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In Uganda the President’s family directly involved in the Gold Industry and the export of conflict minerals!

Basically what we do is taking advantage that I’m in government, it’s not a conflict of interest, I don’t use my position for conflict of interest issues, but it’s an advantage in itself.”Jackson Mayanja, TMT Mining and DGSM employee, August 2016

When you thought the Mineral Industry in the Republic of Uganda couldn’t be questioned more. There is a Global Witness report on the subject. That clearly shows signs of common cronyism and National Resistance Movement (NRM) who uses their connections to get better licenses and deals. The NRM and President Museveni, together with family members are in the midst of the transactions surrounding the Mineral Industry. Especially considering also the well-known fact that Ugandan government are helping with exports from South Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo. This been done with shaky licensee deals.

The report is spelling how Gen. Salim Selah or President Yoweri Museveni are parts of the inside the mineral trading and export from Uganda. The other NRM cronies and the brown envelopes that pays for the licenses and the insider knowledge of DGSM gives an edge. Instead of being ethical and protocol through the laws, instead it is more of the personal connections the owners of licenses has. Take a look!

Gen. Salim Selah and Ragga Dee connected with minerals:

Senior political figures appear ultimately to call the shots. Their patronage facilitates access to the sector and allows investors, including political elites, to flaunt the law. In one example, a small group of Belgian and Ugandan businessmen, with close ties to the President, were found to be shipping out hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of gold, apparently paying barely any taxes and failing to disclose the origins of the gold. Their exports may include gold which could be fuelling conflict in neighbouring DRC and South Sudan. In the absence of government data and evidence of rigorous supply chain checks it is not possible to tell” (…) “In one example, an Australian home loans broker with no evident experience of mining, was able to secure licences for over 6000km2 of land (more than any other company or individual Global Witness has seen) by making payments to DGSM officials, and later teamed up with pop star turned businessman, Ragga Dee, who has close ties to the president’s brother Salim Saleh” (Global Witness, P: 7, 2017).

Bwindi National Park:

One licensee is NRM MP Elizabeth Karungi, whose story is emblematic of how well placed individuals claim to be able to use their political connections for personal gain. The woman representative for Kanungu District told Global Witness that she was able to carry out mining activities in Bwindi because the former tourist minister Maria Mutagamba was a “good good friend.” It is remarkable that the DGSM saw fit to issue her with a licence in this area despite the obvious threat to the wildlife there. In a letter to Global Witness dated January 2017, Mutagamba claimed that she did not know who Elizabeth Karungi MP was, however Karungi was on the Committee of Tourism, Trade and Industry which held meetings with the Minister during her period in office. The DGSM Commissioner told Global Witness that mining activities in national parks require the permission of the Uganda Wildlife Authority”. (Global Witness, P:10, 2017)

Kilembe National Park:

One of these is the Tibet Hima Mining Company, which won a multi-million dollar contract to re-open the former colonial Kilembe Copper Mines on the border of Rwenzori in 2013. Two DGSM staff told Global Witness that the President instructed the government to partner with Tibet Hima. Global Witness wrote to President Museveni in December 2016 but has not received a response. As part of the deal, Tibet Hima also received two mining exploration licences that run deep into the national park and right up to the DRC border. The DGSM Commissioner told Global Witness that Tibet Hima had been awarded the concession through a competitive bidding process” (…) “As well as obtaining exploration licences inside a World Heritage site, Tibet Hima appears to have been carrying out operations at Kilembe – one of the largest mines in the country – without an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), which is required by law. The company produced an environmental ‘project brief’ in February 2015, but this did not cover the activities witnessed by Global Witness staff at the site in November 2015” (Global Witness, P: 11-15, 2017).

