most of the experts and brains where at the Department and Local Government that worked with a given subject or the project that needed a specialist; thanks to NPM they have become self-serving and not cut down the amount of bureaucracies have become fluent. As much as the wish for the NPM as parts of the Neo-Liberalism idea, it hasn’t created less government, but more and longer away from the decision making.

The Neo-Liberalism of free-market and starch corporate control have not given added freedom to the consumer. As the markets are controlled by less and less owners and stakeholders; the corporate power have become stronger, but more centralized in conglomerates that issues the policies and secure the profits. The riches of the corporations and the borderlines agreements are built for the corporations not for the welfare for the citizens. The original businesses we’re built for single projects or for fixed procurement that the state and citizens needed like building roads and bridges. Not gaining profits that sky-rocket and then moves away the tax-money into tax-havens. That is the Neo-liberalism ways of economies. In a way the movement of money should happen without government interference or taxation.

The Neo-Liberalism brought also an idea that was worse than the NPM. That was the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) under the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). SAP was made in the 1980s to liberate the subsidized agriculture, health-care and other public institutions as government got great loans through the funding of IMF and WB. So they released the governments and free-market ideas that killed the Co-Op’s in the countries that was already lots of them. They had commissions and centralized crop sales through Co-Ops that served the farmers, either they produces cocoa, coffee or tea. This was a standard of fixing training, production and prices to influx together a stronger unity. The ironies of this is that the IMF and WB gave this order through SAP to Low-Developed Countries while the countries that funded this had Co-Ops in agriculture themselves and still have to this day. So with the SAP they made the inside trading before the export more intricate and gave “supposed” more power to the farmer. Instead they became more reluctant and needed more to be careful to whom they offered their crops to. As the traders from capital who went up-country could fix prices and lie about the values to earn more on the trade to export. So the farmer would not get a given price on the world-market because there we’re less voices giving the farmer a hand in the trade of their cash-crops and their goods that they we’re not consuming themselves. So the SAP agreement stalled the government institutions and weakens them together with the trading experience on the ground. The structures we’re given big loans for building up trade-networks and export facilities while dismantling the structures that secured and fueled the industry and agriculture. As the Agriculture and Industry should not get subsidized, but get funding through free-market ideal and that killed the initial funding as the cheaper production came from abroad instead of making it locally. Therefore it is more normal to Chinese, Egypt and Brazilian products than own local products in the supermarkets of Uganda, for instance. Even meat, juice and toilet-paper are imported than produced in the country. That is because of the SAP and the Neo-Liberalism ideas.

zero-hour-contracts

Another important factor of the Neo-Liberalism idea is the abolishing ideas of Workers Unions and trying to ban them. As the Free-Market should fix the pay for the worker and the business it should fix it. That is why there been less strikes and less new Unions in our day. The reason why Unions in our time is important and the socialist idea of them is that the riches of the corporations; does not seem to trickle down to the citizens; it only left back to the stakeholders and owner, not to society or the workers that works for the rich corporations. Settling this is not easy. During the Reagan and Thatcher era tried to kill of the unions for their meddling and dissolve them so to actually centralize power. Instead this killing of mining-unions and other unions in the United Kingdom have weaken the industry and the ability of workers to fix pay while the corporations come with contracts that are good for business, but not good for steady income for proper work. The recent years of cover-ups in Sports Direct that is owned by Newcastle United Mike Ashley that offers their workforce lots of “Zero-Hour Contract”. Zero Hours Contracts work in the way that the employer has more people under their wings without paying extra for them. The Contract gives not benefits or sick-leave. As the Employee is paid by the hours and amount of time they work for the employer and nothing else. So all the benefits is added to the business and none for the worker, who has to fight and bend-over to add hours as the pool of willing workers are there. Even if the Zero-Contracts are bad, the non-Union and not-allowed to unionize work-force cannot go together and fight for their benefits and rights. As the Employer can continue to use and get new workers without having to stand-by them. Sports Direct is just an example of it, there are more business who uses this model and creates massive profits as they don’t have to offer needed benefits or health-care programs to the employees. As Wall-Mart have had low-hourly pay and no health-care benefit while letting their employees sign-up to government funded programs for health-care so that the Wall-Mart employees get little paid and at the same time uses food-stamps and Medicaid instead of Wall-Mart having health-Care benefits. So the business saves the money for salaries and also save the benefits of their employees; this is something you can thank the beautiful neo-liberal ideas.

The difference with the neo-liberalistic ideal of work is that the employee would give sufficient pay and have a contract that benefits the company and the workers. As they would have social responsibility for their workers as they have health benefits through the standard with standard payments of salaries together with state fueled community health care. The Neo-Liberal is that personal pay of the health-care instead of tax-payers money. So the health-care will be opened to the once who can have insurance or ability to pay for it. Instead of funded through the tax-payers pockets as solidarity between all citizens as in the socialist idea. That cannot be seen as a problem for a liberal person, to bring solidarity and also a structured health-care that everybody pays their fees into and when needed pay a small personal fee to get access, instead of footing the whole bill on their own.

Text ZHC SportDirect

Let me finish this up with the ideals that are ironic on the matter.

  • Smaller Government under NPM has actually made more Ombudsmen and Expert Organizations. Meaning that the Government didn’t become smaller, just longer away from the Department to the Experts and the Ombudsmen that the Government want to control
  • The SAP in Neo-Liberalistic method didn’t bring wealth to the countries it was applied to. The Farmers, the government institutions got weaken, while the loans got higher and less development as the Free-Market got the resources, but without control of the Co-Ops or other ways of maintaining support of citizens. The economies became more fragile as a result of the Neo-Liberal SAP then under the Co-Ops with the control of selling cash-crops and so on.
  • The Free-Market idea of Neo-Liberalism while destroying Labor-Unions to secure more government control of the market. While deteriorating the labors ability and therefore opening for the “Zero-Hour” Contracts that gives all the advantages to the corporations and none to the employee who only get security for the hourly work and nothing else for the employee. That would not happen with stronger unions and government who could enforce the rules for corporations.

All of these is ideals against each other I myself is not a clear socialist, even if I am raised on socialist country in a social-economic balance system. I myself is a clear Keyenist in the way that I believe in free-market and free-society to an extent. That extent is that the governments automatically bails out the necessary institutions and have a hand into the banks and other needed businesses of a society. That the workers are secured and fixed through strong barriers so that the market is made sure that the governments, and also facilitate the marker for the corporations. So that the market will have input from the government as the eruptions is inevitable and needs a structure to control it.

keynes

This three main components are basic:

  • Aggregate demand is influenced by many economic decisions—public and private.
  • Prices, and especially wages, respond slowly to changes in supply and demand, resulting in periodic shortages and surpluses, especially of labor.
  • Changes in aggregate demand, whether anticipated or unanticipated, have their greatest short-run effect on real output and employment, not on prices. Keynesians believe that, because prices are somewhat rigid, fluctuations in any component of spending—consumption, investment, or government expenditures—cause output to change. If government spending increases, for example, and all other spending components remain constant, then output will increase.

So with that in mind you understand why I am in between of the socialist and the free-market neo-liberalism as the Keynesian ideas that are more subtle and securing society as the mixed of government control and free-market gives sustainable societies. Not only full freedom without security for other than the corporations which is the main mantra of the Neo-Liberalism as the individual freedom usually get used by the legal person the corporations and not coined will by the persons themselves as the belief is under the ideology of liberal ideas. Instead of having total control of the state in the Communism, and strong big-government with socialism; but the Keynesian sees it in middle of that and have a free-market with control of the wages and workers by the government. That gives a steady economy and also a greater stability in the values of inflation and stronger value of the person instead of being a commodity as resources in the free-market thinking of the neo-liberalism that have deteriorated the markets and only winner is the corporations; not the fellow human beings. Peace.

A look into the fear-mongering in modern day politics; while showing politicians who believed in building inclusive and unified nations; as a counter to the fear-mongering politicians!

