Jay Smooth: “Thoughts On The Women’s March That Already Feels Like So Long Ago Because These Are The End Times” (Youtube-Clip)

Trumps spokesperson’s tries to spin-control the Inauguration Crowd!

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DC Metro Redline towards the Trump Inauguration 2017

“Gucci this, Fendi that, Gucci this, Fendi that”. No wait this isn’t about Chamillionaire song of old. No, this about the Inauguration of the giant imbecile and Commander-in-chief Donald J. Trump that happen on 20th January 2017. That we’re living in extra-ordinary times is certain, when Breitbart is household-name in the White House, when Alternative facts is spinning on the corporate media and the pictures from the day isn’t evidence enough for the Trump Administration.

I am sure they don’t believe that there is less ICE in the Artic than for 2 decades ago, because the Trump didn’t see it then and doesn’t see it now. Even if Sean Spicer sees dancing angles and E.T. as believable that Trump Inauguration was the most majestic and popular in history. That it we’re more visited than the Barrack H. Obama on the 20th January in 2009 and John F. Kennedy on the 20th January 1960. These had very big crowds attending, two inaugurations that I without a doubt had more people attending that the one of Donald J. Trump this weekend.

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Trump’s Inaguration!

Donald J. Trump and his administration might not like the fact, because Obama was terrible and could not achieve even the same level of popularity on his first day in office. Trump failed even getting popularity. The Apprentice reality star turned President couldn’t beat the lawyer and human rights activist turned one-term senator becoming President in 2009. That must be so demeaning for a man who wants to believe he is better than everybody else.

Trump has demolished and destroyed anybody… he has attacked and said that other people are weak and stupid, he has called them any name under the sun, but now he could show humility. His staff and his leadership could show character, instead they go back to primaries and doesn’t tell it like it is. Instead they lie and say about the commuting, the time of the hour of the pictures, the skyline and the type of camera-lens is the reason. If that was believable than Elsa from Frozen would appear instead and dance with Donald instead of Melanie! That is not true, but that is believable as the excuses.

They can call it alternative facts, but the DC Metro system ticket system even says a lot of the matter of public attending the day of the President. The festivities and the celebration of the coming term of the newly sworn-in Executive; Trump has really fallen far behind. Trump hasn’t even managed ordinary day in Washington D.C. on average weekday DC. Metro are estimated to about 639,000 but on Trump’s day it we’re barely 570,557, while on the Obama first inauguration in 2009 there we’re 1,100,000 commuters.

dc-metro

I know that is depressing numbers by the kingpin and the POTUS Trump, alas that is the reality. He might not be able to live with that fact and spin it in a million circles, hope the blender doesn’t stop and hope that a playboy-bunny arrives instead of Conway. Still, he hired Conway and not some left astray from the Playboy mansion.

Donald Trump has to accept defeat, even if it isn’t in his manhood or in his way. He is a self-proclaimed winner with massive bankruptcies and mortgage debt on Trump Towers to Wells Fargo; still he wants to be multi-billionaire in chief. Trump wants to be king. As he thinks he are the biggest genius and wisest man ever gracing God’s green earth. That is just who he thinks he is… apparently he and his Administration isn’t that.

If Spicer and Conway we’re brilliant and speaking like it is: they would say it wasn’t as they hoped for, it wasn’t the day they anticipated since they we’re the winner of the recent President Election in 2016.

What we now know, that for 4 years the United States will be indecent, be blatant ignorant and not caring about reports, indicators or facts, they will be run on ideas and opinions from the men in the administration of Trump. Trump will be marching on the regard that he is the man and the rest has to follow. The opinions of him are the righteous the rest has to shut-up and listen.

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Trump want’s the media to sound to his horns, to sound to his agenda and only his views. The others are speaking wrong and biased. Because they are not spreading his bias and his wonderful magnificent ideas of how he sees the world.

Trump can and his Administration can spread the news of biggest and best Inauguration ever in United States history, still we know that is wrong. As there we’re more likely attending the Woman’s March the day after. That must be a bummer that One Woman writing five lines on Facebook can gain more popularity than the newly elected President. So, here we are in the start of Presidential era under Trump and it starts with a lie, just like his whole candidacy we’re too, based on a lies. These lies and more to come will be the determined factor of the Trump Term in office. Because the acts and deception from the Oval Office will be important to the Acts and Presidential Orders coming from the Trump Administration; like this leak:

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Peace.

Trump quotes Batman villain Bane in inaugural speech (Youtube-Clip)

Rolling Stone: “TIP – Open Letter To Donald Trump” (Audio)

We Need To Talk About That Donald Trump Press Conference (Youtube-Clip)

From Russia with Love: Leaked intelligence on Trump!

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There been a crazy American Presidential Election where the Republican candidate Donald J. Trump won with a massive margin on the Electoral College. Still, there has been Russian connection and Donald Trump has been an ally from the early moment of his campaign. Trump he said the most amazing thing about the Russian autocrat and plutocrat who doesn’t care much about democracy or freedoms for his citizen’s.

Like this: “I have no relationship with him other than he called me a genius. He said Donald trump is a genius and he is going to be the leader of the party and he’s going to be the leader of the world or something,” Trump said, embellishing Putin’s praise” (…) “I’m saying that I’d possibly have a good relationship. He’s been very nice to me,” Trump said. “If we can make a great deal for our country and get along with Russia that would be a tremendous thing. I would love to try it.” (…) “President Trump would be so much better for US-Russian relations. It can’t be worse,” Trump said” (Diamond, 2016).

So I was questioning and wondering why there we’re no leaks from the Republican Party as the DNC leaks was so massive, finally when the Election is over and soon the Swearing-in a bunch of confidential reports on the connection between Trump and Russia surface. This was late and wished we had seen this in August or even September last year so the public could see and listen to how Trump’s past and present connection to Russia is very questionable. These intelligence and reports proves motives and the possible acts of the President-Elect and others who has had questionable link with Russian authorities and central leadership in Kremlin.

Take a look!  

“Former top Russian intelligence officer claim FSB has compromised TRUMP through his activities in Moscow sufficiently to be able to blackmail him. According to several knowledgeable sources, his conduct in Moscow has included perverted sexual acts which have been arranged/monitored by the FSB”  (…) “According to Source D, where s/he had been present, TRUMP’s (perverted) conduct in Moscow included hiring the presidential suite of the Ritz Carlton Hotel, where he knew President and Mrs OBAMA (whom he hated) had stayed on one of their official trips to Russia, and defiling the bed where they had slept by employing a number of prostitutes to perform a ‘golden showers’ (urination) show in front of him. The hotel was known to be under FSB control with microphones and concealed cameras in all the main rooms to record anything they wanted to” (CIR 80, June 2016).

“TRUMP previous efforts had included exploring the real estate sector in St. Petersburg as well as Moscow but in the end TRUMP had had to settle for the use of extensive sexual services there from local prostitutes rather than business success” (CIR 95, 2016).

“According to SECHIN’s associate, the Rosneft President (CEO) had raised with PAGE the issues of future bilateral energy cooperation and prospects for an associated move to lift Ukraine-related western sanctions against Russia. PAGE had reacted positively to this demarche by SECHIN but had been generally non-committal in response” (CIR 094, 2016).

“PUTIN’s priority requirement has been for intelligence on the activities, business and otherwise, in the US leading Russian oligarchs and their families. TRUMP and his associates duly had obtained and supplied Kremlin with is information” (CIR 097, 2016).

“Kremlin engaging with several high profile US players, including STEIN, PAGE and (former DIA director Michael Flynn), and funding their recent visits to Moscow” (…) “IVANOV reported that although the Kremlin had underestimated the strength of US media and liberal reaction to the DNC hack and TRUMP’s links to Russia, a PUTIN was generally satisfied with the progress of the anti-CLINTON operation to date. He recently had a drink with PUTIN to mark this” (CIR 101, 2016).

“The local business/political elite figure reported that TRUMP had paid bribes there to further his interests but very discreetly and only through affiliated companies, making it very hard to prove. The local service industry source reported that TRUMP had participated in sex parties in the city too, but all direct witnesses to this recently had been “silenced” i.e. bribed or coerced to disappear” (…) “The two St. Petersburg figures cited believed an Azeri business figure, Azar AGALAROV (with offices in Baku and London) had been closely involved with TRUMP in Russia and would know most of the details of what the Republican presidential candidate has got up to there” (CIR 113, 2016).

“Substance included offer to large stake in Rosneft in return of lifting sanctions on Russia. PAGE confirms this is TRUMP’s intention” (…) “PAGE has expressed interest and confirmed that were TRUMP elected US President, then sanctions on Russia would be lifted” (CIR 134, 2016).

“On payments, IVANOV’s associate said the operatives involved had been paid by both TRUMP’s team and the Kremlin, thought their orders and ultimate loyalty lay with IVANOV, as head of the PA and thus ultimately responsible for the operation, and his designated successor/s after he was dismissed by the president PUTIN in connection with the anti-CLINTON operation mid-august” (CIR 166, 2016).