Africa Gold Refinery:

African Gold Refinery is run by a small group of Belgian and Ugandan businessmen, including former government minister Richard Kaijuka, who are managing to ship hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of gold out of Uganda without disclosing its origin and paying very little tax in the process. They are the owners and managers of a newly built gold refinery on the shores of Lake Edward near Entebbe airport. Remarkably, Barnabas Taremwa: brother-in-law to Salim Saleh, Museveni’s most famous brother and Uganda’s de facto number two, told Global Witness that he had helped negotiate the company’s huge tax breaks with the government (corroborated by documents seen by Global Witness) and set up supply routes for the refinery” (Global Witness, P: 27, 2017).

When an undercover Global Witness staff member spoke to Kamuntu in November 2016, he claimed that he continued to export 10,000 tonnes of iron ore a month out of Uganda under the waiver he received from the President. He told us he ships out minerals as “samples” in order to avoid taxes. He explained that he was the only person in Uganda able to export iron ore. He also told Global Witness that he deals in minerals originating from the DRC, labelling them as Ugandan to get around regulations. Kamuntu said that he exports tantalite from the DRC, labelling it as iron ore to pay less tax. If this is true then conflict minerals from Eastern DRC could be entering the international supply chain via Kamuntu’s shipments. Perhaps most remarkable of all is the fact that Kamuntu told us that “as a local person” he had paid US$10,000 to a third party to get a meeting with the President, in order to seek the permission he needed to continue with his business. (The price for foreign investors is US$15,000, according to Kamuntu.) A letter from the President to the Mining Minister explains that the two met at a private Chamber of Mines and Petroleum event. Global Witness wrote to President Museveni and Mr Kamuntu in December 2016 but never received a response” (Global Witness, P: 42, 2017).

AGR ownership:

Alain Goetz, who is also the CEO of the company, a Belgian national, is one of the most famous dealers of Congolese gold in recent history. During the 90s the Alain and his father Tony, who died in 2005, were reported as dominating gold exports from the Congo through their networks to Belgium and later Dubai” (…) “Mr Barnabas Taremwa, who previously worked for AGR is the brother in law of Salim Saleh, the President’s brother. AGR told Global Witness in a letter dated January 2017 that Taremwa’s sister and Salim Saleh had divorced three years ago, seemingly in an attempt to distance themselves from the General. However, Salim Saleh told Global Witness that “Barnabas Taremwa is still my brother in law and it is false and an insult to me for you to state that I divorced his sister.” (…) “Richard Henry Kaijuka is the Chairman of AGR.160 According to an article in Africa Energy in June 2011, Mr Kaijuka is “a childhood friend of President Yoweri Museveni, who fell out with the regime after he opposed a controversial constitutional amendment in 2005 that removed presidential term limits.” (Global Witness, P: 73, 2017).

Infinity Minerals:

Ragga Dee, whose real name is Daniel Kyeyune Kazibwe, is a popstar turned businessman, famous as much for being the first musician in Uganda to own a Hummer as he is for his music. Ragga Dee does not appear on any of the company documents relating to Ellie’s companies, however while discussing his business interests in an interview with Uganda’s Observer newspaper in 2015 Ragga Dee said, “I also mine for gold under my other company, Infinity Minerals” (…) “Global Witness has identified two sales of Infinity’s rights to other investors after Ellie left Uganda. In the first instance a company called Afrisam Cement Uganda Limited paid US$75,000 for prospecting access to licence number EL1083 which was held by Infinity” (…) “The whole episode raises serious questions about the way that licences are awarded, the licence transfer process, and the accuracy of the mining cadastre. If the information on the cadastre is inaccurate or wilfully misrepresented this has serious impacts for the governance of the sector. While AfriSam appears to have received its licence through the proper channels at the DGSM questions remain about the way that Sunbird acquired its licence. In a letter dated January 2017, Salim Saleh told Global Witness that the Big Picture Corporation, a company which is part owned by his wife, is “one of the companies which duly applied for, and inherited, the expired Licences previously held by Infinity Minerals Limited, under TN 2370.” According to the Cadastre, however, this application, which was made after the licence had expired, was rejected” (Global Witness, P: 48 – 51, 2017).