Cartoon-immigration-26-728

This here is not easy write as it is such a fearful debate; I will discuss the matter of fear in politics. I have taken it in pieces here and there because the militarization is a distinguished part of politics these days as they have always been. Military and armies have always been influential of how the political movement has been and how the structure of power has been established. But today I will not discuss the militarization of politics that I can do another day. Certainly I will discuss it more closely as it is ever present in politics. While today the main topic is the other part of politics who is the rhetoric of spreading fear about foreign influence, immigrations or the foreign people in the country! While I will counter them with leaders who wanted to build countries, and this in countries with many tribes and creeds as they have to work together to build the nations; these are the men I look up to, not the ones who spread fear, as that is the simplest and easiest tool to get the masses behind without showing a proper political policies or framework that can define a parties groundwork or ideology as the one goal is to do something fruitful as a politician.

History Immigration

FEAR and fear is a tool that many politicians use all over the globe. Usefully to gain political advantage and create a platform for their framework or even just cease the power the politicians wish to achieve. This piece will not be about Donald Trump even if he thrives on racial hatred and fear of the non-American value without being able to say what that is, which is from an outsider laughable, as it usually is the once spreading the fear use one Markie technic. He will still have a space as he is so visible by doing it and how he uses that technic.  

The first Markie technic from the politicians is finding the enemy, or if has to create the enemy. Usually a foreign forces, foreign people or foreign investments, as all of them will create a unstable environment and that these people, investors will take away the freedom and liberty, even steal the jobs that are there. This technic is used because the politician initially doesn’t have a political framework or policy on how to create the space of economic sense to find other solutions to make the laws, policies or the country’s budget to make a difference.

This will be most often by the biggest group of the people, neither the elite nor the educated; instead the majorities who have less education and more blue-collar work or industrial workers and the men and woman from both smaller towns and rural areas; as the capitals and central regions usually are more open and have more open approached to people and are more liberal in general. As the rural and smaller towns are further away therefore the people usually doesn’t get the same level of information as the central regions. Even in the digital age and watching TV and tabloid news gives the masses quick-feeding news instead of the deep diving information. This leads the masses and population into the levels of not checking the information or questioning the forces who spread certain information to the people.

UKIP Poster

Farage of UKIP has unemployment of British people because of immigration, and Romanians are the greatest criminals in the UK:

The fear they spread is like that East-European people are stealing the jobs in the United Kingdom as the party of United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) leader Nigel Farage fears portrayed in his owns words: “I would rather we had communities that were rather more united and we had a situation where young unemployed British people had a realistic chance of getting a job, so yes I do think the social side of this matters more than the pure market economics” (Wintour, 2014). He also said this in 2013: “There have been an astounding 28,000 arrests in the Metropolitan Police area of Romanians in the last five years alone…92 per cent of ATM crime in the capital is already being committed by Romanian gangs” (Worral, 2013). This here is just typical living on fear as the place will only stay united if the British people is employed and chance of getting a job. That is not because of the market economics, but because of other reasons, that is typical rhetoric of men who thrive on fear, as he did the year before. As he then blamed Romanians for thieving as the Police had not the statics or proof of this number. It is as this is simply a matter that cannot be pure market economics. This proves the levels of fear that UKIP spreads with their words. Let me show you other people doing the same.

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Wilders of the PVV believes the Western hemisphere will not survive with the influence of Islam:

As in Netherlands the level of fear spreading and finding the once creating issues there in words of Geert Wilders of his Dutch Party for Freedom (PVV) who has built a career on thriving the fear of foreign faiths and beliefs as his own exclusive piece he stated this: “Islam is an existential threat to our Western freedoms and our Judeo-Christian civilization. It also threatens the Atlantic partnership between America and Western Europe. It is our duty to limit this threat. It is our mission as patriots to protect our nations. The first measure we must take to stop Islam, reduce the risk of terrorism and save our civilization, is to stop all immigration from Islamic countries. It is a matter of survival” (Wilders, 2016). He proves his fear here that the level of problems coming to Europe through the Islamic faith is survival and if we don’t succumb to it we will be killed. This is demonetization of something else they yourself as it easier then unifying the countries and citizens. As the faiths are dangerous in his opinion as he does not have a framework or structure to regenerate or rejuvenate anything. Therefore he uses Islamic faith as a tool to spread fear for it as the immigration and immigrants from the countries of this faith is dangerous. That is rhetoric suited in the fear based policies.

Front National France

Le Pen’s National Front fears a barbaric invasion of France:

In France you have Marine Le Pen of the National Front who has as her father lived on the fear in the French population and thriving on it as well. She has said this: “Migrants are now wandering in our neighborhoods, around the train stations or in the slums, the cause for France of immense security and public hygiene problems” (…)“In the coming years, we could be in the presence of the invasions that were lived through in the Fourth Century,” said Ms. Le Pen, referring to the Barbarian invasions of Western Europe” (Nossiter, 2015). She proves the level of fear as the immigrants even invading the country and create hygiene problems. This sound more like of a past parties that nobody really want to be associated with. Let me give you an example: “In 1935, Dr. J. Goebbels, Nazi Minister of Propaganda, made the unconsciously sardonic statement, “National Socialism has simplified thinking for the German nation and brought it back to its earlier and primitive form” (Krzesinski, 1945). It is nearly the same the fear level of Le Pen as the fear of the nation back to the primitive aggression of the barbarian invasion will come back, if they don’t take care of the society.

plakat2 (1)

Siv Jensen of Norway does not want to the state of Malmø to Norway:

There leaders like this in Norway as well, take for example Siv Jensen of Fremskrittspartiet (The Progressive Party) who said this in 2013: ”If we permit this, Oslo and other Norwegian cities may approach the state of Malmö [Sweden], where emergency service personnel do not dare to enter certain parts of the city, and where Sharia law has entirely taken over. That is the reality in Sweden; we are not attempting to scaremonger” (Alm, 2013). She proves that ability as the counterparts in Europe to put Islamic people and their faith in one basket and expect everybody to be the same. It’s ironic that she is saying she is not scaremonger, while portraying a bleak picture if we let them come and we will create Malmø in Norway as well. That just proves to what an extent she goes to establish an enemy to generate votes.

Trump Quote

Donald Trump having issues with Mexicans:

Let me take Donald Trump as well, the American who also uses them versus us rhetoric to gain votes. See here: ““When Mexico (meaning the Mexican Government) sends its people, they’re not sending their best. They’re not sending you (pointing to the audience). They’re not sending you (pointing again). They’re sending people that have lots of problems, and they’re bringing those problems to us. They’re bringing drugs.They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists. And some, I assume, are good people! But I speak to border guards and they tell us what we’re getting. And it only makes common sense. They’re sending us not the right people. It’s coming from more than Mexico. It’s coming from all over South and Latin America, and it’s coming probably from the Middle East. But we don’t know. Because we have no protection and we have no competence, we don’t know what’s happening. And it’s got to stop and it’s got to stop fast.” (…)”The Mexican Government wants an open border as long as it’s a ONE WAY open border into the United States. Not only are they killing us at the border, but they are killing us on trade … and the country of Mexico is making billions of dollars in doing so” (Walker, 2015). This here proves the fear mongering technic of Trump as he has nothing else, as the Mexicans are the issue, they creates the bad business and trade, they bring the wrong people to the United States and so on. This here is just like the right-wing politician who uses this level of fear to generate votes. He thrive on it and get the afraid white votes in United States, as they can’t check if this is true or not.

Now I want to go to something positive as the ones above has just spread the words of fear and that the world we are living is going to hell if we let our neighbors and refugees get a place to stay our whole system will collapse and Armageddon will come quicker than a Mel Gibson racist rant. This here is one part of the politicians that are out there and they are gaining and getting crowds; people are following it and respecting them. As fearful it is. But let me prove the different men and woman who creates unity and implement proper politics and framework, not FEAR as the only tool to build support. The healthy political venue and also show how to respect and create peace In between people and tribes.