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This here is having massive indications of conspiracy against the coming President, who has been a bit too much praising of the Russian President himself. As well, as he has not been able to cough up his IRS Tax Returns, that could show the business-cooperation and owned real-estate that the Trump Organization could have in St. Petersburg or Moscow. This is believable as Trump has tried to diversify and also spread his business around the world.

Though his proudness of sexual exploits are questionable, but he is also famous for acting as royalty because of his Stardom, therefore together with his many allegation of being indecent together with woman both in his companies and in his life. That is why his chauvinism has been disgraceful during the campaign as the outspoken critics have questioned his vicious ways to the other gender. Certainly he could be the person to do what is in the reports as he liked to watch the “merchandise” during the Miss Universe broadcast and preparation where he just entered the backstage and looked around like nothing while the models where preparing themselves. So that he has the capacity of other sexual and explicit acts wouldn’t be out of character. Though he will always claim differently…

Peace.

Reference:

Company Intelligence Report – 2016/080 – ‘US Presidential Election: Republican Candidate Donald Trump’s Activities in Russia and Compromising Relationship with the Kremlin’  (20.06.2016)

Company Intelligence Report – 2016/095 – ‘Russia/ US Presidential Election: Further Indication of Extensive Conspiracy between Trump’s Campaign Team and the Kremlin’

Company Intelligence Report – 2016/94 – ‘Russia: Secret Kremlin meeting attended by Trump advisor, Carter Page in Moscow (July 2016)

Company Intelligence Report 2016/097 – ‘Russia: US Presidential Election: Kremlin concern that political fallout from DNC E-Mail hacking affair spiralling out of control’ (30.07.2016)

Company Intelligence Report 2016/101 – ‘Russia/US Presidential Election: Senior Kremlin figure outlines evolving Russian tactics in Pro-Trump, Anti-Clinton Operation’ (10.08.2016)

Company Intelligence Report 2016/113 – ‘Russia/US Presidential Election: Republican Candidate Trump’s Prior Activities in St. Petersburg’ (14.09.2016)

Company Intelligence Report 2016/134 – ‘Russia/US Presidential Election: Further Details of Kremlin Liason with Trump Campaign’ (18.102.2016)

Company Intelligence Report 2016/166 – ‘US/Russia: Further details of secret dialogue between Trump Campaign team, KREMLIN and Associated hackers in Prague’ (13.12.2016)

Diamond, Jeremy – ‘Timeline: Donald Trump’s praise for Vladimir Putin’ (29.07.2016) link: http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/28/politics/donald-trump-vladimir-putin-quotes/

Opinion: The new U.S. Intelligence Report following ‘Grizzly Steppe’ as ICA Assessing report reveals little, but the conspiracy and motive is explained!

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Today, The Intelligence Community Assessment Report of 6th January 2017 was released, which has been delivered and now is in the public. There we’re already one report out ‘Grizzly Steppe’ of 26th December 2016 that we’re released jointly together Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and  National Cybersecurity & Communications Integration Center (NCCIC) where the key aspect we’re this:

“This document provides technical details regarding the tools and infrastructure used by the Russian civilian and military intelligence Services (RIS) to compromise and exploit networks and endpoints associated with the U.S. election, as well as a range of U.S. Government, political, and private sector entities. The U.S. Government is referring to this malicious cyber activity by RIS as GRIZZLY STEPPE” (…) “This activity by RIS is part of an ongoing campaign of cyber-enabled operations directed at the U.S. government and its citizens. These cyber operations have included spearphishing campaigns targeting government organizations, critical infrastructure entities, think tanks, universities, political organizations, and corporations leading to the theft of information. In foreign countries, RIS actors conducted damaging and/or disruptive cyber-attacks, including attacks on critical infrastructure networks. In some cases, RIS actors masqueraded as third parties, hiding behind false online personas designed to cause the victim to misattribute the source of the attack. This JAR provides technical indicators related to many of these operations, recommended mitigations, suggested actions to take in response to the indicators provided, and information on how to report such incidents to the U.S. Government” (Grizzly Steppe, 2016).

With this in mind the newly made report which is 10 pages longer or little more than the Joint Report from FBI & NCCIC in December 2016. Therefore a new report made in January 2017 should have more indications than that one, as it is also given to the President-Elect.

“Moscow’s influence campaign followed a Russian messaging strategy that blends covert intelligence operations—such as cyber activity—with overt efforts by Russian Government agencies, state-funded media, third-party intermediaries, and paid social media users or “trolls.” Russia, like its Soviet predecessor, has a history of conducting covert influence campaigns focused on US presidential elections that have used intelligence officers and agents and press placements to disparage candidates perceived as hostile to the Kremlin” (ICA, P: 7,  2017)

“We assess with high confidence that Russian military intelligence (General Staff Main Intelligence Directorate or GRU) used the Guccifer 2.0 persona and DCLeaks.com to release US victim data obtained in cyber operations publicly and in exclusives to media outlets and relayed material to WikiLeaks” (ICA, P: 8-9, 2016).

“By their nature, Russian influence campaigns are multifaceted and designed to be deniable because they use a mix of agents of influence, cutouts, front organizations, and false-flag operations. Moscow demonstrated this during the Ukraine crisis in 2014, when Russia deployed forces and advisers to eastern Ukraine and denied it publicly” (…) “The General Staff Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) probably began cyber operations aimed at the US election by March 2016. We assess that the GRU operations resulted in the compromise of the personal e-mail accounts of Democratic Party officials and political figures. By May, the GRU had exfiltrated large volumes of data from the DNC” (ICA, P: 12, 2017).

“We assess with high confidence that the GRU used the Guccifer 2.0 persona, DCLeaks.com, and WikiLeaks to release US victim data obtained in cyber operations publicly and in exclusives to media outlets” (ICA, P: 12-13, 2017).

“Putin’s public views of the disclosures suggest the Kremlin and the intelligence services will continue to consider using cyber-enabled disclosure operations because of their belief that these can accomplish Russian goals relatively easily without significant damage to Russian interests” (ICA, P: 15, 2017).

If the National Intelligence Organizations of United States together says it has been interference, than it more than one chief and one mind behind the investigations. As the reports are piled up with more assessments of the Presidential Election of 2016 and the end-game that we’re in favour of Putin. Since it ended in favour and to the Russia friendly President Candidate, the DNC and now the Security Organizations are blaming the Russian Intelligence Services (RIS) instead we’re now seeing a full blow-out of information and circulated reports made by serious authorities.

These ones doesn’t drop intelligence with ease, they dislike being open to the press and keeps things hidden in the shadow is their business, therefore even smallest drops proves that it isn’t longer conspiracy. Assange of WikiLeaks has claimed it we’re private persons and not Russian Agents giving the documents to WikiLeaks. The public dumping of loads upon loads of DNC e-mails has had to hurt the confidence in Democratic National Committee and the Democratic Party Presidential Nominee Hillary Clinton. Which the releases of E-Mails did with the uncovering of all kind of bad behaviour and the operations behind a Presidential Candidate in the midst of it. Something we have not really seen before and the ability to see how a Presidential Candidate really operates and how the operation has PACs to fuel monies to keep commercial, corporate media and all the other pieces of the puzzles are dancing after a Presidential Candidate in the United States. The best way to learn that is to read the mails and put it in order, to see to how they build organizations to get people elected. Therefore the DNC leak has given lots of knowledge that usually would have been in shadow and not on the sidewalk.

The acts have malicious, but also eye-opening, sure Podesta must hate WikiLeaks, as much as the others like WADA must hate FancyBears. There are others who has dropped intelligence that we’re mentioned, what was strange was that none of the connected to Anonymous or Anonymous who has operated in the United States.

What was weird that in the other one, there we’re clearly indicated operatives and nicknamed hackers mentioned in the December 2016 report, but none in the January 2017. Like they are hidden in the sphere and not known, because they could been more direct about the origin, as the other report isn’t clear about the origin, but the existence of some operatives who has hacked pages. The key of missing information is where the ones who is known is really from and why isn’t that revealed, as it would give more credibility to the report. Because when the direct actors isn’t actually portrayed, but assessed, therefore next time they could reveal more flesh on the bone. There are lose ends to between the bidding and the end-game.

There are motive and there are indicated acts of malice. But what is sure how the DNC documents went online could be more than what these reports are saying. They have not been showing the whole trip of the process of shadowing or even fishing documents of servers. What they have done is showing is the means of what it really took to hack it.

You have a motive, means for a conspiracy and possible outlets for the hacked information, you have some well-known hackers who might have hacked, but their origin is not revealed. Therefore the reports are in the flawed, they are eye-opening, but certain aspects are left in the dark, from the same dark the hackers came from and open the world to how the DNC did their work. Peace.

