MinBane

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Archive for the tag “NYS”

Opinion: Is the White House for Sale?

This is a question that the Americans should ask themselves? Because, I am wondering as a foreigner, if my Kingdom doled some funds on Jared Kushner or on Ivanka Trump’s bank-accountants. Would  the Foreign policy will change because of that? That is a important paradigm shift from the Trump Administration.

Other, then being supportive of horrific migration policies towards immigrants and the ones who has liven there for generations, because it is only White America who deserves to live in the United States. The rest just living their and squatting there for time being. That is the memo the White House is sending out recently.

However, are the for rent signs on the lawn in front of the White House? Are there ads on Craigslist? Or is there unknown LLC that are in connection with the White House and delegates the newly operations from the Trump Organization abroad. As the Trump Organization and Kushner Companies continues to operate more abroad, getting loans from Qatar and Saudi Arabia. If not getting dozens upon dozens of Chinese Copyrights, while trying to build Hotels and Golf Courses all around the world.

Is this how the arrangements are done now? That you shake hands, trade-off deals with foreigners to companies in connected with the Trump Royal Family and then let-off the hook of the Nation in question. So if the need the US Army, the US Trade or lifting of sanctions, that will be softer after signing of deals with Ivanka or Jared. Because the Foreigners will deliver them a few silver coins, if their sanctions are lifted or trade of state companies get a better deal with the US; Because they gave some little money to the White House Royal Family.

The royal family, which is allowed to be revised over 40 times and as they didn’t follow procedure for their forms. Still to get security clearance and all the perks of the White House. This is happening as they are still enlarging their pockets and trading away their value at the Public Office. They are really playing high stakes with the Republic.

It is like they can buy and trade policies now, the foreign interference is evident and the change of narratives comes quickly, especially if the ones in this Trump Administration gets a pay-off. If there is need in a government agency, if the lobbyist or company needs changes of policies.

Remember pay someone off, especially pay off the Trump Family and relatives, then you get the princess and the whole kingdom. They are easily giving way, as long as the profits are returned and delivered to a random company of the Trump Organization. If it is money laundering or any other operation. As long as the Trump businesses get their cut, they don’t mind, that is what they do.

The White House is for sale, a giant haul sale and the evidence is in every story published, as the days go. I wonder how much does it cost to get them colluding with the Russians? Because surely that had a initial price. Surely, cost more than a box of crisps and a trademark in China. Peace.

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The simple reason for the rising prices of UNGA!

If you wonder why suddenly the prices are running high for the UNGA again in Kenya. That is because the state has added taxes, they are trying to collect more money again. This is happening because its months since the elections and the subsidized UNGA is history. Therefore, expect rising prices, the maize and milk cartels want their profits. If they happen to in the pocket of the government at the same time. Is just convenient, even some of the companies earning on the sky-rocketing prices is the President himself and his own companies. I am sure the DP also owns connected businesses that could eat of the this plate too. While the ordinary and poor population will struggle to have ends meet as the government are taxing them even more.

Added Taxes:

Poor households would be more exposed in the amendments with sweeping implications on many sectors, as the State seeks to raise Sh1.75 trillion in the next financial year. Most basic commodities are not taxed to cushion the poor, but the changes that will be proposed in the national budget will end that. “We are looking at exemptions on several products that are widely consumed, but not on VAT such as milk, sugar, maize flour, wheat flour…,” said Benson Korongo, a commissioner of Kenya Revenue Authority” (Michira, 2018).

Prediction of the reaction to the taxes:

Milk and cream, not concentrated nor containing added sugar or other sweetening matter” (…) “Suppliers of the affected supplies will not be able to claim any input tax incurred in making of such supplies. This cost will be borne by the final consumers. Reverting to exemption of these basic commodities a year later after they had been zero-rated will lead to an increase in their prices rendering them less affordable to the ordinary Citizens” (…) “The supply of maize (corn) flour, ordinary bread and cassava flour, wheat or meslin flour and maize flour containing cassava flour by more than 10% in weight” (…) “Reverting to exemption of these basic commodities a year later after they had been zero-rated will lead to an increase in their prices rendering them less affordable to ordinary Citizens” (Ey Global Tax Alert Library, 2018)

It is special when Ernest & Young (EY) whose is known for their advice for potential investors and people who plans for invest in a republic. They have usual advice, which shows the potential and the grips of reality. Their analysis from April are now coming in effect in the end of May, as the local papers like Standard write about it now. But they say it might happen in July.

