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Rwanda: M.R.C.D. Rebel Sankara worked directly with Ugandan authorities!

On the 30th April 2019, the news of the arrest of Callixte Nsabimana, aka Sankara became public. As he was awaiting trial of his involvement in armed rebellion against the state. This was done from July 2018 under the outfit of the Mouvement Rwandais pour le Changement Democratique (M.R.C.D) or Rwandan Movement For Democratic Change (M.R.C.D), which he came from the National Forces of Liberation (FNL) part of this. Another rebel-group that has had and currently have military operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

All of this is now on trial, as the former Rebel is answering for his crimes. What is striking, is how openly he is claiming that Ugandan authorities helped them out. There was even promises of more from the CMI. This is clearly stating the facts of covert operations done and the meetings reported on earlier in the year, that the Ugandan authorities held meetings with DRC rebels to topple and cause havoc in Rwanda. This information comes directly from one of the parties, as the secrecy is now out.

“Terror suspect Callixte Nsabimana today appeared before Kacyiru Primary Court where he was charged with 16 terror-related crimes.The suspect pleaded guilty to all the charges but told court he only ordered attacks on security organs and not civilians” (…) “Nsabimana is now addressing court, starts by explaining circumstances under which the terror outfit to which he was leader attacked civilians in Southern Province last year. Nsabimana: We had given FNL specific instructions that whatever operation they launch, it should be about destroying bridges, ambush military cars, attack sector, district, police and military camps. When I was arrested and showed evidence of what had happened. I was shocked to see that six people were killed and most were women. After I saw the evidence, I made a decision that I would not to hide anything about FNL. I did not give them instructions to kill civilians and I take responsibility of my part in it. I would like to apologise to the President, the injured, the families of the ones that passed away and to Rwandans in general. From today on wards, I am done with FLN and whatever else they may do is on them not me. I have been working with people from the Intelligence in Burundi but to be specific, the government and military was not involved. They we’re not aware of our clandestine operations. We have met Ugandan military officials. There was a scheduled meeting with Brig. Gen Kandiho but on the day of the meeting, he had an emergency so he sent a Colonel. We requested for military and diplomatic support from Uganda and we got a positive answer. By the time of my arrest, our delegation was in the process of going back to Uganda to collect on the promise made by Chieftaincy of Military Intelligence. I apologise for the things I have done. I know the benefits of not making court go through a long unnecessary trial because most of my crimes are so damning and the evidence is overwhelming” (The New Times Rwanda, 23.05.2019).

I am not shocked or surprised that he would state this, that there been interest and that there been movement, where the Ugandan authorities have supported rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Is long well-known, as well, as there been knowledge of groups from Rwanda doing the same. So, its not like any of the states or their head of states is innocent on this matter.

What is more striking is the way its been said and documented, that the former rebel is saying this directly and without codes. His pinpointing directly at Kampala and CMI. Where he is even stating names to the Rwandan Court. That is what is more shocking, that he isn’t keeping it in, but revealing it to the public. What is also rare, is that the Rwandan Newspaper is stating what the Rwandan authorities at one point didn’t want to say. That they were attacked last year by the M.R.C.D. but now as they are weak and lost one of their leaders. They can reveal that matter too.

Surely, this is not an accident, but a mere reflection of the backroom, the shady underworld of the rebels and their arrangements with the various states. So that they can operate and even thrive. That is why, at one point, Sankara said he would topple Kagame. Something, he didn’t do, but instead will spend time behind bars for trying to do so.

There is surely more to this, as the group and outfit is still there. Just as the remains of the groups that it was combined off. What we only know, is the lingering questions, what was they about to collect and what was offered in the meetings? Not to talk about, how was they planning this and to what extent? Because, there is more underlying questions, which have been left unanswered. Except, that they might never tell, because its only the “high above” who knows that. Peace.

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Rwanda: M.R.C.D. rebel Sankara arrested and pending trial!

Callixte Sankara

In July 2018, the news of a new rebel group against Paul Kagame surfaced with rebels from all sorts of fractions combined their forces and made the Mouvement Rwandais pour le Changement Democratique (M.R.C.D) or Rwandan Movement For Democratic Change. This has at later date proclaimed that they have taken over land in Rwanda, which has never been verified. However, the same state has no trouble announcing the arrest of one of the key players in the movement. Today its now know, that Sankara is in custody of the authorities after rebelling against the Kigali based Government.