Tanzania Nyerere

As one of greatest statesmen ever (in my opinon) wrote about unity for his fellow countrymen in Tanzania in 1967:

“A truly. socialist state is one in which all people are workers and in which neither capitalism nor feudalism exists. It does not have two classes of people, a lower class composed of people who work for their living, and an upper class of people who live on the work of others. In a really socialist country no person exploits another; everyone who is physically able to work does so; every worker obtains a just return for the labour he performs; and the incomes derived from different types of work are not grossly divergent. In a socialist country, the only people who live on the work of others, and who have the right to be dependent upon their fellows, are small children, people who are too old to support themselves, the crippled, and those whom the state at any one time cannot provide with an opportunity to work for their living” (…)”The development of a country is brought about by people, not by money. Money, and the wealth it represents, is the result and not the basis of development. The four prerequisites of development are different; they are (i) People; (ii) Land; (iii) Good Policies; (iv) Good Leadership. Our country has more than ten million people1 and is are; is more than 362,000 square miles” (Nyerere, 1967).  This man shows the real material and values of somebody uniting the people even if he does not even want the nation into classes, some people might see it socialism and Marxism. And the maxim does not need be in that way to become peaceful or uniting. Let me take a man who speaks peace between people and not having socialist feeling, still proving the possibility of unification between people.

Kaunda Book

How Dr. Kenneth Kaunda united the tribes of Zambia:

“Interviewer: United 72 tribes together was a major challenge. How did you manage, as the First President of Zambia, to overcome such thing?” His answer: It was very important and a difficult situation for us as a country. We still had our small tribes and we still did not know what was coming ahead of us. We had to build all this up into ‘One Zambia, One Nation’.  Living this slogan is not just something that was talked about, but something that Zambians believed in, and they began living and behaving in the spirit of unity as quoted in the slogan” (Winne, 2015). His other important question: “As the First President, you have implemented humanism and nationalisation of the economy. What were the main reasons for doing so?” His answer to the question: “Humanism formed a basis to guide everything that was done or implemented in the country. Moreover, the economy has to be nationalised to help raise the standards of living for the poverty stricken people” (…)”At the time, there was racial segregation and the challenge was to tackle this situation. It was important for people to understand that it was not their colour that mattered, but rather the behaviour of the person. As such, humanism became important and it helped us overcome racial segregation.  The concept of humanism meant that all human being lived united according to how God wants them to live” (Winne, 2015). Dr. Kenneth Kaunda does something important and says that the value is the people of all the tribes belongs to the country and pride in the idea of one Zambia. Not segregating, that was the matter with humanism and let the people be united. It proves the greatness in believing in that if people unify they will be stronger.

Tradeau Poster

Let me take the new Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau who speaks totally different on cultural differences than other in western hemisphere:

“Canadians have proven that a nation can be strong not in spite of our differences but because of them, and we all have a responsibility to be custodians of this country’s character. Canada’s success is rooted in its unique approach to liberty through inclusive diversity. While we have built vital institutions like the Charter, sustaining this liberty requires continued political leadership” (Liberal, 2015). He believes that the diversity through liberty is a reason for success for Canada, while his counterparts in Europe fear the diversity and sure the world will fall into abyss, he differ; as he continues on his victory speech: “To her I say this: you and your fellow citizens have chosen a new government, a government that believes deeply in the diversity of our country. We know in our bones that Canada was built by people from all corners of the world who worship every faith, who belong to every culture, who speak every language” (…)”We believe in our hearts that this country’s unique diversity is a blessing bestowed upon us by previous generations of Canadians, Canadians who stared down prejudice and fought discrimination in all its forms. We know that our enviable, inclusive society didn’t happen by accident and won’t continue without effort. I have always known this; Canadians know it too. If not, I might have spoken earlier this evening and given a very different speech” (Trudeau, 2015). He proves his faith in the diversity and how that built the country and an inclusive society. The positive belief that people of all kinds can build a society together; as the Canadians can and that all of them can build the country no matter creed, language or faith that is telling that nobody is enemies of the idea of Canada. That is a strong unifying message!

0144a-32-131-2ed-100-african_activist_archive-a0b6h6-a_15506

Another hero with a unifying message to his people was first ANC President in South Africa, Nelson Mandela on his inauguration on the 10th May 1994:

“That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland explains the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict, and as we saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the world, precisely because it has become the universal base of the pernicious ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression” (…)”We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy” (…)”We deeply appreciate the role that the masses of our people and their political mass democratic, religious, women, youth, business, traditional and other leaders have played to bring about this conclusion. Not least among them is my Second Deputy President, the Honourable F.W. de Klerk” (…)”We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination” (…)”We have triumphed in the effort to implant hope in the breasts of the million of our people. We enter into a covenant that we shall build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity – a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world” (…)”We are both humbled and elevated by the honour and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist government” (…)”We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom” (…)”We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success” (…)”We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world” (Mandela, 1994). He has faith that the white and blacks could build a country on a road to freedom, as a united people, not that it would be easy, still wanted the country to be a rainbow nation and let everybody walk with dignity. Mandela does not make anybody enemies, but says the people and the government must be united for a reconciliation and building the nation, as a united people. That gives not only a certain people the responsibility, but both people and government. Also that he earlier says that not only the former ethnic difference has to be changed, but also the economic bondage and other discrimination, therefore he sees the whole society.

immigration_history_color

Afterthought:

I wanted to show the difference between those who spreads fear and the ones who see multiculturalism as the fear levels certain politicians are sending is just horrific. They disrespect the intelligence of the audience and society. Not to talk about the long living history of different people living in the same area, different religions in the same dominion and so on.

I hate the way the fear of other people being used and the way it supposed to destroy the nations and governments, the reason for unemployment and so on. The fear is just a given from this men and woman because they don’t have a political framework or political policy worth listening to. The people don’t need to look at the basic parts of their plans. They can see that the ideal that they carry is a fairytale story, instead of building nations and a legacy that they really will be remembered by.

While the once had a faith the people of the country and their support too actually to address the way ahead, instead of finding an enemy and creating a problem to fight together. That proves certainty of leadership, instead of making up and saying that people are coming to steal, invades or take the jobs; because the men who say that the people could unite and become one has tried to generate positive development and made history by doing so. Even though the Canadian Prime Minister has just recent one the campaign in 2015, so he needs some time. While Nelson Mandela, Julius Nyerere and Dr. Kenneth Kaunda did their countries, good, still Nyerere and Kaunda also made wrong decisions, but their initial try and their vision has created peace between the tribes and made the country envisioned in the idea of Zambia and United Republic of Tanzania. That shows the great work of these men and their level of starting to build a state. That does not come easy.

save_food

I will another day look into the way certain government uses militarism to generate fear in the population, as this is the fear of an invisible enemy or an enemy amongst the citizens. That the citizens should be aware and that the unity will be gone if they get to be a part of the people and united together. As differs from the people who tries to build their nations, or even believe that the multiculturalism is a reason why the country is succeeding as the Canadian PM says. I am sure if we had an discussion between Trudeau and the Wilders it would be heated, even with Le Pen and Trudeau would make a general fight of ethics and how to make society great. As Le Pen and Wilders has another view and uses the fear to generate votes in their countries. While Trudeau salutes multiculturalism. Donald Trump even massively lives and thrives on throwing immigrants under the bridge, while he marries immigrants (that is a side-note check that fact yourself).