The state has favorably subsidized it and also imported on its own, that might happen again. But the added tax will hit the public. Make the staple food more expensive, because of added taxes. The shops, the importers, the distribution companies will not take the hit. The hit is always ending up at the consumer, the buyer and not the ones who produce, distribute and sells. That is known and the way we play. Seriously, when the state plans with these taxes to earn over a trillion shillings, nearly two, means they are anticipating selling enough of the needed goods and services connected with the new taxes to actually be sold.

So the prices on the staple is rising, because the Jubilee Government, the President and his party is doing it. This is their orders and their will, it is not the international market or a drought, it is initial planning and what the state does to get more revenue.

Jubilee whose are eating all of the state, needs more revenue to make another NYS Scandal, take more funds from the likes of NHIF and inappropriately use unaccounted funds in the various government bodies. Peace.

Reference:

EY Global Tax Alert Library – ‘Kenya issues Tax Amendment Bill, 2018’ (April 2018)

Michira, Moses – ‘Red alert: Why the cost of food will go up in july’ (16.05.2018)

Link: https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/article/2001280557/why-unga-prices-are-about-to-go-up

Central Bank of Kenya – Banking Circular No. 2 of 2018: Guidance Note on Conducting Money Laundering/Terrorism Financing Risk Assement (23.05.2018)

NYS Scandal 2.0: The Jubilee government never fails!

Today’s news that the National Youth Service (NYS) is hit with another wastage and corruption scandal is like having the issues of 2015/2016, all over again. The Jubilee Government shows they are all talk about corruption, but their institutions and government are not doing anything about it. Seemingly, similar fashion of siphoning funds continues. That is why now two years after the previous scandal in the same government organization, the same sort of affair is exposed.

The new one is with a new Cabinet Secretary Margaret Kobia and a new NYS Director Richard Ndubai, they are both doing the same biding as the ones in the past. The same sort of tricks and issues, that are really just showing the indifference in eating the public’s money. This while doing favors and dropping funds on ghosts and cronies. Who knows where the monies has ended, but it has not done what it was supposed to do. Therefore, the new brigade of leaders, are doing exactly the same as the ones in the first term of Jubilee. This is carrying on tradition!

It is a tradition to finds methods of thieving public funds, as the lack of oversight and governance is built in within the system. You have agencies and legal organizations whose supposed to look into this, but they are not really interested into investigating their own. Unless, they are slapping a minor fine on people who has stolen billions. They are thieving billions, while paying a minor fine of a one million or two. Therefore, the crime is paying-off the elites, they don’t have to mind, because they won’t suffer anyway. They get away with it and smiles to the bank.

That is why the Jubilee are in the midst of another NYS Scandal, this time 2.0. They are on another level, this time with tenders, which was served with ghosts. In the last go around it was fictitious companies and projects connected to the Director who got cash. Who wonders who earned on the fake tenders this time. Someone had to earn fortunes for doing nothing, while the state piled monies into their accounts. It most have been great days to sell nothing and getting millions into the accounts.

NYS Scandal 2.0. was anticipated, the grand corruption are following Kenyatta and his government. That is maybe why he asked people to donate to Red Cross recently, because he knew giving money to his government, someone he knows will eat it. It will not help the public. It will only help the elite and the ones in close connection to the any given ministry.

There isn’t anything positive to take from this, but just proving the impunity of the state. When they can just ditch all guidelines and steal directly from state organization. They do it without any scruples and thinking, no one will mind, no one will say anything and they know it will cost very little. The price to pay for doing it is minimal and nearly none. When you take billions, you pay a meager million. That is profitable. To say otherwise is naive. To be blind to the fact, that being corrupt is grand business, it is enriching and who cares of the consequences.

Because you get rich doing practically nothing, you can sit in the shade of the sun, build mansions, own SUVs and go to expensive shopping-malls, while the rest is slumming. Since you are eating and can enjoy the spoils of the state, as you are feeding ghosts and non-existing ideas. That is fating your pockets. That is why you don’t have to care and worry, you will get paid anyway, while the supposed activity is never happening. Peace.