Sankara joined the MRCD as the one behind the Rwandese Revolutionary Movement (RRM), alas the strength of his work is surely not as powerful as his statements. Since, he is today on of the latest catches of the state. They are clearly celebrating the loss of one of the cadres, which will now suffer in custody of the state, as his proven enemy of the state and the President.

Rwandan dissident Callixte Nsabimana, aka Sankara, has been confirmed to be in Rwanda Investigation Bureau (RIB) custody, pending his criminal trial. Nsabimana has been wanted over several offenses committed on Rwandan territory, including the formation of an irregular armed group, complicity in committing terrorist acts, conspiracy, and incitement to commit terrorist acts, abduction, murder, and looting. RIB announces that Nsabimana’s case file will be submitted to the National Public Prosecution Authority in accordance with Rwandan criminal procedure law” (The New Times, Rwanda; 30.04.2019).

We have to see if the same state is able to catch the other people behind the group, which is former ex-FDLR Generals, the Conseil National pour le Renouveau et la Democratie (CNRD)-Ubwiyunge, Laurent Ndagijimana aka Wilson Irategeka. Whose location and existence is unknown. Since, these sort of operations are appearing the shadow-world and not the ones that is done in broad-daylight. Therefore, who knows how they captured Sankara.

However, they have done some co-operations or the rebel thought the could get away with it. Because of his stance against the President. This is not the ending, but the rebels are feeling the wrath of the state. The ones captured and taken in the Democratic Republic of Congo during the last few months. An now the infamous Sankara is in custody too. Peace.

Rwanda: Mouvement Rwandais pour le Changement Democratique (M.R.C.D.) – Press Release (19.03.2019)

Opinion: Museveni supported RNC and FDLR leaders extradited from the DRC to Rwanda!

There was a meeting in Uganda in December 2018 between Philemon Mateke and leaders from the FDLR and the RNC, which is both rebels working within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). These leaders got captured on the border between Uganda and the DRC late in December. That after the reported alleged meeting between them and the government official Mateke. Than, with a special message by President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni who wanted to find a lasting solution and use them for his means.

Therefore, this news must be a backfire to the meddling and the interference of Museveni in the DRC. As his supported people by the CMI and ISO isn’t that wise or smart. As they get captured and now weeks after. Are taken into custody by the Rwandan government. So, the squabble and in-fighting with the neighbour continues.

Latest report:

Le Forge Fils Bazeye, the spokesperson of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) rebels, who captured in December last year, was sneaked out by Rwandan agents. Bazeye, the rebel intelligence chief, has been in detention in the capital Kinshasa. On Friday last week, Rwandan agents paid off guards who were manning the prison and got him out. Meanwhile, Congo army also arrested Col Tawimbi Richard, a member of National Congress [RNC] headed by former Rwandan army chief of staff, Gen Kayumba Nyamwasa, who is based in South Africa” (edge.ug, 29.01.2019).

With this in mind, there is definitely more happening behind the scenes than we know. That there are plans and support behind closed doors. Where there are delivery and plans, as the militias gain strength and new reinforcement. They are able to be persistence and get weapons. This also, as the other groups has also said they are wanting to retaliate against Kigali and Kagame.

Therefore, there are more happening than we understand or can grasp. As there are more sinister powers being used by warlords and presidents, who are warlords with vast supported armies. They are using their connections and their missions, while they are giving way to militias to further their wealth and their power in the region. That is why the secret meeting of December 2018 and the aftermath. Says something about the things at play.

Where Museveni isn’t succeeding, but still playing with fire and creating instability, to ensure his vision and mission there. Gods knows how much violence and killings, he needs to gain before his time is over. Peace.

Rwanda: FDU-Inkingi – Illegal Detention of FDU-Inkingi Political Prisoners Extended (09.01.2019)

Opinion: Mzee is aiding the RNC and FDLR in the DRC!

Certainly, President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni is true to himself and his own personal gains. If there was someone to own and support militias within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Why do I say that, well, he earns fortunes on conflict minerals exported through Entebbe International Airport and gold refined in Entebbe as well. Therefore, the recent reports aren’t new in a way, but the senses of it.