Special Export:

The latest OAG report noted that during the financial year 2015/16, the DGSM assessed royalty and awarded export permits for only 93kgs of gold worth just over US$3 million. However, reports from the Customs and Excise Department of Uganda Revenue Authority indicated that 5,316 kgs of gold had been exported with a total value of US$195 million. Accordingly, Government should have collected between US$2 million and US$9.7 million in royalties depending on the applicable rates of 1% and 5% for the imported or locally mined gold respectively” (Global Witness, P: 74, 2017).

If you didn’t think there was anything fishy in the trades, in the Mineral Ministry and the Mineral Resources Exports in Uganda. This here reports proves the amounts of gold exported combined with the gold extracted. That these numbers doesn’t add-up. This together with the NRM leadership and the closest partners in and around the President. Therefore, it is even his own family involved in the mineral industry. This reports is saying what people and rumors has been, therefore, the implications of the government, the president in the business, and also they are involved in exporting and cleaning conflict minerals for the exporters of South Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo. This is not surprising for the ones following the situation. Peace.

Reference:

Global Witness – Under-Mined (June 2017)

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We thought we seen the worst; but the here comes the 20 Point Programme from Mzee!

Saturday Monitor 02.07.2016

Sometimes I think President Museveni is a bit too smart for himself, that must be it, as he have since start of his reign added and amended more plans than useful laws. That is something the world should know by now. He entered his first term after rebellion with the 10-Point Program that was supposed to reinvent and remake the democratic, accountability and facilitate the development of Uganda. Something that has been stalled for wish to stay in power and also his own nepotism, corruption and cronyism in government and state functions in general; together with no-need to leave the militaristic maneuvers of government.

“The NRM under the leadership of President Y. K. Museveni came up with the ten point programe of action. In 1987, Basing on the ten point program, President Museveni launched a Minimum Economic Recovery Programme followed by a series of reforms aimed at restoring macro-economic stability to provide a favourable environment for economic growth and private sector development. The key reforms were, liberalization, privatization, currency reform, changes in tax and fiscal policy plus restraining expansion in government expenditure while maintaining focus on economic recovery and growth” (Uganda 25 Years of Nation Building and Progress, Jan 1986 – Jan 2011, Printed: May 2011).

Museveni Cool Poster

That is why that when I read that President Museveni had the genius idea of a 20-Point Program, I was latterly laughing and crying in sadness of this so-called leader. Who supposed to lead and make change; after thirty years in power with a 81 Cabinet and created astonishing amounts of districts and sub-counties, that every town and nearly all villages have either one or two central LCV and other councilors to be bribed by the central-government. And in his genius attempt to spoilt the trade, he comes with another plan to cover over the atrocities and pledges that we’re recycled under campaigning in 2015 and 2016.

This comes from the leader who of late has already these wonderful plans to hold onto and supposed to finish in his lifetime, as he wants to promise the Ugandans the middle-Income position and also economic progress in the levels of South Korea and Singapore. Though, the corrupt and donor-friendly behavior is still necessary since the Petroleum money, is still not certain as it is still needed more development and investment before the profits from the black-oil drilled in the Lake Albert basin and Albertine region.

The first plan that was supposed to take over the failed 10-Point Program from the Economic and Development of the Republic, where the magical and all-covering; the Second plan the famous ‘Vision2040’, where all pieces of government and private sector we’re interconnected as the NRM-Regime had plans to reconfigure and also establish what they had did between 1986 and 2013. The plan that we’re released in 2013 said this: “a transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years”; I do not feel the need to say how much further they have come in the last three years.

Hon. Francis Mwijukye said: "Today I visited Karungu government secondary in Karungu subcounty- Buhweju district where I found students studying under very disturbing circumstances" (Mwijukye, 25.06.2016)

Hon. Francis Mwijukye said: “Today I visited Karungu government secondary in Karungu subcounty- Buhweju district where I found students studying under very disturbing circumstances” (Mwijukye, 25.06.2016)

The third plan that comes to mind was the National Development Plan II (NDPII) who we’re drafted and surely released during the 2015, and we’re written March 3, 2015. This was a plan for the infrastructure projects and the defining projects that we’re interconnected with railroads and also the major road projects of the UNRA, which is certain a magnifying economic prospect as the investments in infrastructure as the unfolding economic problems, that recently was reported from UNRA. So the President has issues with this alone, before releasing the 20-Points Program of 2016.