Cambridge Analytica Scandal: Jon Snow letter to Mark Zuckerberg (22.03.2018)

Kenya: Journalists for Justice – “Lies, confusion and psychological warfare are Cambridge Analytica’s tools of trade” (21.03.2018)

Opinion: There is a need for a investigation in the acts of Cambridge Analytica in Kenya!

It is weird, it is strange, but also very clear why President Uhuru Kenyatta, why Deputy President William Ruto and all of the political elite, and the Jubilee Party don’t want to touch the affiliate Cambridge Analytica. As the world is grasping with the toils and the states are asking for subpoena information and oral evidence from Cambridge Analytica and Facebook. The Kenyan Government are walking around like nothing happen. Not like the lightning stroke down in 2013 and 2017, but just letting it go like spilled milk.

While other governments are looking into the madness, into the big-date breaches, where the Cambridge Analytica used their manpower and expertise to take private information from users of Facebook. Use that to target and make messages fitting the campaigns that hired them. This they did in Kenya, we got no idea to what extent, but clearly they have done their thing. Even the CEO has been proud about their activity. As the Kenyan government has hired the company and used their services.

There has been known that the company had connection with the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC), even as far the Commission own server was directly tapped by the government. While the Jubilee Party also used the affiliate Harris Media also to spread the messages and campaign agenda made by the Company, everything was elaborate and made to make sure the President got his way in the media. Even media companies was paid to make ready-made, microwaved articles to serve the public. Like dishes fitting the paradigm of the state. This isn’t just hearsay, it was the real deal. The Githeri Media was boosted and paid through the ranks of the Company. Cambridge was involved in everything, even wrote the speeches and notes that Kenyatta brought to the public. Clearly, the President Strategic Communication Unit (PSCU) was working directly with the Company making sure their stories was set straight.

This was done with precision and with full fury, they did it knowingly and misused their trust. This wasn’t just campaigning, but rigging with the mercy of American Company registered in the United Kingdom. With ICT Managers and hackers who took information and boosted the ruling regime. If this isn’t a massive theft, than nothing is. That the Cambridge Analytica would make sure and facilitate it this way. Shows how the company and their string-men are working to get their client fixed in position. That is maybe why US Ambassador Bob Godec has been such a loyal man to Kenyatta. Where he has worked for the benefit of the President and not for democratic values. They are not needed, when the President are spending on American Companies and using their products to extend his agenda. Even if that meaning rigging and a hostile takeover of the state.

If this isn’t investigated, if the ones behind the theft, the ones who has stolen a republic. The ones who has used manipulation, rigging and propaganda to benefit one man and his cronies. If that isn’t sorted out, the reality of it all will never matter. That Kenyatta got everything served, paid the Westerners a fortune and secured his victory, it was already Pyrrhic on 26th October 2017, but now it is a blatant lie. Manufactured election with a tin-soldier running the show.

This isn’t fun and games, this is a killing, a kill of democracy and a kill of institution and a death-stroke to believe how the citizens been used to targets themselves in a ploy to reinstate their client. It is without mercy, without justice and without consent. It is just mere facade and forgery. Nothing else, its the worst sort of realization.

It deserves to investigated, by Scotland Yard, by someone from the outside to do it properly, a foreign investigation unit, who works independently and can take all evidence and affidavits. To unleash the truth, reveal the madness and not only the open air implications that are there. Put it in system, collect more than the leaks, but actually get the whole truth and than indict the ones culprits behind it all. Peace.

Opinion: Cambridge Analytica and Facebook – Time to connect the dots!

It’s time to wake-up and smell the coffee. It is time to kick-back and not be fooled by the mess. It has been a vindictive and outrage breach of trust between the social media company called Facebook, the Mark Zuckerberg has earned massive profits on speculative ads and destruction of democracy. While he has let political weaponized attempts of our digital imprints on his page taken by the Strategic Communication Laboratories and the infamous Cambridge Analytica. That has done shady business all around the globe, on every continent and has imprinted their campaigns of malice to the public.