That is enough for today. Remember we are as strong as our friendships, as we united against hatred and those who create fear. We the rest who really see through their shenanigans and racist behavior, even pro-nationalism men and woman who address fellow human beings as lesser people, should think more through their words. As we all have the same needs and needs the same kind of childhood, livelihood, education and life. The difference is the staple-food, the environment and so on. So that they establish the other people as significant different is just ignorance and also wrong. As the thing you can learn from other cultures can enrichen your life and your thoughts as the world really get smaller and at the same time more complex. But the men and woman who speaks fear and thrive on it does not have the interest for that. I would doubt that.

sa-anti-apartheid-poster

Last thought, a reason why the fear-mongers get a big space in society:

I am one of them who stand by the men and woman who believes in multiculturalism and also in the possibility of unity and unifying the countries. Not that is easy, but the constant dialogue and the continuation to listen, and come to a consensus can bring hope between all groups of society instead of looking for enemies or blaming other people in society. As the other people looks for and can’t find a way to build or rebuild society, they find immigrants and Islamic faithful as the men and woman that creates the social issues, not the basic wrongs in government or free-market thinking, even in post-modern Europe, but that is not a question for now. This here is something that should be considered; as there might be a vacuum of power and levels of from central government and the citizens, and that is why this politicians who spreads fear get a the giant microphone and place in society, instead of the people who has certainty thoughts and ideals to build peace together and not creating fear of each other in society! Peace.

Reference:

Alm, Christina – ‘Siv Jensen of the Norwegian Progress Party – embattled and popular’ (06.06.2013) link: http://www.d-intl.com/2013/06/06/siv-jensen-of-the-norwegian-progress-party-embattled-and-popular/

Krzesinski, Andrew J. – ‘NATIONAL CULTURES, NAZISM AND THE CHURCH’ (1945) – . Rare Books and Manuscripts. Book 17 link: http://digital.kenyon.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=rarebooks

Liberal – ‘Statement by Liberal Party of Canada Leader Justin Trudeau on the anniversary of multiculturalism’ (07.10.2015) link: https://www.liberal.ca/statement-by-liberal-party-of-canada-leader-justin-trudeau-on-the-anniversary-of-multiculturalism/

Mandela, Nelson – ‘Nelson Mandela at his inauguration as President of South Africa, Pretoria’ (10.05.1994) link: http://mandela.gov.za/mandela_speeches/1994/940510_inauguration.htm

Nossiter, Adam – ‘For Marine Le Pen, Migration Is a Ready-Made Issue’ (05.10.2015) link: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/06/world/europe/for-marine-le-pen-migration-is-a-ready-made-issue.html?_r=0

Nyerere, Julius – ‘The Arusha Declaration’ (05.02.1967) link: https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/nyerere/1967/arusha-declaration.htm

Trudea, Justin – ‘Victory Speech’ (20.10.2015) link: http://www.macleans.ca/politics/ottawa/justin-trudeau-for-the-record-we-beat-fear-with-hope/

Walker, Hunter – ‘Donald Trump just released an epic statement raging against Mexican immigrants and ‘disease’ (06.07.2015) link: http://uk.businessinsider.com/donald-trumps-epic-statement-on-mexico-2015-7?r=US&IR=T

Wintour, Patrick – ‘Nigel Farage: Ukip wants five-year ban on immigrants settling in UK’ (07.01.2014) link:  http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/jan/07/ukip-ban-immigrants-nigel-farage

Winne – ‘Zambia: Interview with Dr. Kenneth Kaunda’  (14.04.2015) link: http://www.winne.com/zm/interviews/dr-kenneth-kaunda

Wilders, Geert – ‘EXCLUSIVE – Geert Wilders: Stopping Islamic Immigration Is a Matter of Survival’ (09.02.2016) link: http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2016/02/09/stopping-islamic-immigration-is-a-matter-of-survival/

Worrall, Patrick – ‘FactCheck: Nigel Farage’s Ukip conference speech’ (20.09.2013) link: http://blogs.channel4.com/factcheck/factcheck-nigel-farages-ukip-conference-speech/15888

WikiLeaks – The interesting times of the Derg(or the Dirg) in the 70s Ethiopia

Mengistu_Book-Cover2_inside

This is maybe my longest blogpost in history and I am sure I’m not going to compete with this one. There was just so much juicy information about a time in Ethiopian history which is not really discussed or talked about. This documents and briefing’s from the American Embassy and Reftels that was sent to the US is telling a story that is interesting today. I personally have much more knowledge about Meles Zenawi and post him, then the time before. It has been discussed in certain books that I have read on the political history on the Great Empire of Ethiopia. What often portrayed about this time is very blurry. With this stories that I have found on WikiLeaks, they might shine a light and give some of the other ones who read my blog some new insights to special time in Ethiopia. This is at the time of the rule of the Derg and the PMC Chairman Lt. Gen Haile-Mariam Mengistu!

  1. November 1974:

The DERG executed 62 civilians, military detainees and hostages. Some of this people is the once that are involved in the top officials who are supposed to topple the PMC. One of the men who is supposed to executed are General Aman former Chairman of PMC, Also Prime Minister Endalkachew Makonnen, the Emperor’s grandson Admiral Desta. The one not on the list is the former Emperor Haile Selassie (WikiLeaks, 1974).

This happened because of an inner struggle for power between General Aman and Haile Miriam Mengistu, the last mention is the one that is suspected to inherit the title after General Aman. Amans strategy has been to collect his supporters and especially from his own area in Eritrea. Second part of it Pro-Monarchist has used Aman to stage a comeback. Third is too reduce the 120-man membership to 15 best educated junior officers, this to have a Junta especially made for General Aman. Fourth strategy is the disagreement over Eritrea. Where the PMC has stepped up the military actions and the PMC is not for a separate state as a solution and has sent reinforcement to secure the military situation. Fifth strategy for General Aman struggled because of his close ties to Haile Selassie. Haile Selassie is held at the Menilik Palace. Another press report is rumored that he will be executed (WikiLeaks, 1974).

Who is Haile Miriam Mengistu?

Was the official VC in the Provisional Military Commission (PMC), he is the chairman of the Armed Forces Coordinating Committee (AFCC). This has been in control since June in Ethiopia. HMM is an ordinance officer, a training officer of the 4th division in Addis Abeba (WikiLeaks, 1974).

The thing that is fearful for the American views of what is happening in Ethiopia. Soviet is trying to supplies and arms to the country (WikiLeaks, 1974).

25th November 1974:

This power struggle that happen on the 24th November happen a fight between Aman and the PMC. The foreign policy is still not certain. But first manifestation of this is the follow up on the Soviet offer of military equipment a few months ago (WikiLeaks, 1974).

30th January 1975 – Land Reform:

In a Land Reform seminar that was a two week this was opened at the National University (former Haile Selassie I University). There was 900 civilians, 400 military participants that was briefed by 28 expert lectures and 15 other military and civilian speakers. The experts and speakers spoke on topics of socialist programs and ‘administration of land and land reform’. PMAC Mengistu termed the participants “disciples of change”. Mengistu said that all of them carried the responsibility of building a greater Ethiopia. Minister of Land Reform Ato Zegeye Asfaw said: “Socialist Ethiopia will give land to the tiller and collective farms and communes will take care of the land and its utilization for the common good of the people” (WikiLeaks, 1975).

18th February 1975:

Heavy fighting has occurred in Asmara at the 18th. The attacks we’re concentrated on the Ethiopian Military Installation but also the American-Run Electricity generator in the other side of town (WikiLeaks, 1975).

There we’re two more demonstrations for Pro-Provisional Military Government in Addis Abeba that day. One was made out of war-veterans and the second one is in benefit of OAU, but both demonstrations was for the Ethiopian Unity. PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu hold a speech in from of the veterans – where the main focus was to keep Eritrea as a region in Ethiopia (WikiLeaks, 1975).

The PMG has announced to confiscate land from 7 former Ethiopian ambassadors this include Zewde Gebre Selassie, this is because of their rejecting to move back to Ethiopia. Zedwe has now been changed with Kifle Wodajo who now is the Ethiopian Ambassador to the US (WikiLeaks, 1975).