Reference:

Intelligence Community Assessment – ‘Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections’ – ICA 2017-01D | 6 January 2017

NCCIC & FBI ‘TLP White’ – ‘GRIZZLY STEPPE – Russian Malicious Cyber Activity’ (29.12.2016)

Unravelling troubles for Mzee

M7 Guards Inaguration 2016

There are troubles ahead for the Presidency, the Executive as the hardball acts and the premise for today is after the General Election, the truth of the situation have now showed up. As in April 2016 the State House need 70bn shillings as the campaigning had taken the toll on the expenses and also they need fiscal support to comply with running expenses.

This in mind with the Uganda National Roads Authority that last year (2015) we’re suspended by a dozen of road projects from funding from the World Bank. There we’re talks in May 2016 to resume talks to hash out problems of funding, as the roads scandals and the transparency of the industry have been questioned, as of all the sackings in the Government Organization of late. In April the Organizations all of a sudden offered 1000 jobs, as they needed staff to future be able to find tenders and organize infrastructure projects. Proves there are more than just moist soil that are trouble for the tarmac, but also the heritage of alleged corrupt behaviour of both politicians, contractors and servicemen accepting the bribes before the cars can ride on the roads. As the UNRA Executive Director Allen Kagina said: “But while the government road development programme has been growing, medium term expenditure framework ceiling for Unra has been the same,” she said, adding that “this has resulted in the ongoing and planned programme having a deficit of Shs1.7 trillion.”(Musisi, 2016).

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As the Executive have promised for long is to have a Crude Oil Refinery in Uganda, with that in mind even the Kenyans before they we’re toiled away they promised funds into the development project as a part of Crude Oil line towards Lamu Port and LAPSSET, a plan that Mzee scattered. Instead he picked the Tanga Port of Tanzania, for reasons he knows, but we knows it is not terrorism and fears of Kenyan borders. It is the money and deal that have been made between Ugandan Government and Tanzanian. As the Crude Oil pipeline is important for the Uganda oil industry, so is also the Refinery; that has new reports about today.  Before there we’re expected that Uganda, for support military and economically would go for the Russian builder and Company under the Rosneft, Gazprom Neft and Transneft, who are run by the RT Global resources, this as a supported deal with businessman interconnected with Vladimir Putin, as we know Mzee we’re in Russia right before buying Russian Fighter Jets in 2011. “The decision to award the contract to the Russian company cements growing ties between Moscow and the east African country, which increasingly characterises the west as a neocolonial aggressor” (Manson, 2015). Today the deal wasn’t in stone, as the deal with planes was okay, but the refinery wasn’t cleared yet: “The Energy ministry Permanent Secretary Kabagambe Kaliisa confirmed the development to this newspaper in a telephone interview but defended “it was not a walk away as such.” (…)”They had demonstrated all it takes, and in fact we had finished negotiations with them and closed all the envelopes” (…)”But they kept going back and forth over the concessions we had given them, negotiated and finished. We gave them all the time” (…) “as a procedure they were supposed to get the necessary clearance back home and it was what we were waiting for. However we received communication they were withdrawing the bond”. Rostec’s East Africa regional representative Andrey Kozenyashev told this newspaper from Moscow that “there is nothing to comment about” (Musisi, 2016). It is only in so many words, that the agreement went sour because the chickens didn’t come to roast, the hidden cost and the transactions between the Russians and Ugandans counterparts was not as expected, therefore the deal stranded; as the Ministry under the orders of the Executive expected to be better paid and secured more funds out of the industrial project. Something the Russians most likely didn’t accept. That’s why the powerful energy, military and resource company has nothing to comment.

As the Oil development issues and the infrastructure in general, as the fallen MPs that are demoted after the fraudulent election losing seats in the 10th Parliament as the NRM MPs are up to 10 or even more who has lost their seats and cannot be in Parliament this term. As Dr. Tanga Odoi claims the paperwork and academic procedure is not at fault in the inner-party, but from the Academic institutions and their verifications, while also threating to insubordinate Tamale Mirundi and take him to court for attacks on his character and acts as the NRM EC. The Irony is that NRM MPs who are demoted got also through the cracks of the Electoral Commission of Eng. Dr. Badru Kiggundu, the engineer who built the machinery and technical procedures for the rigged events and made the options without using his organizations to scrutinize the internal checks and balances at the ruling party and ruling organization NRM-O and NRM CEC who let the NRM EC, together with the EC let the candidates run in the Primary and General Election, before the Courts annulled their works. This shows that it is a grand slam of disapproval and proof of ‘orders from above’ to handpicked members that will only follow and not act on their own. Why all the blame on Odoi, there the NRM CEC and the EC who let it all go?

NRM EC November P3

Even today the Mzee continued with damage control in Parliament as the vetting process earlier dismissed two of the 81 ministers of his cabinet. These we’re: “Harriet Ntabazi, the designate minister of State for Industry and designate minister of State for Works Ismael Orot”, Chris Obore have said that Mzee have written to Speaker Kadaga to re-vet them, so they can be ready for their position in Parliament and Cabinet, because Mzee want the Parliament to reconsider their rejections (Crane Times, 01.07.2016).

The continued madness of the 10th Parliament is continuing, as the 9th Parliament ended with a wish for Tax-Free salaries from the Parliament duties, the campaign and money issues remains, as the MPs have after elections asked for newer SUVs and more expensive cars, now they claim not be paid over the recent year and need refunded funds, to fix their salaries; this happens and some said this to the press today:

“MPs vented their anger more recently at their orientation workshop at parliament. Bugabula South MP Henry Maurice Kibalya asked Patrick Kunobwa, the chief finance officer of parliament, why MPs haven’t got their new cars yet” (…)”Our voters keep asking us why we are not driving the vehicles which parliament gave us. They know that we have been given money to buy new vehicles but they see us driving the same old vehicles and they are asking us why. We don’t have any explanation to give since we haven’t got any communication concerning that; what should we tell them?” (…) ”When I was RDC [resident district commissioner] for Serere, I was given some money as a settling-in-job allowance. Unfortunately, it does not work like that in parliament. I thought we would be given something like an allowance in order for us to settle into our jobs. We expected that parliament…would enable us to find decent places [houses] to stay, vehicles but all we have had to go through is waiting for the first salary,” Kitagwenda MP Abbas Agaba said” (…) “Sylvia Rwabwogo, the Kabarole Woman MP, said: “People thought we got Shs 50m, which is not true. We got only Shs 5m from the president at the time of swearing in [in May] and it was not enough for one to be with his/her family and voters. And remember we have not been working for one-and-a-half years because of campaigns; so, how do you handle such a situation?” (Namuloki, 2016).

april-cars Uganda

So there isn’t enough issues for Mzee, as the giant money funding Oil Development are stalled, as the Russians have not complied, the UNRA are having a deficit and only can build when foreign donors pay for the projects, this in the land of Mzee who doesn’t want international community to be involved as they don’t understand Uganda. While the MPs who understand Uganda, are either in trouble with academic papers and losing their seats, if not their economic situation is dire, just like the State House where right after Election. So instead of being Entebbe and Nakasero State House, it is that the representative of the Ugandan people doesn’t have new Toyota Land Cruiser Prado. Like on the 5th February 2016, the Prime Minister Dr. Ruhakana Ruganda just happen to drop off 111 Toyota Land Cruiser Prado and give them to the District Chairpersons with a lavish handover ceremony at Mandela National Stadium.

Just as Mzee have been hardline on the media during the campaign he has himself done in his capacity to secure big-men into his administration to control the media. Therefore Hon. Jim Muhwezi lost his ministerial position and elevated Hon. Frank Tumwebaze to the Ministry of Public Information and Communication Technology, as he will corporate the Uganda Media Centre, State House propaganda and the general covering of the Government. Since he was hard on the KCCA during his recent term and has faith in his direct control of the Departments. In this space the New Presidential Press Spokesman, the one replacing Tamale Mirundi became the former Editor of Daily Monitor Don Wanyama. Just as the PPS Wanyama is a former Monitor editor. Today there we’re reports of another man from the Paper that we’re connected in getting a position under the government umbrella. This is been reported: “The former Deputy News Editor of Monitor Publications Limited, Paul Amoru is set to be elected the National Resistance Movement Caucus Spokesman” (…) “According to sources from the office of the Government Chief Whip and the NRM Secretariat, Amoru has already been briefed to prepare himself for the task” (Okello, 2016). So the former loyalist amongst the opposition writers in the Monitor, proves how the media have been and becoming more state infused as the WBS have been taken control over. There media houses who are under threat and others who will struggle as the Uganda Revenue Authority will use their legal terms to shutdown, close or suspend, as the Uganda Communication Commission will also revoke license towards the ones who question the power to often, as there been reports on.