The distorted view that this is fine and dandy, that a multi-millionaire, a guy Cenk Ugur ones said printed money. Robert Mercer, the millionaire backing President Trump and such, who has his stooges in around him too. That this guy’s ethical backbone, has been shown to world and what sort of affair it is. Clearly, they have misused and illegally collected personal information, I doubt only in United States, but all around the globe. As well, as Facebook has been paid to alter likes of pages, posts and whatnot from all the major political parties. All to create social media merit to the ones ruling the world.

Therefore, this all a collective scheme, where the data-breaches, where the personal information and the collected effort has undermined our system. Because we have trusted Zuckerberg, but also unknowingly let him trade away our social-media interactions to a third-party, which haven’t been sanctioned for their use of that. They have at the same time, used this information to hit key areas in elections, states and also ethnic groups, as well as the same backers has had PR campaigns, written speeches and made a whole package to secure the elections in certain republics.

In Kenya, the Cambridge Analytica, that has breached the data collection activity in the United States, could surely, done the same there. As they could have taken it, messed around it with it and then played the cards to secure the president. The company has even the server of the Electoral Commission (Independent Boundaries and Electoral Commission). Therefore, they got all the tools to alter the narrative and the results in the favour of their contractor Kenyatta and the Jubilee Party.

The same can be seen with the DUP who both paid Facebook, but also paid Cambridge Analytica, even parts of the Brexit referendum campaign funds has gone to this. Therefore, they have used shady tricks and used malicious breaches of public trust, to build campaigns fitting the public.

This isn’t only a USA thing, even if this is shattering the gates of power, as they are involved, the ones close to the Trump Campaign, even the one time Campaign Manager Stephen Bannon was involved in the company in question, therefore, who knows what sort of data he has used for his methods and his help to get Trump elected. As well, as the leaks has proven the company even used honey traps to black-mail politicians and was proud of this. This isn’t campaigning, but is reality a special sort of scandal, where the mighty knights and their misuse of trust has been breached.

This isn’t just about social media, this is how it has been used and how the politicians, their benefactors and their donors has used to boost their campaigns, how they have hired in consultants that has taken private information, sorted it in brackets and made sure they could use it take advantage of the political climate. Make sure they had the right slogans, the right message and right PR. That they could use the social media to spin the news cycle and make sure the people got hooked. All of this in attempt to secure their client, the Presidents and President-Elect. The ones they was working for, using the details from the big-data, breach the networks and secure the foundation of a campaign. Where the people are running around like sheep providing all the details and the reconfiguring it and they spilling the beans. That has been done, time and time again, also that if it is possible. They have even made sure of the counting, the rigging of the ballots. So their client get elected through their circus, it doesn’t have to be legitimate, but they are playing shadow state through their computers and servers. Playing second fiddle, but being the king-maker nevertheless.

That shows the dire need for investigations, for suspending these sort of activities, stopping Facebook for delivering this information, if not get people to deactivate and kill of their profiles. So Cambridge Analytica cannot use their information for political campaigning, so they cannot steal the big-data and juice up either Trump or Kenyatta. This for profits, this for personal gain and we now know, that the innocence of Facebook is gone and the image CA had was false.

Cambridge Analytica was a hit-factory, they made hits online and in real life, made campaigns and prepared the whole package, they could even make the candidates and they could be empty shell of a person, they don’t even need a thinking mind. That is proven, that is worrying and the empty suits boosted by collecting social media without knowledge, is proving to a serious breach, a serious attack on the trust and can collectively destroy our trust in companies involved. We as consumers should move elsewhere, but where. Who else has a platform that works, that is what we have to find and make sure it is not used by third-parties to weaponized our digital imprint online. Peace.

Opinion: Fearing for the information Cambridge Analytica has on Kenyan Citizens!

Since it is now revealed how far the ICT Company and Campaign Monitor Company Cambridge Analytica went in the United States, where they analyzed and took information, collected and made sure to target the public, because of the information from 50 million United States Citizens. It is interesting because the connection the same company had in Kenya. They we’re hired and worked for the President. They worked for President Uhuru Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto. They we’re connected with the ruling pary Jubilee and also with the Electoral Commission. This being the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC).

There been found that the Cambridge Analytica was in-charge of IEBC Web-pages, who knows what sort of information the company has stalled through the registers and the gist of public details. If they have collected similar information on Kenyan citizens in the same ways as in United States. They have already done it one place the years before in 2015 and 2016, why not do the same in Kenya in 2017. That would be plausible.