22nd July 1975:

On the 18th of July a three day delegation led by Louis Reyes, Cuban Ambassador to Iran and EPMG official has signed a joint communique for diplomatic relations. Reyes said: “the historic victory of the Ethiopian people can serve as an example to Africa and the rest of the World”. Maj Mengistu said: “there is a lot Ethiopia can benefit from your Cuban experience” (WikiLeaks, 1975).

2nd Octorber 1975:

There is friction between Chairman Teferi Bante, First Vice-Chairman Haile Miriam Mengistu and Second Vice-Chairman Lt. Col Atafu Abate. The second echelon Viz. Major Sisay Habate and Lt. Col Asrate Desta (WikiLeaks, 1975).

In the last year there been two major coup plots. The two main people against the government, first student development campaign from E.G. Major Kiros Alemayehu and the one in charge of media – Major Nadew Zekarias (WikiLeaks, 1975).

The Derg has struggled with price-control and minerals exploration (financial restraint).The government has been civilian administrative structure down to Woreda(county level). The civilian cabinet has been stable. Below the ministers is now permanent secretary (department manager) and vice-ministers (the same as assistant secretaries). The government is still not consulting the technical experts before public policy statements. They have even announced without checking with Urban Land Reform. Future policy decisions are for rural land reform, nationalization of banks and insurance agencies etc. Also getting less technicians in government to get consensus (Wikipedia, 1975).

22nd October 1975:

Addis has been tense the last three days after rumors of tension between Mengistu and Atenafu. This has threats to dissolve the military council and either both or one of them are arrested. The view the Derg shows the picture of unity to the public (WikiLeaks, 1975).

21st April 1976:

PMAC First Vice-Chairman Major Haile Miriam Mengistu had his first national speech on both Ethiopian radio and TV.

The main points of the speech was how the feudal system of both Menelik and Haile Selassie.

  • The imperialist has used various techniques infiltrating the system with missionaries, teachers, merchants and entrepreneurs, government advisers and experts.
  • The Ethiopian Revolution have accomplished the deposition of former emperor, declaration of socialism, nationalization of means of production and distribution like rural land, urban land and extra houses. A new labor law and formation of Peasant association.
  • Mengistu announced to the public that their scientifically working on making Ethiopia a People’s Democratic Republic.
  • New national democratic revolutionary program to liberate the people from imperialism, neo-colonialism and feudalism – grant democratic freedom to friends of the revolution…
  • Addressed the Eritrean problem and called them out as exiled aristocrats and foreign imperialist, only reactionary bandits there.
  • Mengistu also addressed people in the country side and progressive workers to form a United Front to work against Anti-Revolutionaries.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

22nd April 1976: Ethiopian revolution to continue:

Vice Chairman Mengistu has asked for continuing support for it, that authority from center to the provinces. Also still no recognition of the Eritrea which is a special case.

Important part of the programs:

The program is based on far-left militants and also on a Marxist model, and a Workers party is created, which is supreme and has to govern operation of the government. Also the focus on class struggles.

  • Public sector is to becoming bigger and private farms will get more government support.
  • Nationalization of both production and distribution with private incentives are enhanced.
  • Veterans are now offered financial, educational and health benefits.
  • Woman are mobilized for productive work and freed from limited roles that have been available for them.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

The Ethiopians problems will be tackled from the devolution from the center of main authority. The Eritrean problem is still not questioned in a special way, it’s seen as a provincial issue. The foreign policy of Ethiopia is remained unchanged (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th April 1976:

There been unauthorized demonstration that was followed by government warning against “progressive” that takes control over shops and private business. There been attempting of looting stores and shops near Addis Abeba, in Nazareth and Debra Zeit (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Because of this Mengistu has promised free speech and freedom to demonstrate. This led to unreasonable behavior from the public that has threatened the public order. Mengistu himself has said their promoting: “raising revolutionary consciousness of the masses”. The hope is that the Ethiopian Easter weekend which is a family and religious affair which will lead to more calm and less tension – which will last over the weekend (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th May 1976:

Megistu has had a MediVac to China on the 20th May. What Haile Mariam Mengistu is expected to have it can either be gastritis which can lead to stomach cancer; he could have a brain tumor and also hurt after a gun wound. The unscheduled flight from Bole Airport went at night 22:00 – where it was reported to leave for China. Lt. Col. Atnafu returned to Addis Abeba from Gojjam (WikiLeaks, 1976).

10th September 1976 – Condolences for Mao’s Death:

The Ethiopians sent messages of condolences to Wu The and Hua Kuo Feng. The leaders of the revolution are also being in the Chinese Embassy signing in the condolence book. The message from the leaders is setting Mao on the levels of Marx, Engels and Lenin (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th September 1976 – Assassination attempt: 

Eyewitnesses tell that there were automatic weapons firing that happened near a football Stadium at 2025 from two civilian automobiles. One was moving west from the revolutionary square. They fired both in the air until they turned south past fourth division headquarters. The followed by an explosion and another further down the road a few minutes later. A dozen store windows broken after the shooting. Following the incidence the EPMG put up a road block in the intersection surrounding the area. All vehicles and passengers are being searched. The roadblocks were taken away the day after (WikiLeaks, 1976).

25th September 1976:

Heavy military control in Addis Abeba this morning after yesterday’s incidence. There has been big patrol activity after the attempted on Haile Miriam Mengistu the day before. Rumors have it that Mengistu has been injured in either leg or foot (WikiLeaks, 1976).

26th September 1976 a staged morning Workers-Rally:

Before the staged morning Workers-Rally there been an ambush on Haile Meriam Mengistu the 23th September. Which wounded him and this lead to Peasant Associations and urban dwellers to meet in the Revolution square in solidarity. It was a four hour event, which was hold tight by armed guards where the speakers spoke on the importance of keeping up the efforts of the revolution. Next troubled date for the PMC will be the 28th when schools reopen (WikiLeaks, 1976).

CIA involvement in Anti-Regime activity:

CIA is supposed to be supporting Placards and EPRP. News broadcast is saying: “EPRP is Cia”(…)”Away with CIA agents, disguised as tourist”(…)”paid CIA agents”(…)”Yankees go home”(…)”No more chills and CIA” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

29th September 1976:

Some rumors has been spread that it was a fake assassination attempt on Mengistu. This happening after the rally is to make him a hero. Also put restraints on the EPRP as a CIA front. There is issued more strikes. It will also be occurring more executions even though none of the would-be assassins. PMAC has gotten more support from the rallies and media this is from the peasants groups and workers. The reaction to it has put EPRP who has been seen as responsible for the attempt. Students might make trouble without the EPRP assistance. The violence of this last week might end up some calm this week (WikiLeaks, 1976).

29th September 1976:

Izvestiya reports also that there was an assassination attempt on PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu. Also, there was one important sign in one of the demonstrations in Addis: “bring CIA intrigues to an end” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Mengistu

3rd November 1976 – Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization (AAPS) Conference:

At the conference it was a total of 7,000 or 8,000 peaceful Ethiopian attendance mid-afternoon rally to support and also show solidarity to Southern Africa. Chairman Ato Tesfaye Tadesse who introduced AAPS Second General Yousef El-Sabat, Iraqi Deputy Secretary-General of AASP Nouri Abdel Razzak, Secretary General of ANC Alfred Nzo, Crypriot Dr. Vasses Lyssarides, Soviet Pressidum member Figret Tabeev, Angolan representative Dr. Olga Lina, Vietnamese representative Tran Hoai-Nam, Cuban delegate Ramos Claudis, Yemen representative Anis Hassen Yahya, West German Committee of Anti-Imperialists solidarity delegate  Peter Wal and Delegate of Western European Public Organization Conon Gor (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Main rhetoric from the conference is against racism, imperialism, oppression, praising the Ethiopian socialist revolution and hospitality. We’re they also was supporting complete liberation of Southern Africa. The Vietnamese, Angolan, Cuban and the ANC did not mention the US during the conference. While other made references to the economic ties between Southern Africa and the US. The delegates from abroad are set to establish legitimacy for the PMAC and Mengistu (WikiLeaks, 1976).