Just as Hon. Tumbewaze started his term, he ordered fellow Members of Parliament to be assign them to join social media as a way to address their concern and give their voice into the social media and give ways for them address the public directly, not only on NTV, NBS, UBC, Daily Monitor and New Vision. So one who followed that guideline quickly we’re for instance the Hon. Philemon Mateke who is the State Minster of Foreign Affairs and Regional Development; He joined on Twitter on the 28th of June 2016. When old guys like him start to spread and so-called sensitizing

UPF Fail

The Government and Mzee still want to make sure he has right men in the Security Organizations therefore he has order IGP Kale Kayihura to hurry and promote over a 100 Police officers around the Election, that got done in February 2016, just days before the Presidential ballots was cast, as the months before the General Election, the agreements of collective intelligence office between the Army and other Security Agents to secure a peaceful election. While the Police Officers have also in the months before been moved around the country and certain men have gotten bigger positions in the Police Force, as they have gotten better place for their loyalty to oppress the Opposition.

The Army have also without precedence had a clean-up in the ranks, as barracks after barracks have both soldiers and leaders been taken away, some in the homes other directly while they we’re doing for the state, therefore their been violence and this made a conspiracy to connect this actions together with the FDC party to be able to detain and jail Hon. Michael Kabaziguruka of Nakawa, and the Presidential Candidate Dr. Kizza Besigye, both have been charged with ‘Treason’, also that the army connects had a plan to topple Mzee; this is charges that been alleged before on the Besigye family and members as Mzee likes to recreate history. He just doesn’t know it himself, apparently.

So I will stop with that, as when you set the news and headlines together, with the reports behind the scenes, as the questions on the basic initial reports, as the European Union still want to be cordial relationship even when they have condemn the elections in the recent report of the Election Observers Mission claimed the fraudulent affairs, still they wanted to respect him, until Mzee attacked the ICC with President Bashir by his side. These we’re the days of late when the roads from Entebbe to Kampala we’re closed. So the traffic of Kampala and between central areas of Kampala we’re a total havoc, as with all of the foreign dignitaries who visited like South Korea and Turkey, where the roads we’re closed off and ordinary people had to hike on old dust-roads or walk. As cars couldn’t pass, for safety reasons, even if the dignitaries we’re on the Luxury Hotels and enjoying high life on the expense of fellow Ugandans. Just like Mzee is accustomed to over the three decades in power.

Tanzania-Uganda-Pipeline_0

The issues of rising loans on the fiscal budget, the uncertainty of refinery, pipeline to Tanzania, though Total of France have given clear message to Mzee during the newly conducted discussions with Kenyan Counterparts, that stranded. This together with the rising levels of new districts, bigger cabinet, more officials and more bureaucracy both in Parliament and locally with the hashed out districts and sub-counties, as the MPs doesn’t have enough offices or space to the new level of MPs. It seems like the ruling party didn’t think of the consequence of allocating more MPs in Parliament and creating yet again more districts. Not only making constituencies smaller and creating uncertainty of who will be hit by the newly regulated areas and who they represent. Mzee, just did it to make sure he got more loyalist and could gain more LC and LCV who could be his men, than giving way to the opposition.

The grand maturity of the NRM is now, as the three decades of Power and with the Old Man with the Hat, has already showed their true color and their visions. The vision is to hold power by any means, get rid of, pay off or silence, even with cold-blood if needed. As there been so many scary fallouts through the decades; just waiting for the next man to be swallowed by the reignited leader who wish to control every piece of legislation, corporation and business in the nation. That is why the Russians we’re left out and he got new promises and deals through the recent visit from South Korea. The unravelling mission, the possession of all power and extending it by hurryingly addressing the dignitaries and fresh relationship; while toiling away the ones that is not a payable; like the recent South Korea also makes the long-term relationship with North Korea touched, as the Police and Army Training through the DPRK are now suspended from 1. January 2017. So the clarity of the donor-funding from South Korea is vastly needed by the Government, though he wants it without strings. So he can use it on the ranch and cars for himself, or loyal elitist to be able to fly to India or South Africa for treatment for a health condition; as Mulago and other Health Care facilities are in disarray, but not a question for the state to really fix or amend, as they want NGOs from Foreign Countries to supply it for free. That is the governance of NRM Regime for the moment and the EU Diplomates and US Diplomates play along as Mzee sends needed forces to AMISOM and Central African Republic. They want say that directly, but their actions speak of it.

DPRK Twitter Uganda

The truth will spill out and the issues of silencing and oppression of the opposition cannot be everlasting as the state cannot afford it or have the resources to play that for long, then they have to sell of more land to Aga Khan or other foreign connected businessmen for hunting-grounds in Amuru or other useful areas that are not so needed for loyalty for the President for Life Museveni, he might even trade-off parts of Kaabong just to make sure the loans for the Crude Oil pipeline get built in this term. Don’t be surprised as long as the Ankoli, Brahima and the other who are in the NRM Elite is paid off, the Soldiers who in AMISOM might not get steady pay, but Special Forces Command and the other closest will always be taken care off. He needs the Security Agencies ready to act upon his words, as the people and the others can only cry out for a ‘balance’. But the riches are deemed for him. Peace.   

Reference:

Manson, Kathrine – ‘Sanctions-hit Russian group wins $4bn Uganda refinery deal’ (17.02.2015) link: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/442825a0-b6bd-11e4-a5f2-00144feab7de.html#axzz4D9fWB1y3

Musisi, Fredrick – ‘Russian firm pulls out of Uganda’s $4 billion oil refinery’ (01.07.2016) link: http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/Russian-firm-pulls-out-of-Uganda-USD4-billion-oil-refinery-/-/2558/3274766/-/3r932dz/-/index.html

Musisi, Fredrick – ‘No more new road projects – Unra’ (01.07.2016) link: http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/No-more-new-road-projects–Unra/-/688334/3274568/-/74yaod/-/index.html

Namuloki, Josephine – ‘New MPs cry out over brokenness’ (01.07.2016) link: http://www.observer.ug/news-headlines/45116-new-mps-cry-out-over-brokenness

Okello, Dickens H. – ‘Former Monitor News Editor Tipped for NRM Caucus Spokesman’ (01.07.2016) link: http://www.chimpreports.com/former-monitor-news-editor-tipped-for-nrm-caucus-spokesman/

Various reactions to the Uganda Elections around the world; worth taking a look at!

VPN 18.02.2016 P2

If you think the Election Observer Monitoring teams had different views on the General Elections and Presidential Elections in Uganda. I have already dropped a few of the State Officials and Presidents who has congratulated President Museveni on his 5th Term. I will not repeat those as I put them on as to prove who is the friend of the man who is now unofficial president for the 7th term; first Russian,  Engel (House Member of Committee of Foreign Affairs, U.S.A.), President Kiir of South Sudan and Ivan Ssemwanga.

Gaba Kampala 18.02.2016 P1

Elliot Engel Statement:

“Since the people of Uganda went to the polls yesterday, I have been deeply concerned by the government’s decision to block social media sites and by reports of pre-marked ballots and inflated tallies in some of the voting stations. These are affronts to a free and fair electoral process. I am likewise dismayed by reports that presidential candidate Kizza Besigye was arrested and that the home of another candidate, former Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi, was surrounded by security forces. I call upon both incumbent President Yoweri”.

Russian Foreign Ministry has said:

Moscow hails the successful general elections in the friendly Uganda, which have proved broad national support for the government’s course towards stable political and socio-economic development” (…)”noted a generally open and peaceful nature of the election campaign and the voting process and observed no serious violations that could affect the results of the popular vote” (RBTH, 2016).

Salva Kiir P2

President Salva Kiir sends message to President Museveni on WhatsApp:

““Congratulations Big brother…..I’ll always take your advice seriously….You are a man of experience” (…)”Are you still in Mbarara (cattle camp)?” (Osobi, 2016).

Celebrating the Victory of Museveni in South Africa:

“South Africa based Ugandan socialite Ivan Ssemwanga was the happiest when Museveni won the Presidential elections and started partying straight away. The Rich Gang boss shared with us a photo while drowning in booze in celebration of President Museveni’s victory” (Bigeye, 2016).

I think this here shows the difference reactions to it… As the American Official condemn the actions of Government, while the Russian friends of Uganda says it is a “Successful election” in their view so they have read the IGAD/EAC/COMESA statements and swallowed it whole as it fits the view of Moscow, Russia. While the friendship between South Sudan and Ugandan Presidents as they have helped each other now and then. Then you have a Ugandan in diaspora who is celebrating. That is enough for now. Peace.