In the past, Museveni has together with other neighbours supported the rebellion of M-23 and other outfits. It has been because of potential of exploits, but also direct control in the mineral rich Republic. That is what the President does to enrich himself on others suffering.

We can now, see from both Virunga Times and New Times, the connections and the way things are going. That Museveni are scheming again, this as in the recent months, FDLR or M.R.C.D. have attacked Rwandan soil. While the Group of Experts report from the UN on the 31st December 2018, proved a connection of support of the FDLR in Uganda. As the reported stated that, there was a meeting with Philemon Mateke, Uganda’s state minister for regional affairs, telling the objective from Museveni; while the FDLR operatives was later arrested on the border into DRC.

Here is the two important pieces of intelligence:

Indeed, this rigour on the part of the report’s authors is likely the reason that made Kayumba Nyamwasa sufficiently panicky to feel compelled to gather a few of his trusted partners in crime to think about ways to avert what is clearly an impending UN sanctions regime against him. Kayumba’s peronal assistant, Kennedy Gihana, and RNC financier Tribert Rujugiro’s publicist, David Himbara, were quickly mobilised and tasked with engaging media houses with the aim of undermining the UNGoE report, according to a source within top RNC circles. They were given talking points to deny that: Kayumba has ever travelled to the location of the operation base in the DRC; has any force anywhere; indeed, that he knows nothing of any “P5” formation” (Albert Rudatsimburwa – ‘Kayumba Nyamwasa in panic mode as sanctions loom’ 06.01.2019, link: https://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/kayumba-nyamwasa-panic-mode-sanctions-loom).

The objective, continued Museveni’s message, would be to gain support needed to popularize the rebellion in the international media and to bring attention to their shared cause. “Museveni is prepared to take the risk provided that they furnish him diplomatic cover that suggests that this is a broad-based rebel outfit with legitimate grievances,” according to an analyst familiar with politics of the region who happens to be aware of these goings-on” (…) “Most importantly, Museveni’s commitment for a “lasting solution” to their shared problem seemed to delight the representatives of the two outfits, who reassured the “messenger” that they were ready to close ranks in line with his guidance. As this website has reported, it is common practice for RNC senior officials to travel to Kampala where they are accorded protocol and armed security that at times is beyond what under normal circumstances is accorded even special visitors of the state. Indeed, their meetings with senior officials in security circles (particularly CMI and ISO) confirms that in the goals of FDLR and RNC, Museveni sees a shared interest worthy of serious investment” (James Wakabi – ‘MUSEVENI’S SUPPORT FOR RWANDA’S DISSIDENTS CONTINUES AS KAMPALA MEETING DETAILS REVEALED’ 07.01.2018, link: http://virungapost.com/2019/01/07/musevenis-support-for-rwandas-dissidents-continues-as-kampala-meeting-details-revealed/).

We know see, with these revelations, that there are conceptions and deceptions on the way. That both the militias, the government and the ones in-charge, planning and scheming behind closed doors. In meetings like gangsters and not keeping minutes, as they wants to get certain things out. That we see the activity and sponsorship directly from Museveni. This shows that he is gearing up again. For what real reason is not certain, until its revealed. What is clear, is that there is something sinister going-on. The Neighbours are sponsoring militias within the DRC and they are toying with each other with these forces for various of reasons and grievances. Who knows how this will end, but Museveni never stops to entertain these things, that is what is worrying. As he supporters and facilitate through Kisoro, Kasese and other places in Uganda, as the militias can cross easily into the porous borders there. Peace.

Opinion: Is it the FDLR attacking Rwanda… or is the M.R.C.D?

Are we now seeing a new spike in insurgency from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), as there have been in the past, which militants and rebels have entered the DRC from Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda to attack in Southern and Northern Kivu. This is something that has been going on for decades and several of militias and rebel outfits has sustained areas, where they are earning bountiful fortunes on the toils of despair in the region. That is well known, but still persists as the civilians and the public is paying the price for this.