2nd May 1977 – TV interview of Haile Meriam Mengistu: 

He will be interviewed by French and Swedish journalists and will be aired on French TV. One of the main questions was related to the Expulsion of U.S. Official Personnel last week. Mengstu has answered to that U.S. agencies whose activities has been terminated and were in Ethiopian on the basis of old agreements with Haile Selassie. The revolution is now clearing out the leftovers from the imperial era (WikiLeaks, 1977).

17th May 1977:

Ethiopian-Vietnamese relations are strong, especially considering the wish from the Ethiopians of getting former U.S. Military equipment from the Vietnamese. There been secret visits from Ethiopian officials to Vietnam. There is not sure if the Vietnamese will support EPMG. A support with to the Ethiopians … they can complicate their relations with PRC and the US (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th May 1977:

Claude Cheysson from the EEC and was a part of a three person delegation to Addis Abeba the 18th -20th of May. PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu signed a 30 million Birr aid accord during the visit. This aid accord was based for a rural water development project. This aid accord is part of the already with 280 million birr that will be available for the government of Ethiopia. The EEC program mission was completed in the June of 1976. Then there was put aside 100 million birr. The Amibara agriculture development project which has a aid accord accordingly to be set for a 35 million birr. The EEC follows the guidelines of determines which projects that gets funding. Foreign Affairs minister Col. Dr. Felleke Gedle-Ghorghis: “the government gives priority to rural development. Particularly agriculture, which employs vast majority of the Ethiopian people” (…)” Multi-purpose package programs which provides support to small holder farms through extension, livestock and range development projects”. The projects will be mostly into a agricultural sector, either development with infrastructure like rural roads. Also projects that are about industrial development which is focused on the output of agricultural produce. 10 percent of all the development is going to other then national development but for projects for regional projects. This kind of projects is the once that are on the Lake Rudolph and the Omo to develop tourism (WikiLeaks, 1977).

29th May 1977 – Speech to the Naval College and Military academy gradution:

(This was happing at the Jubilee Palace – Former palace of the Emperor Haile Selassie).

Chairman Lt. Col. Haile Mariam Mengistu saying: “there will be no problem with regard to arms”. Further comments from the Soviet Union and that helped and “won high benefits” because of the Ethiopian revolution. Fear from “reactionary of neighboring areas”. Mengistu focused on the responsibilities to the motherland, secure national unity and also territorial integrity. He characterized American imperialism as an arch enemy and is now in league with reactionary Arab regimes. American imperialism he says: “by cutting its arms aid” (…)”now it’s time when we have to crush anti-revolutionary encirclement with unity and determination stronger then steel and hoist a new banner of victory at price of our blood”. On Djibouti want to forge a stronger relationship with: “neighboring reactionary forces” (…)”to withstand any and every step which might be contrary to national interests of Ethiopia in Djibouti” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

30th May 1977: Meeting with the Egyptian ambassador.  

The position of Ethiopia is that Mengistu is not strong, but if he can last until September, then he can be in a stronger position. PMAC Mengistu has to be effective with the use of the peasant army which is now in training. The peasant army will not be used in Bale-Ogaden region because of the Somali tribesman and the semi-desert where the army would be a disadvantage towards them. The result of the guerrilla war has hurt Ethiopian army and the Ethiopian situation in Bale-Ogaden has been bad for them. Some even describe it as a “bloodbath”. With this situation the civilian-military relationships in Addis could become tense. The Civilians might even use the peasant military army and Kebele Defense Forces to make a move against PMAC. Mengistu went on a two-day visit Libya after being in Moscow; this was to secure funding of Soviet War Material. This is to secure shipment of heavy weaponry from Libya to Ethiopia. Also a possibility for Cuban forces into Eritrea (WikiLeaks, 1977).

17th June 1977:

The East German Politburo member Werner Lamberz together with a two Foreign Affair deputy minister Willerding, Foreign trade deputy minister Clausnitzer, Deputy Planning Commission Chairman Dieter Albrecht and several other SED-Central Committee members. They are on a visit as a delegation from the 13th to the 17th in Addis Abeba (WikiLeaks, 1977).

This delegation has had lengthy discussion with PMAC Chairman Haile Mariam Mengistu and PMAC Second Gen. Capt. Fikre-Selassie Wogderess at both FONMIN and National Palace. Also the delegation went on a inspection tour of the Siga Meda military training (WikiLeaks, 1977).

The Soviet Union has made a EPMG a priority and until this date, been spending great funds on the banking on it and hoping for solidarity, some free advice and also high levels visits. On the negative side the Ethiopian put up a front to the Somali Ambassador during the 15th July. This hasn’t served the Soviet Block interests, and can only lead to more polarization between the Soviet clients in the Horn (WikiLeaks, 1977).

22nd June 1977:

On the OAU African Refugees day on the 20th June Haile Mariam Mengistu called upon the OAU members to ratify OAU convention on African Refugees. At the same time he urged Ethiopian refugees to return home without fear of retribution. Mengistu noted that there is special cases and need efforts in Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa (WikiLeaks, 1977).

UN High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR):

There been movement from Somalia and Ethiopia. Eritrean youth, one identified as Kidane Kibrom has stayed in Hargeisa and El Garis Ethiopian Refugee Camps where has for the last 14 months. Kibrom claims 118 Ethiopians has had a hunger-strike in the camps for lack of jobs and training. UNHCR is claiming that the funds they have put for the camp is being used for other purposes then the camp (WikiLeaks, 1977).

6th July 1977 – Mengistu on the Middle East:

Mengistu on the settlement on the Middle East question is that Israel should be recognized, but also a quick withdrawal of forces from the Arab territories since 1967. Also added the Palestinian people have a right to a homeland, but must be a peaceful means in a peaceful settlement (WikiLeaks, 1977).

7th July 1977 – OAU statements: 

Lt. Col Haile Mariam Mengistu was not interested in the interference from Somalia and Sudan on Ethiopian affairs. Mengistu was committed to “special committee” on the problems between Sudan and Ethiopia. This will solve the matter in a way Ethiopia sees fit. Like on the Eritrean question: the position they have is that Sudan wants to assure them independence. Mengistu met with 5 of 9 states in the committee to discredit by most OAU. Mengistu did say at the summit that there was a difference between Sudan and Somalia as problem makers. The Somalian view on rule of law is a total disgrace and has a long standing territorial claim. Where the Ethiopian issue with Sudan is more of a Sudanese leaders where they undermine the Ethiopian unity and territorial integrity (WikiLeaks, 1977).

15th July 1977;

On the 14th of July there has been report of movements from the Ethiopian army. The reports are saying that the army has left the base of Tatek Meda Training base going to Eritrea and Ogaden. The number of army personnel is 83 bus loads of militia bound for Assab. EPMG is reported to reverse the actions in Northern Eritrea, but its most likely to be sent to Massawa. A small contingent of regular army has been sent to Asmara from Jimma in the Southwest Ethiopia. There are even reports of more army movements. The numbers of movement is 16 planeloads (some of them was aircrafts including some 720 BS), even militias are planned to be moved to Dire Dawa. Most of the bridges and highways to Dire Dawa are out of order. Therefore the trainload of 25 cars apparently left Addis Abeba but they will not come whole way directly to the destination of Dire Dawa. They have to hike the rest of the way when the rails are done (WikiLeaks, 1977).

19th July 1977:

Mengistu called in the French Ambassador after seeing the ambassadors from east European countries in Addis Abeba. In this meeting with the eastern European ambassadors he told about the bad situation in Eritrea with the fall of cities of Keren and Decamere. He even complained about the aid the Soviets did not give to Ethiopia. Mengistu also claimed that Somalia Army Units has crossed over the border into the Ogaden. The French ambassador considered the war already had begun. The Romanian Ambassador added that Mengistu had said “Opposition-Controlled the territory including the Omo-Valley and the city of Beica 50 kilometers from the Sudanese border”. Mengistu also claimed that the Eritrean “liberation forces” has gained triple strength because of support from Sudan and Saudi Arabia (WikiLeaks, 1977).