WikiLeaks – The interesting times of the Derg(or the Dirg) in the 70s Ethiopia

Mengistu_Book-Cover2_inside

This is maybe my longest blogpost in history and I am sure I’m not going to compete with this one. There was just so much juicy information about a time in Ethiopian history which is not really discussed or talked about. This documents and briefing’s from the American Embassy and Reftels that was sent to the US is telling a story that is interesting today. I personally have much more knowledge about Meles Zenawi and post him, then the time before. It has been discussed in certain books that I have read on the political history on the Great Empire of Ethiopia. What often portrayed about this time is very blurry. With this stories that I have found on WikiLeaks, they might shine a light and give some of the other ones who read my blog some new insights to special time in Ethiopia. This is at the time of the rule of the Derg and the PMC Chairman Lt. Gen Haile-Mariam Mengistu!

  1. November 1974:

The DERG executed 62 civilians, military detainees and hostages. Some of this people is the once that are involved in the top officials who are supposed to topple the PMC. One of the men who is supposed to executed are General Aman former Chairman of PMC, Also Prime Minister Endalkachew Makonnen, the Emperor’s grandson Admiral Desta. The one not on the list is the former Emperor Haile Selassie (WikiLeaks, 1974).

This happened because of an inner struggle for power between General Aman and Haile Miriam Mengistu, the last mention is the one that is suspected to inherit the title after General Aman. Amans strategy has been to collect his supporters and especially from his own area in Eritrea. Second part of it Pro-Monarchist has used Aman to stage a comeback. Third is too reduce the 120-man membership to 15 best educated junior officers, this to have a Junta especially made for General Aman. Fourth strategy is the disagreement over Eritrea. Where the PMC has stepped up the military actions and the PMC is not for a separate state as a solution and has sent reinforcement to secure the military situation. Fifth strategy for General Aman struggled because of his close ties to Haile Selassie. Haile Selassie is held at the Menilik Palace. Another press report is rumored that he will be executed (WikiLeaks, 1974).

Who is Haile Miriam Mengistu?

Was the official VC in the Provisional Military Commission (PMC), he is the chairman of the Armed Forces Coordinating Committee (AFCC). This has been in control since June in Ethiopia. HMM is an ordinance officer, a training officer of the 4th division in Addis Abeba (WikiLeaks, 1974).

The thing that is fearful for the American views of what is happening in Ethiopia. Soviet is trying to supplies and arms to the country (WikiLeaks, 1974).

25th November 1974:

This power struggle that happen on the 24th November happen a fight between Aman and the PMC. The foreign policy is still not certain. But first manifestation of this is the follow up on the Soviet offer of military equipment a few months ago (WikiLeaks, 1974).

30th January 1975 – Land Reform:

In a Land Reform seminar that was a two week this was opened at the National University (former Haile Selassie I University). There was 900 civilians, 400 military participants that was briefed by 28 expert lectures and 15 other military and civilian speakers. The experts and speakers spoke on topics of socialist programs and ‘administration of land and land reform’. PMAC Mengistu termed the participants “disciples of change”. Mengistu said that all of them carried the responsibility of building a greater Ethiopia. Minister of Land Reform Ato Zegeye Asfaw said: “Socialist Ethiopia will give land to the tiller and collective farms and communes will take care of the land and its utilization for the common good of the people” (WikiLeaks, 1975).

18th February 1975:

Heavy fighting has occurred in Asmara at the 18th. The attacks we’re concentrated on the Ethiopian Military Installation but also the American-Run Electricity generator in the other side of town (WikiLeaks, 1975).

There we’re two more demonstrations for Pro-Provisional Military Government in Addis Abeba that day. One was made out of war-veterans and the second one is in benefit of OAU, but both demonstrations was for the Ethiopian Unity. PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu hold a speech in from of the veterans – where the main focus was to keep Eritrea as a region in Ethiopia (WikiLeaks, 1975).

The PMG has announced to confiscate land from 7 former Ethiopian ambassadors this include Zewde Gebre Selassie, this is because of their rejecting to move back to Ethiopia. Zedwe has now been changed with Kifle Wodajo who now is the Ethiopian Ambassador to the US (WikiLeaks, 1975).

22nd July 1975:

On the 18th of July a three day delegation led by Louis Reyes, Cuban Ambassador to Iran and EPMG official has signed a joint communique for diplomatic relations. Reyes said: “the historic victory of the Ethiopian people can serve as an example to Africa and the rest of the World”. Maj Mengistu said: “there is a lot Ethiopia can benefit from your Cuban experience” (WikiLeaks, 1975).

2nd Octorber 1975:

There is friction between Chairman Teferi Bante, First Vice-Chairman Haile Miriam Mengistu and Second Vice-Chairman Lt. Col Atafu Abate. The second echelon Viz. Major Sisay Habate and Lt. Col Asrate Desta (WikiLeaks, 1975).

In the last year there been two major coup plots. The two main people against the government, first student development campaign from E.G. Major Kiros Alemayehu and the one in charge of media – Major Nadew Zekarias (WikiLeaks, 1975).

The Derg has struggled with price-control and minerals exploration (financial restraint).The government has been civilian administrative structure down to Woreda(county level). The civilian cabinet has been stable. Below the ministers is now permanent secretary (department manager) and vice-ministers (the same as assistant secretaries). The government is still not consulting the technical experts before public policy statements. They have even announced without checking with Urban Land Reform. Future policy decisions are for rural land reform, nationalization of banks and insurance agencies etc. Also getting less technicians in government to get consensus (Wikipedia, 1975).

22nd October 1975:

Addis has been tense the last three days after rumors of tension between Mengistu and Atenafu. This has threats to dissolve the military council and either both or one of them are arrested. The view the Derg shows the picture of unity to the public (WikiLeaks, 1975).

21st April 1976:

PMAC First Vice-Chairman Major Haile Miriam Mengistu had his first national speech on both Ethiopian radio and TV.

The main points of the speech was how the feudal system of both Menelik and Haile Selassie.

  • The imperialist has used various techniques infiltrating the system with missionaries, teachers, merchants and entrepreneurs, government advisers and experts.
  • The Ethiopian Revolution have accomplished the deposition of former emperor, declaration of socialism, nationalization of means of production and distribution like rural land, urban land and extra houses. A new labor law and formation of Peasant association.
  • Mengistu announced to the public that their scientifically working on making Ethiopia a People’s Democratic Republic.
  • New national democratic revolutionary program to liberate the people from imperialism, neo-colonialism and feudalism – grant democratic freedom to friends of the revolution…
  • Addressed the Eritrean problem and called them out as exiled aristocrats and foreign imperialist, only reactionary bandits there.
  • Mengistu also addressed people in the country side and progressive workers to form a United Front to work against Anti-Revolutionaries.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

22nd April 1976: Ethiopian revolution to continue:

Vice Chairman Mengistu has asked for continuing support for it, that authority from center to the provinces. Also still no recognition of the Eritrea which is a special case.

Important part of the programs:

The program is based on far-left militants and also on a Marxist model, and a Workers party is created, which is supreme and has to govern operation of the government. Also the focus on class struggles.

  • Public sector is to becoming bigger and private farms will get more government support.
  • Nationalization of both production and distribution with private incentives are enhanced.
  • Veterans are now offered financial, educational and health benefits.
  • Woman are mobilized for productive work and freed from limited roles that have been available for them.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

The Ethiopians problems will be tackled from the devolution from the center of main authority. The Eritrean problem is still not questioned in a special way, it’s seen as a provincial issue. The foreign policy of Ethiopia is remained unchanged (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th April 1976:

There been unauthorized demonstration that was followed by government warning against “progressive” that takes control over shops and private business. There been attempting of looting stores and shops near Addis Abeba, in Nazareth and Debra Zeit (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Because of this Mengistu has promised free speech and freedom to demonstrate. This led to unreasonable behavior from the public that has threatened the public order. Mengistu himself has said their promoting: “raising revolutionary consciousness of the masses”. The hope is that the Ethiopian Easter weekend which is a family and religious affair which will lead to more calm and less tension – which will last over the weekend (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th May 1976:

Megistu has had a MediVac to China on the 20th May. What Haile Mariam Mengistu is expected to have it can either be gastritis which can lead to stomach cancer; he could have a brain tumor and also hurt after a gun wound. The unscheduled flight from Bole Airport went at night 22:00 – where it was reported to leave for China. Lt. Col. Atnafu returned to Addis Abeba from Gojjam (WikiLeaks, 1976).

10th September 1976 – Condolences for Mao’s Death:

The Ethiopians sent messages of condolences to Wu The and Hua Kuo Feng. The leaders of the revolution are also being in the Chinese Embassy signing in the condolence book. The message from the leaders is setting Mao on the levels of Marx, Engels and Lenin (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th September 1976 – Assassination attempt: 

Eyewitnesses tell that there were automatic weapons firing that happened near a football Stadium at 2025 from two civilian automobiles. One was moving west from the revolutionary square. They fired both in the air until they turned south past fourth division headquarters. The followed by an explosion and another further down the road a few minutes later. A dozen store windows broken after the shooting. Following the incidence the EPMG put up a road block in the intersection surrounding the area. All vehicles and passengers are being searched. The roadblocks were taken away the day after (WikiLeaks, 1976).