However, this year, we have seen return of violent attacks, fatal of such inside the Rwanda. This from groups, which are connected with Rwandan nationals and supported there, earlier in the year, Mouvement Rwandais pour le Changement Democratique (M.R.C.D), who came as alliance between for ex-FDLR leaders, National Council for Renewal and Democracy (CNRD-UBWIYUNGE), Rwandese Revolutionary Movement (RRM and the Party for Democracy in Rwanda (PDR-IHUMURE). Who all came and was willing to attack Rwanda. That happen in June 2018, through the Burundian border at Cibitoka Province from the Kibra Forrest into the Nyungewe Forrest in Ruhengeri District. Where they caused havoc.

Now, over the weekend there is reports that across and around the border of Goma, there has been a tense situation as the FDLR/RNC have worked together and attacked the Rwandans. Killing two soldiers. These reports doesn’t match with other statements coming out.

Nilepost reports: “At least two Rwandan civilians were killed and eight injured when attackers set fire to three passenger vehicles in the southern Nyamagabe district, which borders Burundi, said a Rwandan army official. Army spokesman Innocent Munyengango said in a statement that the army is pursuing the attackers who retreated into Nyungwe Forest, a mountain rainforest area that is home to wild chimpanzees” (Nile Post News – ‘Two Killed in Attack in Rwanda, Near Border with Burundi’, 17.12.2018).

Some claims it is the FDLR in connection with Imbonerakure, the CNDD-FDD militant Youth-Wing, but that is just mere speculation at this point. There is an armed FDLR-Foca and the M.R.C.D. but how powerful they are is questionable at this point. Even as they have a history and has been able to train and mobilize troops in the past.

Why I am thinking this, because it was the alliance of the M.R.C.D that promise to assault and overthrow Kagame, not the dispatched FDLR, the FDLR-Foca has enough havoc to do inside the DRC. With this in mind, with the news of a new insurgency, it seems like the former ex-FDLR with the M.R.C.D is up to something in Rwanda. As they did earlier in the year too. Since they are following the same pattern.

What is also striking is the border tension with Goma, which is on the other side of the Rwandan Republic, which means that is a whole other group. That means they would attack into Gisenyi or similar. Because through the forest your closer to Bukavu, than to Goma. Since Gisenyi and the Nyungewe forest is far apart. Seems like there is two different operations going on. Unless, they are trying to spark a flood of attack on two borders, to stretch the army of Rwanda. However, then you need man-power to have the ability. That is another ballgame.

We cannot know yet, but there mere speculation can begin, as the Rwandan and militants are secretive organizations. Who only claim something if they have something to gain. We have to see, also if the Burundian government want to counter-claim the rumors of Imbonerakure involvement. Nevertheless, that we cannot be prove per now. Peace.

Opinion: Is Kagame’s Ghosts Coming to Haunt him?

Callixte Sankara

In exile, I was the one who spoke real loudly about the Rwanda genocide—the Rwandan genocide; not two genocides. . . . If we Rwandans don’t reconcile, and sit down honestly and talk, then we might see history repeating itself because the Rwandan government as of now also has been involved in many massacres. This is what I talk about” – Paul Rusesabagina (Daniel Kovalik interview ‘Hotel Rwanda Revisited: an Interview with Paul Rusesabagina’ 11.01.2013).

After decades of fighting and supporting militias within the Kivu Provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo. President Paul Kagame’s own militia men and soldiers comes to haunt him in his land. This here will an introduction to the people behind the new Mouvement Rwandais pour le Changement Democratique (M.R.C.D) or Rwandan Movement For Democratic Change.

First the Political parties behind the coalition is The Party for Democracy in Rwanda (PDR-IHUMURE), The National Council for Renewal and Democracy (CNRD-UBWIYUNGE) and The Rwandese Revolutionary Movement (RRM). RRM joined the March 2018.

Secondly, I will look into the three key men running this organization and militia, one is Rwandan in exile, that has been played by Don Cheadle, the second is a former leader and rebel from FDLR. While the third and the spokesman is from RRM.

Who also have the financial backing of the man, whose based of the movie Hotel Rwanda, Mr. Paul Rusesabagina and his political group PDR-Ihumure. His political supportive of the new movement from Brussels, but his supposed net worth is only $600k, therefore, he cannot be the main backer behind itm but he can be the political face of it.