23rd July 1977:

The issues that Djibouti has by the border to Ethiopia are making a lot of trouble. From Sudan has given a non-flight and also no overflight rights for any Ethiopian Registered Aircraft (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Further PMC Lt. Col Haile Mariam Mengistu has received at Grand Palace Issa representative who has described the Somalia attacks as “calculated criminal act on the part of Mogadishu regime”. The Patriotic Media is telling victories stories of Ethiopian revolution and the continued call for voluntary contribution to the campaign (WikiLeaks, 1977).

There seems to sabotage on the Addis Abeba to Djibouti railway. After the Somalian Mogadishu based government has sent infiltrators to blow up bridges along the railway. Though the Sudanese doesn’t seem eager to comply to Mengistu accusation of closing the airspace (WikiLeaks, 1977) .

Issa representative comments: “acts of provocation for the consequence, of which Ethiopia should not be held responsible, reactionary regimes of Sudan and Somalia fully responsible for the deterioration of peace and security in Eastern Horn of Africa” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

From the 25 of June 1977: the final stages of military training of the People’s Militia to fight against the Western-Somali Liberation Front. The Ethiopian People’s Militia fights for peace and stability on the African horn. On the 25th of June the military contribution gets a one-month salary over the one year campaign (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th July 1977:

PMAC Haile-Mariam Mengistu has from the 23th of July coordinated the Armed Forces and People’s Militia. The Headquarters are set in Harar for the fighting in Eastern Ethiopia and in the northern Ethiopia are located in Asmara. Because of this there was appointed 3 new Joint Commands and 4 new division commanders (WikiLeaks, 1977).

5th August 1977: U.S. Arms assistance to Somalia:

PMC Haile Mariam Mengistu is not happy with the arms supply of Somalia which is seen as a foreign threat. Mengistu stated that the U.S. relationship had with previous government – described as a close cooperation in economic and defense. He had no intention of criticizing the US Government. US failure takes seriousness of Ethiopian security. In Emperors time with Sudan Government used Socialist arms from USSR and China to support secessionist movements in the North. Somalia was amassing arms from the USSR, they have 300 tanks. When Ethiopia asked for help from US Government they got empty handed. Ethiopian has reserved and has no actions towards US. What damaged Ethiopian image was the example of Spencer and Levine who helped Anti-Revolutionary feudalists to flee to Sudan and supplying them with American arms. Mengistu said that EPMG can no longer rely on US supplies. This is to protect independence and national integrity and will look elsewhere for arms. Ethiopia sees this to keep territorial integrity and fear of aggression from its neighbors that the US Government now supports (WikiLeaks, 1977).

8th August 1977:

Former Ethiopian Foreign Minister Kifle Wodajo together with ex-minister Gedamu Tesfare thinks that the west is judging Soviets possibilities to settle the differences between Somalia and Ethiopia. What is important for Mengistu is the power and not Ethiopian nationalism, even with the growing pressure from the Soviet. Even the agents within the Revolutionary Council are partly open to give up parts of the Ogaden. Somalia claims to a larger area then only Ogaden. The set up will be to give the most of of the Ogaden. Kifle believes that the Soviet can on the contrary to the western believe that the war between Somalia and Ethiopian can be solved to Soviets advantages. Even the regimes terror tactics is silences the public (WikiLeaks, 1977).

9th August 1977:

Moscow is seeking to save the Pro-Soviet regime of Lt.Col. Haile Meriam Mengistu from being overthrown or collapsing, especially with last military defeats like the ones in the Northern Province of Eritrea and the disputed region of Ogaden along with the Somalian border. There is a claim is that the Soviet has a deal in order for both Somalia and Ethiopia. This deal will give the most of Ogaden to the Somalia but the significant towns of Harrar and Dire Dawa gets to stay Ethiopian. There has been reaction on the issue from the Somalia President Mohamed Siad Barre. Instead it seems more like the Western Somalia Liberation is supported by the Somalian Government. On next Thursday there will be a special mediating committee of 10 African countries in Libreville, Gabon, where delegation from both Somalia and Ethiopia. Spokesman from Western Somalia Liberation Front says: “we do not expect any pressure and even if they do this, we will not accept it” (…)”out lands extends up to the Awash river and we are not going to compromise. We are going to take back all of our land” (…)”under no circumstances can we stop before taking Harrar and Dire Dawa” (…)”today that Somali territorial claims covered all of the Ethiopia’s four southeastern provinces of Bale, Sidamo, Arrusi and Harrarghe and are not limited to Ogaden region itself”. The disputed area of the Somalia and Ethiopia is 1/3 of the land mass Ethiopia and the equivalent of half of Somalia. The issue that Soviet has that they want to continue two have to Marxist states and not lose either. And with the nationalism in both countries it will be a feat to keep Mengistu in power when losing all that land. Ethiopia claims that Somalia has gone in will full-scale invasion from regular Somali Army Units. The Somalian Government denies this but says that the Front’s army is 30,000-man guerrilla. At the same time the goals and claims of territory from Somalia is the same from both government and the guerrillas (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th August 1977:

Chairman Lt. Col Mengistu said during a patriotic rally on 24th August. That Ethiopian revolution is supposed to bring equality, justice, democracy and a classless society. Mengistu was also addressing certain groups as masquerading as progressive but in reality is “anti-people” the groups is expected to be EPRP and EDU. Also he was direct on the Eritrean secessionist which he called aristocratic and ex-patriotic control over Eritrean production. External enemies are set to be Bare and Somalis (WikiLeaks, 1977).

29th August 1977:

Outtake from the Ethiopian Herald August 28th:

“It sad commentary that even USA which championed Ethiopia’s rights in 1935, has today betrayed its own cardinal principles, and reward aggression by refusing to deliver weapons bought by Ethiopia for it own defence. Such attitudes will only add fuel to the flame and disturb international peace and security. Indeed it is an unwise act from so great a height” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

If the US Government wishes to have a normalized bilateral relationship with the Ethiopian government, then it has to become a link between two. Especially with Ethiopian sending a ambassador they intend to send to Washington (WikiLeaks, 1977).

31th August 1977:

There have recently been small insurgencies from Somalia in Ogaden region. Ogaden region is in flames. Policies been announced on the 10th and 17th from the State Department Spokesman. The ambassador (the U.S.) is refraining from supplying arms to Somalia. Further on thinks the ambassador that the U.S. government should not take sides in this dispute between Ethiopia and Somalia. Berhanu Bayeh says that the immediate concern is that US Weapon and spare parts. The holdings of arms have been occurring during the last ten years. Because of that the people of Ogaden has suffered because of this. The Ethiopian Army has gone after the invaders, but has issues with having equipment. Now lacking the defensive arms that Ethiopian army gotten earlier from the US Government. Mengistu wasn’t in the way of ordering new shipments of arms. This was more honoring older contracts and sending both ammo and spare parts to the Ethiopian Army. Also, that the arms would be delivered and resumed immediately (WikiLeaks, 1977).

There has been official Ethiopian Ambassador in Washington, USA. This is since 10. February 1975 (WikiLeaks, 1977).

19th September 1977:

There been rotations and new appointments in the government there is 32 who are both civilian and military that are changing positions. This is three ministers, an Armed Force Chief, Air Force Commander and 16 Ambassador-designated (WikiLeaks, 1977).

4th October 1977:

The Nigerian Federal Commissioner for Internal Affairs Alhaji Umaru Shinkafi was in Addis Abeba the 3rd October. The Nigerian President Gen Olusegun Obasanjo sent a special message to PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu. In that message it was details on his mission to establish normal relations between Somalia and Ethiopia. Make sure that they follow the good progress for the meetings in Gabon in August and follow up these. Still with these negotiations happening there is still heavy fighting in the Ogaden. Ethiopia will like the Nigerian efforts both for Inter-African but also on an international perspective (WikiLeaks, 1977).