25th September 1976:

Heavy military control in Addis Abeba this morning after yesterday’s incidence. There has been big patrol activity after the attempted on Haile Miriam Mengistu the day before. Rumors have it that Mengistu has been injured in either leg or foot (WikiLeaks, 1976).

26th September 1976 a staged morning Workers-Rally:

Before the staged morning Workers-Rally there been an ambush on Haile Meriam Mengistu the 23th September. Which wounded him and this lead to Peasant Associations and urban dwellers to meet in the Revolution square in solidarity. It was a four hour event, which was hold tight by armed guards where the speakers spoke on the importance of keeping up the efforts of the revolution. Next troubled date for the PMC will be the 28th when schools reopen (WikiLeaks, 1976).

CIA involvement in Anti-Regime activity:

CIA is supposed to be supporting Placards and EPRP. News broadcast is saying: “EPRP is Cia”(…)”Away with CIA agents, disguised as tourist”(…)”paid CIA agents”(…)”Yankees go home”(…)”No more chills and CIA” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

29th September 1976:

Some rumors has been spread that it was a fake assassination attempt on Mengistu. This happening after the rally is to make him a hero. Also put restraints on the EPRP as a CIA front. There is issued more strikes. It will also be occurring more executions even though none of the would-be assassins. PMAC has gotten more support from the rallies and media this is from the peasants groups and workers. The reaction to it has put EPRP who has been seen as responsible for the attempt. Students might make trouble without the EPRP assistance. The violence of this last week might end up some calm this week (WikiLeaks, 1976).

29th September 1976:

Izvestiya reports also that there was an assassination attempt on PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu. Also, there was one important sign in one of the demonstrations in Addis: “bring CIA intrigues to an end” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Mengistu

3rd November 1976 – Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization (AAPS) Conference:

At the conference it was a total of 7,000 or 8,000 peaceful Ethiopian attendance mid-afternoon rally to support and also show solidarity to Southern Africa. Chairman Ato Tesfaye Tadesse who introduced AAPS Second General Yousef El-Sabat, Iraqi Deputy Secretary-General of AASP Nouri Abdel Razzak, Secretary General of ANC Alfred Nzo, Crypriot Dr. Vasses Lyssarides, Soviet Pressidum member Figret Tabeev, Angolan representative Dr. Olga Lina, Vietnamese representative Tran Hoai-Nam, Cuban delegate Ramos Claudis, Yemen representative Anis Hassen Yahya, West German Committee of Anti-Imperialists solidarity delegate  Peter Wal and Delegate of Western European Public Organization Conon Gor (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Main rhetoric from the conference is against racism, imperialism, oppression, praising the Ethiopian socialist revolution and hospitality. We’re they also was supporting complete liberation of Southern Africa. The Vietnamese, Angolan, Cuban and the ANC did not mention the US during the conference. While other made references to the economic ties between Southern Africa and the US. The delegates from abroad are set to establish legitimacy for the PMAC and Mengistu (WikiLeaks, 1976).

2nd May 1977 – TV interview of Haile Meriam Mengistu: 

He will be interviewed by French and Swedish journalists and will be aired on French TV. One of the main questions was related to the Expulsion of U.S. Official Personnel last week. Mengstu has answered to that U.S. agencies whose activities has been terminated and were in Ethiopian on the basis of old agreements with Haile Selassie. The revolution is now clearing out the leftovers from the imperial era (WikiLeaks, 1977).

17th May 1977:

Ethiopian-Vietnamese relations are strong, especially considering the wish from the Ethiopians of getting former U.S. Military equipment from the Vietnamese. There been secret visits from Ethiopian officials to Vietnam. There is not sure if the Vietnamese will support EPMG. A support with to the Ethiopians … they can complicate their relations with PRC and the US (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th May 1977:

Claude Cheysson from the EEC and was a part of a three person delegation to Addis Abeba the 18th -20th of May. PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu signed a 30 million Birr aid accord during the visit. This aid accord was based for a rural water development project. This aid accord is part of the already with 280 million birr that will be available for the government of Ethiopia. The EEC program mission was completed in the June of 1976. Then there was put aside 100 million birr. The Amibara agriculture development project which has a aid accord accordingly to be set for a 35 million birr. The EEC follows the guidelines of determines which projects that gets funding. Foreign Affairs minister Col. Dr. Felleke Gedle-Ghorghis: “the government gives priority to rural development. Particularly agriculture, which employs vast majority of the Ethiopian people” (…)” Multi-purpose package programs which provides support to small holder farms through extension, livestock and range development projects”. The projects will be mostly into a agricultural sector, either development with infrastructure like rural roads. Also projects that are about industrial development which is focused on the output of agricultural produce. 10 percent of all the development is going to other then national development but for projects for regional projects. This kind of projects is the once that are on the Lake Rudolph and the Omo to develop tourism (WikiLeaks, 1977).

29th May 1977 – Speech to the Naval College and Military academy gradution:

(This was happing at the Jubilee Palace – Former palace of the Emperor Haile Selassie).

Chairman Lt. Col. Haile Mariam Mengistu saying: “there will be no problem with regard to arms”. Further comments from the Soviet Union and that helped and “won high benefits” because of the Ethiopian revolution. Fear from “reactionary of neighboring areas”. Mengistu focused on the responsibilities to the motherland, secure national unity and also territorial integrity. He characterized American imperialism as an arch enemy and is now in league with reactionary Arab regimes. American imperialism he says: “by cutting its arms aid” (…)”now it’s time when we have to crush anti-revolutionary encirclement with unity and determination stronger then steel and hoist a new banner of victory at price of our blood”. On Djibouti want to forge a stronger relationship with: “neighboring reactionary forces” (…)”to withstand any and every step which might be contrary to national interests of Ethiopia in Djibouti” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

30th May 1977: Meeting with the Egyptian ambassador.  

The position of Ethiopia is that Mengistu is not strong, but if he can last until September, then he can be in a stronger position. PMAC Mengistu has to be effective with the use of the peasant army which is now in training. The peasant army will not be used in Bale-Ogaden region because of the Somali tribesman and the semi-desert where the army would be a disadvantage towards them. The result of the guerrilla war has hurt Ethiopian army and the Ethiopian situation in Bale-Ogaden has been bad for them. Some even describe it as a “bloodbath”. With this situation the civilian-military relationships in Addis could become tense. The Civilians might even use the peasant military army and Kebele Defense Forces to make a move against PMAC. Mengistu went on a two-day visit Libya after being in Moscow; this was to secure funding of Soviet War Material. This is to secure shipment of heavy weaponry from Libya to Ethiopia. Also a possibility for Cuban forces into Eritrea (WikiLeaks, 1977).

17th June 1977:

The East German Politburo member Werner Lamberz together with a two Foreign Affair deputy minister Willerding, Foreign trade deputy minister Clausnitzer, Deputy Planning Commission Chairman Dieter Albrecht and several other SED-Central Committee members. They are on a visit as a delegation from the 13th to the 17th in Addis Abeba (WikiLeaks, 1977).

This delegation has had lengthy discussion with PMAC Chairman Haile Mariam Mengistu and PMAC Second Gen. Capt. Fikre-Selassie Wogderess at both FONMIN and National Palace. Also the delegation went on a inspection tour of the Siga Meda military training (WikiLeaks, 1977).

The Soviet Union has made a EPMG a priority and until this date, been spending great funds on the banking on it and hoping for solidarity, some free advice and also high levels visits. On the negative side the Ethiopian put up a front to the Somali Ambassador during the 15th July. This hasn’t served the Soviet Block interests, and can only lead to more polarization between the Soviet clients in the Horn (WikiLeaks, 1977).

22nd June 1977:

On the OAU African Refugees day on the 20th June Haile Mariam Mengistu called upon the OAU members to ratify OAU convention on African Refugees. At the same time he urged Ethiopian refugees to return home without fear of retribution. Mengistu noted that there is special cases and need efforts in Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa (WikiLeaks, 1977).

UN High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR):

There been movement from Somalia and Ethiopia. Eritrean youth, one identified as Kidane Kibrom has stayed in Hargeisa and El Garis Ethiopian Refugee Camps where has for the last 14 months. Kibrom claims 118 Ethiopians has had a hunger-strike in the camps for lack of jobs and training. UNHCR is claiming that the funds they have put for the camp is being used for other purposes then the camp (WikiLeaks, 1977).

6th July 1977 – Mengistu on the Middle East:

Mengistu on the settlement on the Middle East question is that Israel should be recognized, but also a quick withdrawal of forces from the Arab territories since 1967. Also added the Palestinian people have a right to a homeland, but must be a peaceful means in a peaceful settlement (WikiLeaks, 1977).