Our data came from the myPersonality Facebook application which I ran from 2007 until it ceased data collection in 2012. Users consented to their data being used in research and then completed a Big Five personality questionnaire which gave them feedback on their results. Over the five years of its operation the app collected data from approximately 6 million users. We examined Facebook Likes from a subset of approximately 60,000 American users” (Stillwill, 2018).

So with the knowledge of the extended survey and collection of data in concerning of the American Election, I am sure the same company has done similar efforts in Kenya. To get the right views and make sure they are on the measures they needed to be. If not, why where you working for Kenyatta and serving his party with information. Just like they did for the Trump Campaign so they could target areas and come with the sort of ads and click-bait stories to catch the people in doubt. This is why the company was hired in the first place, to make sure the political campaign hit the home-run in battle states in the United States. You can wonder what the same company planned, what sort of collection of data and how many of the Kenyan citizen’s on Facebook, which has been collected from. Since that is not known, also what sort of play and what information they got by having the IEBC Web-Page on their server.

There are many different potential sources for the additional information that could have been used. It is plausible that Cambridge Analytica Ltd also have a psychographic model of Prof. Carroll and Prof. Golumbia, given that they claim to use psychographics in their political advertising. Alternatively, Cambridge Analytica Ltd may have based its predictions on any number of alternative data points, such as whether Prof. Carroll and Prof. Golumbia are a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), are known to have purchased a gun, etc” (Stillwill, 2018).

So it is hard know what they used the collected data in the 2016 Elections in the United States, but that they had it and target it to the public is fairly obvious. Therefore, to expect the same in the run-offs in the 2017 in Kenya, seems likely too. If not they wouldn’t been billing the state and the ruling party. They wouldn’t have been working and making adverts, and also campaigns for the President. That is clearly and also understandable. We can just wonder what sort of details the company has on the citizens of Kenya and what they used it for. What they got from the IEBC before they used the servers. There are many open venues, but non is disclosed. This should be investigated, as the privacy and the rights of the citizens are taken for granted. Which is never right. There are already FinTech companies who has to much information on Kenyan citizens. This comes in the same regard. Peace.

Reference:

Stillwill, Dr. David John – ‘Subject Matter: Section 7 DPA request (“Subject Access Request”) sent by Prof. Carroll to Cambridge Analytica Ltd, whose parent company is SCL Elections Ltd, on 17th February 2017’ (16.03.2018)

A Working Paper reveals the political stakes in the Kenya-Somali Illegal Sugar Trade!

The Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) have had a study into the border trade and sugar exports through Somalia into Kenya. How it is used and how it gets to the market. Clearly, the market for sugar is there in Kenya. As the Sugar Industry is struggling to deliver enough sugar and the state has embargoed imports. Still, the same actors and the same politicians are doing behind closed doors agreements that put the sugar in stores through the porous borders of the Kenyan-Somalian border.

The paper itself paint the picture very well and show the importance of the export, since the magnitude on both economies are affected by it. It is also implicating big names and their organizations. As the politicians has another black-market cartel item to sell to the public. What was striking was that the importers together with local merchants are repacking the sugar into bags of the State Owned Entity (SOE) of Mumias. The Company that has been saved the state after devastating corruption and also lacking investment into the mills. Therefore, the politicians has used this name to trade illegal sugar with name. That they even used the stickers to prove it was of Kenyan quality while selling it to the public.

The quotes I have taken, is what see as important. But its compelling to show the this illegal imports into Kenya affects the politicians and the economy in general. Take a look!

The Amount of Money:

Raw sugar accounts for 10% of total Somali imports rated at US $188 billion (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2016). In other words, sugar importing is enormously lucrative and important for the local economy on both sides of the border. The sugar imported from Somalia is central for covering the production and import deficit in Kenya. Most sugar enters through Kismayu port where it is manually loaded onto trucks and driven to the Kenyan border. There it is re-loaded onto other trucks, four-wheel drive vehicles and even donkey carts to cross the border on the so-called ‘rat routes’ that circumvent the border posts to avoid the payment of bribes, random checks by the Kenyan Revenue Authority (KRA), and the occasional confiscation. Based on interviews and observation JFJ estimates that 150,000 tons of illegal sugar entered Kenya from Kismayu in 2014 (JFJ 2015). This amounts to US $400 million worth of annual revenue divided between KDF, Al-Shabaab, local businessmen and politicians, as well as local police and border patrols, including the KRA (though this is not formal revenue) (JFJ 2015)” (DIIS Working Paper, P: 10, 2017).