31st October 1977:

Cuban Foreign Minister Malmierca is reporting that Mengistu will shortly take a trip to Cuba to meet Castro. This will escalate the presence of Cubans in Ethiopia and might make a difference in the friendship between the nations. This visit from Mengistu might not deliver any change to the relationship if the comments from US Policy Advisor Alfredo Ramirez Otero. Even Castro doesn’t have a specialty for Africa in any way politicially. The Cubans has already a tiny presence in 300 “teachers”. There is a big possibility that the Cubans have forces fighting the Somalian for the Ethiopians. The Cubans want to have talks between the Government of Somalia and the Government of Ethiopia. It is accepted that the Soviet and Cubans have told Mengistu has to show moderation towards the US. The Cubans are opposing the struggle against the Ogaden and the Eritrean. Malmierca has said “that the Ethiopian and Somalian should get into some talks” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th November 1977:

The Ethiopian Foreign Minister Felleke Gedle-Ghiogis will be in Sierra Leone for a OAU Ethio-Sudan Committee meeting (WikiLeaks, 1977).

28th November 1977 – Italian Communist Party visit Addis:

The Italian Communist Party has favored the Ethiopia over Somalia. Italian Communist leader Giancarlo Pajetta a MP in Italy has visited Ethiopia. The plan was made by Berlinguer and a Derg Representative. It was on the 60th Anniversary celebration in early November in Moscow. The Italian Communist Party has been unsure about the Ogaden war and the Ethiopian Revolution. The Italians have traditionally supported the Somalia’s and the road to Socialism and the alliance with Moscow. Because of the visit they now show their full support of Ethiopians. Pajetta feels the PMC Mengistu devotion to the world communist cause. The Italians has tried to get the Ethiopians to have talks with the Somalis. The Ethiopians will not discuss anything with them until the forces from Somalia are out of the territory. Pajetta had hope that the friendship with Ethiopia would open it up talks. The visit of Pajetta most important effect is that the PMC will have the Moscow support of EPMG and also support the Eritrean liberation force PLF. They want to give them autonomy from Addis. There have also been no words that Pajetta also went to Mogadishu (WikiLeaks, 1977).

14th December 1977:

Haile Mariam Mengistu told two U.S. congressmen: “it is not our objective to cross our borders once we have thrown the Somalis out of Ethiopia. We intend to repeat the same mistake as the Somalis”. Mengistu stated further: “Policy of non-aligment” (…)”Peace, equality and social justice” (…)”A struggle is going on at every level between those who would like to see the old reinstituted and those who are determined to protect the revolution” (…)”intent and the objective of the revolution have been remain the restoration of Human Rights to the greatest majority of the Ethiopian people”. Representative Bonk from the congress is hoping for a peaceful solution in the Ogaden region, the Chairman of the PMC Mengistu said it wasn’t necessary to involve the OAU in the conflict (WikiLeaks, 1977).

24th December 1977:

Said Barre went on a visit to Madagascar where he hold a speech at the international airport in Antananarivo where the message was “Other party (Ethiopia)” should also come to Madagascar. Barre said the talks with the Madagascar government officials where he said: “the great questions of today notably concerning eastern Africa, the Somali-Ethiopian conflict, Somali-Malagasy relation” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Hope this have given you some insights and been inspiring!

Peace!

Links:

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIA AND CUBA ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS’ (22.07.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS08717_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SHAKE-UP IN TOP MILITARY COMMAND STRUCTURE’ (25.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04505_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NEW HIGH-LEVEL CIVILIAN AND MILITARY APPOINTMENTS’ (19.09.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05529_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘LAND REFORM SEMINAR OPENS IN ADDIS ABABA’ (30.01.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS01173_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘REPORTS OF MILITIA MOVEMENTS TO COMBAT AREAS’ (15.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04332_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NIGERIAN EFFORT TO MEDIATE HORN CONFLICT’ (04.10.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05786_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PROPOSED ITINERARY FOR VISIT TO THE HORN: ETHIOPIA’ (25.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06574_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF SOMALI PRESIDENT TO MADAGASCAR;’ (24.12.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ANTANA02363_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN REACTION TO MAO DEATH’ (10.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10196_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SOVIET PRESS SUMMARY – SEPT 29’ (29.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976MOSCOW15363_b.html

WikiLeaks –‘SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AS OF 1500 HOURS (EST) FEB. 19, 1975’ (19.02.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975STATE036564_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VIETNAM MESSAGE OF SUPPORT FOR ETHIOPIA’ (17.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03091_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONVERSATION WITH EGYPTIAN AMBASSADOR’ (30.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03366_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘EAST GERMAN PARTY-GOVERNMENT DELEGATION VISIT TO ETHIOPIA’ (17.06.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03805_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS DENIES’ (09.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977STATE187303_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF EEC REPRESENTATIVE – CLAUDE CHEYSSON’ (26.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03305_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ENCIRCLEMENT CONSPIRACY CONDEMNED AS DEFENSE CAMPAIGN PREPARATIONS CONTINUE’ (23.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03917_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘FRENCH AMBASSADOR IN ADDIS ON MENGITSU BRIEFING’ (19.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977MOSCOW10403_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘THE HORN AS SEEN BY FORMER ETHIOPIAN OFFICIAL’ (08.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977PARIS22990_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF HIGH-LEVEL ETHIOPIAN DELEGATION’ (31.10.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977HAVANA00485_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘TENSIONS AGAIN PEAKING IN THE DIRG?’ (22.04.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS12499_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SITUATION IN ADDIS’ (24.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04909_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘AFTERMATH OF SEPT 26 RALLY’ (29.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10614_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ITALIAN COMMUNIST PARTY DELEGATION AFFIRMS SUPPORT OF ETHIOPIAN SOCIALIST REVOLUTION’ (28.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06603_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘INR/AF ASSESSMENT OF ETHIOPIAN SITUATION’ (25.11.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974STATE259383_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN POSITION ON MIDDLE EAST SETTLEMENT’ (06.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04154_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘WOUNDED VICE CHAIRMAN GIVES PRESS CONERENCE’ (25.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10518_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN VIEWS ON REFUGEES’ (22.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03887_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC FIRST VICE CHAIRMAN ADDRESSES THE NATION/ SUMMARY’ (21.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04821_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MEETING WITH MENGISTU’ (29.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05172_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC CHAIRMAN MENGISTU SPEAKS MIND’ (25.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05132_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘AAPSO MASS RALLY AND DELEGATE MEETINGS WITH PMAC FIRST VICE-CHAIRMAN , MAJOR MENGISTU’ (03.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS11444_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘IS FIRST VICE-CHAIRMAN MENGISTU ILL?’ (24.05.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS06257_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MEETING WITH MENGISTU’ (31.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05227_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘REPORTED ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON MENGISTU’ (24.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10506_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MENGISTU SPEECH AND PROPOSALS AT OAU SUMMIT’ (07.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04183_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CHAIRMAN’S SPEECH AT NAVAL COLLEGE AND MILITARY ACADEMY GRADUATION’ (01.06.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03435_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC CHAIRMAN PROTESTS US ARMS ASSISTANCE TO SOMALIA’ (05.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04752_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PRESS RELEASE OF CODEL TSONGAS/BONKER FOLLOWING’ (14.12.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06851_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MENGISTU’S TV INTERVIEW’ (02.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS02738_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ANTI-CIA PLACARDS AGAIN EVIDENT DURING EPMG-STAGED SOLIDARITY RALLY’ (27.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10527_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC’S NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONARY PROGRAM: EMBASSY’S INITIAL COMMENTS’ (22.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04881_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONG. TESTIMONY: AF CONTRIBUTION TO Q AND A’S’ (28.11.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974STATE262329_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘THE DIRG AND THE GOVERNMENT’ (02.10.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS11773_b.html

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