7th July 1977 – OAU statements: 

Lt. Col Haile Mariam Mengistu was not interested in the interference from Somalia and Sudan on Ethiopian affairs. Mengistu was committed to “special committee” on the problems between Sudan and Ethiopia. This will solve the matter in a way Ethiopia sees fit. Like on the Eritrean question: the position they have is that Sudan wants to assure them independence. Mengistu met with 5 of 9 states in the committee to discredit by most OAU. Mengistu did say at the summit that there was a difference between Sudan and Somalia as problem makers. The Somalian view on rule of law is a total disgrace and has a long standing territorial claim. Where the Ethiopian issue with Sudan is more of a Sudanese leaders where they undermine the Ethiopian unity and territorial integrity (WikiLeaks, 1977).

15th July 1977;

On the 14th of July there has been report of movements from the Ethiopian army. The reports are saying that the army has left the base of Tatek Meda Training base going to Eritrea and Ogaden. The number of army personnel is 83 bus loads of militia bound for Assab. EPMG is reported to reverse the actions in Northern Eritrea, but its most likely to be sent to Massawa. A small contingent of regular army has been sent to Asmara from Jimma in the Southwest Ethiopia. There are even reports of more army movements. The numbers of movement is 16 planeloads (some of them was aircrafts including some 720 BS), even militias are planned to be moved to Dire Dawa. Most of the bridges and highways to Dire Dawa are out of order. Therefore the trainload of 25 cars apparently left Addis Abeba but they will not come whole way directly to the destination of Dire Dawa. They have to hike the rest of the way when the rails are done (WikiLeaks, 1977).

19th July 1977:

Mengistu called in the French Ambassador after seeing the ambassadors from east European countries in Addis Abeba. In this meeting with the eastern European ambassadors he told about the bad situation in Eritrea with the fall of cities of Keren and Decamere. He even complained about the aid the Soviets did not give to Ethiopia. Mengistu also claimed that Somalia Army Units has crossed over the border into the Ogaden. The French ambassador considered the war already had begun. The Romanian Ambassador added that Mengistu had said “Opposition-Controlled the territory including the Omo-Valley and the city of Beica 50 kilometers from the Sudanese border”. Mengistu also claimed that the Eritrean “liberation forces” has gained triple strength because of support from Sudan and Saudi Arabia (WikiLeaks, 1977).

23rd July 1977:

The issues that Djibouti has by the border to Ethiopia are making a lot of trouble. From Sudan has given a non-flight and also no overflight rights for any Ethiopian Registered Aircraft (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Further PMC Lt. Col Haile Mariam Mengistu has received at Grand Palace Issa representative who has described the Somalia attacks as “calculated criminal act on the part of Mogadishu regime”. The Patriotic Media is telling victories stories of Ethiopian revolution and the continued call for voluntary contribution to the campaign (WikiLeaks, 1977).

There seems to sabotage on the Addis Abeba to Djibouti railway. After the Somalian Mogadishu based government has sent infiltrators to blow up bridges along the railway. Though the Sudanese doesn’t seem eager to comply to Mengistu accusation of closing the airspace (WikiLeaks, 1977) .

Issa representative comments: “acts of provocation for the consequence, of which Ethiopia should not be held responsible, reactionary regimes of Sudan and Somalia fully responsible for the deterioration of peace and security in Eastern Horn of Africa” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

From the 25 of June 1977: the final stages of military training of the People’s Militia to fight against the Western-Somali Liberation Front. The Ethiopian People’s Militia fights for peace and stability on the African horn. On the 25th of June the military contribution gets a one-month salary over the one year campaign (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th July 1977:

PMAC Haile-Mariam Mengistu has from the 23th of July coordinated the Armed Forces and People’s Militia. The Headquarters are set in Harar for the fighting in Eastern Ethiopia and in the northern Ethiopia are located in Asmara. Because of this there was appointed 3 new Joint Commands and 4 new division commanders (WikiLeaks, 1977).

5th August 1977: U.S. Arms assistance to Somalia:

PMC Haile Mariam Mengistu is not happy with the arms supply of Somalia which is seen as a foreign threat. Mengistu stated that the U.S. relationship had with previous government – described as a close cooperation in economic and defense. He had no intention of criticizing the US Government. US failure takes seriousness of Ethiopian security. In Emperors time with Sudan Government used Socialist arms from USSR and China to support secessionist movements in the North. Somalia was amassing arms from the USSR, they have 300 tanks. When Ethiopia asked for help from US Government they got empty handed. Ethiopian has reserved and has no actions towards US. What damaged Ethiopian image was the example of Spencer and Levine who helped Anti-Revolutionary feudalists to flee to Sudan and supplying them with American arms. Mengistu said that EPMG can no longer rely on US supplies. This is to protect independence and national integrity and will look elsewhere for arms. Ethiopia sees this to keep territorial integrity and fear of aggression from its neighbors that the US Government now supports (WikiLeaks, 1977).

8th August 1977:

Former Ethiopian Foreign Minister Kifle Wodajo together with ex-minister Gedamu Tesfare thinks that the west is judging Soviets possibilities to settle the differences between Somalia and Ethiopia. What is important for Mengistu is the power and not Ethiopian nationalism, even with the growing pressure from the Soviet. Even the agents within the Revolutionary Council are partly open to give up parts of the Ogaden. Somalia claims to a larger area then only Ogaden. The set up will be to give the most of of the Ogaden. Kifle believes that the Soviet can on the contrary to the western believe that the war between Somalia and Ethiopian can be solved to Soviets advantages. Even the regimes terror tactics is silences the public (WikiLeaks, 1977).

9th August 1977:

Moscow is seeking to save the Pro-Soviet regime of Lt.Col. Haile Meriam Mengistu from being overthrown or collapsing, especially with last military defeats like the ones in the Northern Province of Eritrea and the disputed region of Ogaden along with the Somalian border. There is a claim is that the Soviet has a deal in order for both Somalia and Ethiopia. This deal will give the most of Ogaden to the Somalia but the significant towns of Harrar and Dire Dawa gets to stay Ethiopian. There has been reaction on the issue from the Somalia President Mohamed Siad Barre. Instead it seems more like the Western Somalia Liberation is supported by the Somalian Government. On next Thursday there will be a special mediating committee of 10 African countries in Libreville, Gabon, where delegation from both Somalia and Ethiopia. Spokesman from Western Somalia Liberation Front says: “we do not expect any pressure and even if they do this, we will not accept it” (…)”out lands extends up to the Awash river and we are not going to compromise. We are going to take back all of our land” (…)”under no circumstances can we stop before taking Harrar and Dire Dawa” (…)”today that Somali territorial claims covered all of the Ethiopia’s four southeastern provinces of Bale, Sidamo, Arrusi and Harrarghe and are not limited to Ogaden region itself”. The disputed area of the Somalia and Ethiopia is 1/3 of the land mass Ethiopia and the equivalent of half of Somalia. The issue that Soviet has that they want to continue two have to Marxist states and not lose either. And with the nationalism in both countries it will be a feat to keep Mengistu in power when losing all that land. Ethiopia claims that Somalia has gone in will full-scale invasion from regular Somali Army Units. The Somalian Government denies this but says that the Front’s army is 30,000-man guerrilla. At the same time the goals and claims of territory from Somalia is the same from both government and the guerrillas (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th August 1977:

Chairman Lt. Col Mengistu said during a patriotic rally on 24th August. That Ethiopian revolution is supposed to bring equality, justice, democracy and a classless society. Mengistu was also addressing certain groups as masquerading as progressive but in reality is “anti-people” the groups is expected to be EPRP and EDU. Also he was direct on the Eritrean secessionist which he called aristocratic and ex-patriotic control over Eritrean production. External enemies are set to be Bare and Somalis (WikiLeaks, 1977).

29th August 1977:

Outtake from the Ethiopian Herald August 28th:

“It sad commentary that even USA which championed Ethiopia’s rights in 1935, has today betrayed its own cardinal principles, and reward aggression by refusing to deliver weapons bought by Ethiopia for it own defence. Such attitudes will only add fuel to the flame and disturb international peace and security. Indeed it is an unwise act from so great a height” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

If the US Government wishes to have a normalized bilateral relationship with the Ethiopian government, then it has to become a link between two. Especially with Ethiopian sending a ambassador they intend to send to Washington (WikiLeaks, 1977).

31th August 1977:

There have recently been small insurgencies from Somalia in Ogaden region. Ogaden region is in flames. Policies been announced on the 10th and 17th from the State Department Spokesman. The ambassador (the U.S.) is refraining from supplying arms to Somalia. Further on thinks the ambassador that the U.S. government should not take sides in this dispute between Ethiopia and Somalia. Berhanu Bayeh says that the immediate concern is that US Weapon and spare parts. The holdings of arms have been occurring during the last ten years. Because of that the people of Ogaden has suffered because of this. The Ethiopian Army has gone after the invaders, but has issues with having equipment. Now lacking the defensive arms that Ethiopian army gotten earlier from the US Government. Mengistu wasn’t in the way of ordering new shipments of arms. This was more honoring older contracts and sending both ammo and spare parts to the Ethiopian Army. Also, that the arms would be delivered and resumed immediately (WikiLeaks, 1977).