Another leader the former ex-FDLR Laurent Ndagijimana aka Wilson Irategeka, who even formed Conseil National pour le Renouveau et la Democratie (CNRD)-Ubwiyunge in 2016 with 50 officers too. He must be the military arm behind it, as he has been a vital part of the FDLR in the DRC. With the reports through the UN Reports, there was about 600-800 soldiers joining in when CNRD-Ubiyunge split.

The military side of CNRD was this:

Command of FLN was given to the former FDLR South Kivu sector commander, “Colonel” Hamada Harerimana (also known as Junior Mulamba). “Colonel” Anastase Munyaneza (also known as Job Rukundo) became the South Kivu sector commander and “Colonel” Shemeki became the North Kivu sector commander. The only sanctioned individual who joined CNRD is the new head of operations in South Kivu, “Colonel” Félicien Nzanzubukira (also known as Fred Irakiza)” (S/2016/1102), Who surely would matter if they are attacking on Rwandan soil now.

Last leader is Callixte Nsabimana aka Sankara, who is the Spokesperson of both the political arm and the military one. He comes from the RRM and is the most shadow character, but the one who has posted himself as key name on the Press Release, released on the 15th July 2018, which stated:

We, the leaders of the RMDC, decided to rise as one man to face all forms of racism, regionalism, excessive injustice and human rights abuses. The youth of the RMDC, which has already transcended the spirit of segregation that characterizes the RPF, is set to fly to the rescue of Rwanda; We therefore created the armed forces known as the National Liberation Forces (NLF) and we assigned them the mission to put an immediate end to the dictatorial power of the RPF-Kagame. The NLF will use all possible means including the armed struggle to drive the RPF out of power, since it refused all peaceful ways. The NLF comes to the rescue of ALL Rwandans since the young men and women who compose them come from all ethnic divides – Hutu, Tutsi and Twa- and they swore to give their heart and mind to the cause of Rwanda, even if they should pay with their own lives to snatch the victory” (M.R.C.D. – Communique de Presse, 15.07.2018).

After all of this, we can now know, that the Burundian supported militia haven’t attacked Rwanda recently, as the Burundian government verified. However, they might have a base in Burundi, as they CNRD used to be in Burundi and strike the DRC. Now, they might have changed behavior and finally gone after their mission, starting to assault Rwanda. Therefore, the attacks from the Cibitoka Province from the Kibra Forrest into the Nyungewe Forrest in Ruhengeri District. This could be fitting why there was reports of 31st Brigade from the Rwandan Defence Force (RDF) and parts of military choppers from 4th Division in the same area. If they was hunting CNRD or Ex-FDLR rebels attacking Rwanda. That would have made sense. Especially since this has tried to be silenced by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and their control of media. However, the Police have verified, but called them thugs crossing borders. Not saying who they are, but if they we’re the M.R.C.D. there are interesting times ahead.

That this is previous FDLR and part of the deflectors of 2016. This is not a minor group and who knows how much part of the illegal smuggling from the Kivu’s the CNRD have gotten over the last two years. Also, what part the two other parties of the coalition play. This being RRM and the PDR-Ihumure, I wonder what they are bringing to the party, if they are giving political leverage or even legitimacy of some kind. Because, there is not much to find on these and what they are about. If they even have a size or is built around the individuals and nothing else.

Time will tell about this, as this has been sudden, but the MRCD established in 2017, became three parties in 2018 and attacked Rwanda in July 2018. Therefore, time will tell, but it is hard to know by now.

This is what I found out today. Peace.

The incursion of the Rwandan army in North Kivu in April 2016 (Youtube-Clip)

“Incursion de l’armée Rwandaise au Nord-Kivu Avril 2016” (Amis de Moise katumbi Londres, 2016).

If you struggle with the French langauge, then you put on texting and translation of the text to understand the video from Youtube. Peace.

Burundian UN Security Council Resolution 2279; a good deed, but will it make a difference?