KRA:

The investigator explained how his unit, in collaboration with the Kenyan Revenue Authorities (KRA) and the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS), had planned the raid of a warehouse in an industrial area of Nairobi. They had found tons of processed Brazilian sugar allegedly smuggled into Kenya via Somalia, and it was now being repackaged from 50 kilo sacks into 500 gram and 1 kilo bags bearing the Kenyan brand Mumias Sugar and with added stickers from KEBS showing that the product meets Kenyan standards of production and quality. The repackaged sugar is – when not confiscated by the authorities – sold to retailers as refined Kenyan sugar at a huge profit. In 2014 a one kilo sugar bag sold for KES 133 in Nairobi supermarkets, and by May 2017 prices had gone up to KES 170 with some supermarkets rationing it to one package per customer” (DIIS Working Paper, P: 12, 2017).

Political Influence:

Like the former Nairobi governor Evans Kidero, the Garissa governor Nathif Jama Adam, and the Garissa-born majority speaker of parliament Aden Duale are rumoured to be implicated in the sugar trade (Rawlence 2016: 236). These rumours reach all the way to Nairobi where they can be voiced more freely than in the north. The power of the people implicated by the rumours is more distant in Nairobi, whereas in the northern parts of Kenya the secrecy associated with the rumours points to the importance and power of those involved” (…) “With devolution, local government has become more powerful and more is at stake for locally elected officials due to their increased budget responsibilities and decision-making powers. Concomitantly, local government has become more vulnerable to pressures from local stakeholders like strong businessmen, militias and other state actors. The porous border, the circumvention of border patrols, and the implication of government officials ranging from KDF to KRA means that much of the sugar is not declared to Kenyan customs officials, making Garissa county one of the largest illicit markets in the country. The flow of goods across the border and further into Kenya formally falls under the responsibility of KRA and the national government. Yet the county government is responsible for local revenue collection and enforcement at local markets and car parks, and they also issue licenses for traders. In that sense the warehouses in the region fall under county administration. The latter thus plays an important role in the possibilities for the redistribution of smuggled goods” (DIIS Working Paper, P: 15, 18, 2017).

This here is evidence of cartels, illegal trade that is benefiting the political elites in Kenya and in Somalia. They are both having knowledge of it and its undermining the embargoes and also the activity itself. Since the politicians are the ones that has put in the provisions and the laws to stop imports to secure the local sugar industry.

This paper shows how much money that is involved. It is big business and the cartels are earning fortunes on lie, where they take foreign cheap sugar and trade it as Kenyan sugar with stickers of authenticity of KEBS. That is clearly a violation in itself, but combined with the illegal sugar, they are even using sophisticated methods to trade it to the public. To make the sugar seem like Kenya, when it isn’t.

That this money is shared by many different part of government officials was implicated int the trade from Kenya Defense Force Officials, Kenya Revenue Authority Officials, Border Patrol, Politicians and even Somali terrorist organization Al-Shabab. So the Kenyan are sending military to Somali to fight Al-Shabab, but at the same time giving them revenue with illegal sugar trade. That is a striking a fact considering the use of military to secure safety for Kenyans. Therefore, the cartels are also making sure the reason they are fighting inside Somalia are funded by the stakes into the illegal sugar industry. That should put some alarm bells on. That the politicians are playing with matches and should know that this cartel plus funding of Al-Shabab might hurt them in the long-run. Instead of being just a profitable business.

This is eye-opening and also a tale of corruption and sugar-cartels using the porous borders between the republics in favor of those dealing illegal sugar and selling it on the Kenyan market. Certainly, this sort of thing will implicate bigger names, than the ones mentioned in the paper. If investigated and looked through. You could certainly also find many bigger names who has created massive wealth within short amount of time. Peace.

Reference:

Rasmussen, Jacob – ‘SWEET SECRETS: SUGAR SMUGGLING AND STATE FORMATION IN THE KENYA–SOMALIA BORDERLANDS’ (December 2017) – DIIS Working Paper 2017:11

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