There has been official Ethiopian Ambassador in Washington, USA. This is since 10. February 1975 (WikiLeaks, 1977).

19th September 1977:

There been rotations and new appointments in the government there is 32 who are both civilian and military that are changing positions. This is three ministers, an Armed Force Chief, Air Force Commander and 16 Ambassador-designated (WikiLeaks, 1977).

4th October 1977:

The Nigerian Federal Commissioner for Internal Affairs Alhaji Umaru Shinkafi was in Addis Abeba the 3rd October. The Nigerian President Gen Olusegun Obasanjo sent a special message to PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu. In that message it was details on his mission to establish normal relations between Somalia and Ethiopia. Make sure that they follow the good progress for the meetings in Gabon in August and follow up these. Still with these negotiations happening there is still heavy fighting in the Ogaden. Ethiopia will like the Nigerian efforts both for Inter-African but also on an international perspective (WikiLeaks, 1977).

31st October 1977:

Cuban Foreign Minister Malmierca is reporting that Mengistu will shortly take a trip to Cuba to meet Castro. This will escalate the presence of Cubans in Ethiopia and might make a difference in the friendship between the nations. This visit from Mengistu might not deliver any change to the relationship if the comments from US Policy Advisor Alfredo Ramirez Otero. Even Castro doesn’t have a specialty for Africa in any way politicially. The Cubans has already a tiny presence in 300 “teachers”. There is a big possibility that the Cubans have forces fighting the Somalian for the Ethiopians. The Cubans want to have talks between the Government of Somalia and the Government of Ethiopia. It is accepted that the Soviet and Cubans have told Mengistu has to show moderation towards the US. The Cubans are opposing the struggle against the Ogaden and the Eritrean. Malmierca has said “that the Ethiopian and Somalian should get into some talks” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th November 1977:

The Ethiopian Foreign Minister Felleke Gedle-Ghiogis will be in Sierra Leone for a OAU Ethio-Sudan Committee meeting (WikiLeaks, 1977).

28th November 1977 – Italian Communist Party visit Addis:

The Italian Communist Party has favored the Ethiopia over Somalia. Italian Communist leader Giancarlo Pajetta a MP in Italy has visited Ethiopia. The plan was made by Berlinguer and a Derg Representative. It was on the 60th Anniversary celebration in early November in Moscow. The Italian Communist Party has been unsure about the Ogaden war and the Ethiopian Revolution. The Italians have traditionally supported the Somalia’s and the road to Socialism and the alliance with Moscow. Because of the visit they now show their full support of Ethiopians. Pajetta feels the PMC Mengistu devotion to the world communist cause. The Italians has tried to get the Ethiopians to have talks with the Somalis. The Ethiopians will not discuss anything with them until the forces from Somalia are out of the territory. Pajetta had hope that the friendship with Ethiopia would open it up talks. The visit of Pajetta most important effect is that the PMC will have the Moscow support of EPMG and also support the Eritrean liberation force PLF. They want to give them autonomy from Addis. There have also been no words that Pajetta also went to Mogadishu (WikiLeaks, 1977).

14th December 1977:

Haile Mariam Mengistu told two U.S. congressmen: “it is not our objective to cross our borders once we have thrown the Somalis out of Ethiopia. We intend to repeat the same mistake as the Somalis”. Mengistu stated further: “Policy of non-aligment” (…)”Peace, equality and social justice” (…)”A struggle is going on at every level between those who would like to see the old reinstituted and those who are determined to protect the revolution” (…)”intent and the objective of the revolution have been remain the restoration of Human Rights to the greatest majority of the Ethiopian people”. Representative Bonk from the congress is hoping for a peaceful solution in the Ogaden region, the Chairman of the PMC Mengistu said it wasn’t necessary to involve the OAU in the conflict (WikiLeaks, 1977).

24th December 1977:

Said Barre went on a visit to Madagascar where he hold a speech at the international airport in Antananarivo where the message was “Other party (Ethiopia)” should also come to Madagascar. Barre said the talks with the Madagascar government officials where he said: “the great questions of today notably concerning eastern Africa, the Somali-Ethiopian conflict, Somali-Malagasy relation” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Hope this have given you some insights and been inspiring!

Peace!

Links:

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIA AND CUBA ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS’ (22.07.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS08717_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SHAKE-UP IN TOP MILITARY COMMAND STRUCTURE’ (25.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04505_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NEW HIGH-LEVEL CIVILIAN AND MILITARY APPOINTMENTS’ (19.09.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05529_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘LAND REFORM SEMINAR OPENS IN ADDIS ABABA’ (30.01.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS01173_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘REPORTS OF MILITIA MOVEMENTS TO COMBAT AREAS’ (15.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04332_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NIGERIAN EFFORT TO MEDIATE HORN CONFLICT’ (04.10.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05786_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PROPOSED ITINERARY FOR VISIT TO THE HORN: ETHIOPIA’ (25.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06574_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF SOMALI PRESIDENT TO MADAGASCAR;’ (24.12.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ANTANA02363_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN REACTION TO MAO DEATH’ (10.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10196_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SOVIET PRESS SUMMARY – SEPT 29’ (29.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976MOSCOW15363_b.html

WikiLeaks –‘SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AS OF 1500 HOURS (EST) FEB. 19, 1975’ (19.02.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975STATE036564_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VIETNAM MESSAGE OF SUPPORT FOR ETHIOPIA’ (17.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03091_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONVERSATION WITH EGYPTIAN AMBASSADOR’ (30.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03366_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘EAST GERMAN PARTY-GOVERNMENT DELEGATION VISIT TO ETHIOPIA’ (17.06.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03805_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS DENIES’ (09.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977STATE187303_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF EEC REPRESENTATIVE – CLAUDE CHEYSSON’ (26.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03305_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ENCIRCLEMENT CONSPIRACY CONDEMNED AS DEFENSE CAMPAIGN PREPARATIONS CONTINUE’ (23.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03917_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘FRENCH AMBASSADOR IN ADDIS ON MENGITSU BRIEFING’ (19.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977MOSCOW10403_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘THE HORN AS SEEN BY FORMER ETHIOPIAN OFFICIAL’ (08.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977PARIS22990_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF HIGH-LEVEL ETHIOPIAN DELEGATION’ (31.10.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977HAVANA00485_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘TENSIONS AGAIN PEAKING IN THE DIRG?’ (22.04.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS12499_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SITUATION IN ADDIS’ (24.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04909_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘AFTERMATH OF SEPT 26 RALLY’ (29.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10614_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ITALIAN COMMUNIST PARTY DELEGATION AFFIRMS SUPPORT OF ETHIOPIAN SOCIALIST REVOLUTION’ (28.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06603_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘INR/AF ASSESSMENT OF ETHIOPIAN SITUATION’ (25.11.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974STATE259383_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN POSITION ON MIDDLE EAST SETTLEMENT’ (06.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04154_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘WOUNDED VICE CHAIRMAN GIVES PRESS CONERENCE’ (25.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10518_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN VIEWS ON REFUGEES’ (22.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03887_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC FIRST VICE CHAIRMAN ADDRESSES THE NATION/ SUMMARY’ (21.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04821_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MEETING WITH MENGISTU’ (29.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05172_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC CHAIRMAN MENGISTU SPEAKS MIND’ (25.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05132_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘AAPSO MASS RALLY AND DELEGATE MEETINGS WITH PMAC FIRST VICE-CHAIRMAN , MAJOR MENGISTU’ (03.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS11444_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘IS FIRST VICE-CHAIRMAN MENGISTU ILL?’ (24.05.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS06257_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MEETING WITH MENGISTU’ (31.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05227_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘REPORTED ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON MENGISTU’ (24.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10506_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MENGISTU SPEECH AND PROPOSALS AT OAU SUMMIT’ (07.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04183_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CHAIRMAN’S SPEECH AT NAVAL COLLEGE AND MILITARY ACADEMY GRADUATION’ (01.06.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03435_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC CHAIRMAN PROTESTS US ARMS ASSISTANCE TO SOMALIA’ (05.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04752_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PRESS RELEASE OF CODEL TSONGAS/BONKER FOLLOWING’ (14.12.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06851_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MENGISTU’S TV INTERVIEW’ (02.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS02738_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ANTI-CIA PLACARDS AGAIN EVIDENT DURING EPMG-STAGED SOLIDARITY RALLY’ (27.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10527_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC’S NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONARY PROGRAM: EMBASSY’S INITIAL COMMENTS’ (22.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04881_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONG. TESTIMONY: AF CONTRIBUTION TO Q AND A’S’ (28.11.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974STATE262329_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘THE DIRG AND THE GOVERNMENT’ (02.10.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS11773_b.html