BurundiNTVNews

As the unrest and crisis in Burundi continues even if they have Peacekeepers in Central African Republic and Somalia. The Opposition and the Government still keeps on with killings and oppressive behavior from the Government Armed Forces from the Police and the Army. The Opposition even tries to do plots to take down people of higher rankings as they have even attacked and gone after ministers and army generals. That is why the United Nation Security Council on the 1st of April 2016 finally have come to resolution on the conflict as the Inclusive Inter-Burundian Dialogue that have been stalled after the Ugandan President Museveni was out of the picture. There since been little or no-talks between the powerful actors in the country.

burundi-protests

Even with stories of counter-insurgencies from Rwanda and trained militias to topple the President Nkurunziza shows the viability and how the positions are played at the moment. But here are the most specific and most important parts of the UN resolution 2279 (2016) of the Security Council:

“Stressing the primary responsibility of the Government of Burundi for ensuring security in its territory and protecting its population with respect for the rule of law, human rights and international humanitarian law, as applicable” (…)”Urges the Government of Burundi and all parties to reject any kind of violence and condemn any public statement inciting violence or hatred and demands that all sides in Burundi refrain from any action that would threaten peace and stability in the country” (…)”Urges the Government of Burundi to respect, protect and guarantee human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, in line with the country’s international obligations, to adhere to the rule of law, to bring to justice and hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law or violations and abuses of human rights, as applicable, including sexual violence and violations against children” (…)”Welcomes the steps made by the Government of Burundi to withdraw some media bans, cancel some arrest warrants and release a significant number of detainees, and urges the Government of Burundi to urgently fulfil the remaining commitments announced by the Government of Burundi on 23 February 2016 and to extend such measures to other media outlets and political detainees” (…)”Welcomes the consent of the Burundian authorities to increase to 200 the number of human rights observers (100) and military experts (100) of the AU, calls for their full and speedy deployment in Burundi, notes that 30 human rights observers and 15 military observers have been deployed so far, and urges the Government of Burundi and other concerned stakeholders to provide them with full cooperation in order to facilitate the implementation of their mandate” (…)”Calls on States in the region to contribute to a solution to the crisis in Burundi, and to refrain from supporting the activities of armed movements in any way, and recalls in this regard commitments of the States in the region under the Framework Agreement on the Peace, Security and Cooperation for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region and the 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees” (UN Resolution 2279, 2016).

Most of this is expected from the United Nation Security Council and their values and the wishes of security of the people of Burundi; which is the reason for why the resolution occurs. The issue I have with it, is not that the Resolution finally get Blue-Helmets on the ground and they are supposed to help to gain peace. But when you see the amount of people, experts and military men from the Peacekeepers it is very little. As little as it seems to be a gimmick and then the world society “we did something” but initially that something was very little.

policiers-burundi

And the Burundian Government will sure make sure their mandate is minor or small so they can conduct their affairs as much as they please only to formally do the implementation that are into the standards of the signed statues and the agreements done to international laws. So they don’t have grievances with anybody or anyone from the United Nation or the International donors to the Burundian Regime.

That the UN Peacekeepers will have the total of 100 Military Experts as Peacekeepers, that is a tiny base; they will not have the mandate or structure to do much in Burundi. It is more than the 15 Military Experts that are there now, so it is as adjustment. The Human Rights Monitoring will not be able to force anything, but to report to the UN and AU on the matters and issues on the ground. For me what is important is to remember the dire state that was in Rwanda before 1994. As this is similar and also had a Peacekeeping mission. But looking at the similarities when coming to the mission; the Burundian Peacekeepers can’t do much about nothing.

Document 3 Image

Important dates and issues with Rwandan Peacekeeping Mission:

“On 22 June 1993, the Security Council, by its resolution 846 (1993), authorized the establishment of UNOMUR on the Uganda side of the common border, for an initial period of six months, subject to review every six months. The Council decided that the verification would focus primarily on transit or transport, by roads or tracks which could accommodate vehicles, of lethal weapons and ammunition across the border, as well as any other material which could be of military use” (…)”As requested by resolution 846 (1993), the United Nations undertook consultations with the Government of Uganda with a view to concluding a status of mission agreement for UNOMUR. The agreement was finalized and entered into force on 16 August 1993. This opened the way to deployment of an advance party which arrived in the mission area on 18 August. UNOMUR established its headquarters in Kabale, Uganda, about 20 kilometres north of the border with Rwanda. By the end of September 1993, the Mission had reached its authorized strength of 81 military observers and was fully operational” (…)”. Reporting to the Security Council on 15 December 1993 on the activities of the Mission, the Secretary-General noted that UNOMUR was “a factor of stability in the area and that it was playing a useful role as a confidence-building mechanism”. Upon his recommendation, the Council, by its resolution 891 (1993) of 20 December 1993, extended UNOMUR’s mandate by six months. The Council expressed its appreciation to the Government of Uganda for its cooperation and support for UNOMUR and also underlined the importance of a cooperative attitude on the part of the civilian and military authorities in the mission area” (UNOMOR Background).

We all who followed the Situation in the Rwandan Genocide knew what happened after this and that the mission of United Nations Peacekeepers was not incapable of doing anything with the dire situation in Rwanda that was already in 1993 and what escalated in 1994. Those 81 Military Observers did not have the manpower or the mandate to sufficiently do anything in the country.

As we are today in April 2016, 12 years after 1994, in the neighbor country of Burundi who also have history of civil war and violence, that ended in the Arusha Peace Accord of 2000 and gave way to over a decade of peace. Still, it was not sufficient or enough. 

Burundi Violence

So the 15 Military Experts or Observers cannot deal with anything especially since their mandate is not yet there; as the negotiations with the Burundian government are under way, the Burundian government wants as little or no meddling in their internal affairs; and with that in mind they have stifled the ability to have international peacekeepers in the country. Even if the UN Mission in Burundi with their 100 Peacekeepers, how much more power will they compared to the counterparts in Rwanda in 1993-1994? I doubt the Burundian Government will give up sovereignty and let them play national Police and Army over them. As they have Army Forces in Peacekeeping mission themselves in Somalia and Central African Republic.

Burundian President Nkurunziza said this in late December 2015: “Everybody should respect the borders of Burundi. If the troops are in violation of this decision, they will have attacked Burundi, and each Burundian must stand up to fight them” (…)”The country will have been attacked, and we will fight them” (…)”You cannot send troops to a country if the United Nations Security Council has not accepted it… the UN resolution says the international community should respect the independence of Burundi” (Daily Monitor, 2015).

Now yesterday the new Resolution said they would extend the Military Experts (Observers) which counters the words and arguments used by the President in December 2015. That an Resolution from the United Nation would change the matter, even the resolution is so vague and non-descriptive as it even in dialogue with the Burundian Government:

“…urges the Government of Burundi and other concerned stakeholders to provide them with full cooperation in order to facilitate the implementation of their mandate” (UN Resolution 2279, 2016).

Burundi-Museveni-Nkurunziza

This gives way to Burundian Government to do as they see fit in their sovereign territory while the Peacekeeping mission of United Nations will have little power or mandate to address, because we already knows that President Nkurunziza have little interest in having a powerful mandate to the United Nations Peacekeeping mission as he already wanted to attack the African Union planned Peacekeeping mission in the Country.

The 100 people of the UN Peacekeeping mission will in this state, and with this sort of arrangement and resolution gives lots of responsibility towards the Burundian Government, and will certainly not made in way that is adjusted to the concerns of the United Nation Security Council.

This resolution gives little or no direct mandate to the United Nations Mission and gives way for negotiations for the Burundian Government. Therefore the start of it is flawed and leaves possibilities of being a minor sting of pride for President Nkurunziza; as much as it was for President Juvénal Habyarimana of Rwanda in 1993; to have a peacekeeping mission in his country. But if it has limited power or even reach, and with little manpower as it have, the worry for the Burundian government not necessary have to be there. Because the United Nation Mission can’t or doesn’t have the ability to stop anything; just peeping and monitoring at best; as much as the Human Rights workers that are parts of the Mission. The Military experts will be lame ducks, while waiting for a secure mandate. A mandate that the Government of Burundi not wanting to give them, as that will take away their sovereignity as a state and nation. Peace.  

Reference:

Daily Monitor – ‘Nkurunziza warns he would fight AU peacekeepers’ (30.12.2015) link: http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/World/Nkurunziza-warns-fight-AU-peacekeepers-/-/688340/3015170/-/k7p15vz/-/index.html

United Nation  – ‘Uganda-Rwanda-UNOMOR Background’

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