So with the hearing of a new plan from the grand National Resistance Movement and the Presidency of 30 years, if he had finished or wished to finish the first plan, the 10-Point Program. But, that wouldn’t make the political battlefield and the regression of progress so obvious; if anybody believes he will ever finish a program or even sufficiently have due-diligence behind a new program, you should dream on or reconsider you thought pattern.

With the newly released 20-Program Plan of 2016, is a rehash of old-ideas into a new format with the mix of the Vision2040, 10-Point Program and the National Development Plan II. That is a combined of these visions, as the 10-Point program is totally out of whack, the 2040 is in the midst of it and been in the works for three years without any real progress on the matter. The NDPII is a framework for basic transport and infrastructure that are parts of all the three other plans. So, this is far from finish and with the UNRA troubles, the World Bank suspension and the others issues with financing the grand infrastructure projects of late, while the Standard Gauge Railway and the Northern Corridor Integration Projects (NCIP), which is a collective planning of infrastructure between the East African nations we’re it need cooperative effort from the countries.

issues clinton uganda

So with all of this in mind, when reading the progressive, the revolutionary, the rebels new plan like the monstrosity levels of belief that he can sell yet another amazing plan to the public and donors. The reassessment the donors should do is that this in the mass of affairs and tricks the NRM-Regime have come with for three decades and was supposed to be new-found governance; instead it has been more of the same, just in another name, another package and another head-honcho who been able to smile with Bill Clinton, Gadaffi and all the dignitaries that wanted spend money on his government and newly created institutions under his leadership. This has all happen, while the Western countries have accepted the atrocities and brutality against civilians for the peace and assurance of progression of democratic values that over time have been proven as fool’s gold.

The reality of this new Plan is to repackage the same of promises and the so-called progression of the government institutions and the civil service delivery as hospitals, schools and roads. Through the neo-liberal structural adjustment plan that we’re accepted to get more World Bank loans in the 1980s, while now because of less donor-funding adding more loans into the bloated government budgets together with bigger government spending on growing parliament, growing districts and sub-counties, while the added expenditure on the projects as the rising prices on roads with little due-diligence, higher interests on the fallen loans and the expenses on military equipment. This all with the steady level of inflation and proved little will to change the service delivery from the NRM-Regime, as the international community have let most of it go without any impunity or real care.

Old Stats Uganda

As even the European Union proudly did this recently after the fraudulent election they discredit in their own report, still they we’re so giddy to do this:

“Goverment of Uganda to hold political dialogue with European Union as mandated in Art 8 of Cotonou Agreement” (Emma Were Tinka, 28.06.2016). So the true ethics of the European Union and democratic values can be traded of with a decent agreement and when the NRM-Regime can even be validated by EU, this talk and consider, even sign the agreement, but they might not implement it; as the due-diligence have never been a thing for Museveni, so after all this year? Why should it all of a sudden matter?

This new plan is another one of his schemes and plot to get donor-aid and get funding for his nepotism, his cars and airplanes as the direct budget and the over-priced infrastructure projects have silenced his critics as that have been used on tear-gas, Russian fighter-jets and other needed procurement, not on fixing schools and buying school-books for the students. That is no-need and not proved added value. This 20-Program plan is just non-sense and the ones that buys into it, are long lost causes like Ofwono Opondo and Andrew Mwenda. Peace.

Opinion: Past and Present – Rwandan and Ugandan sponsoring proxy Guerrillas and Militias in the DRC, and is sad about the world ignorance of these activities.

kagame-kabila

What is my worry, well; it’s these warlords, generals in Politics, not ordinary men trying to become legislators, the former civilians, but these men who went with guns into battle and guerrilla; finally taking over and controlling nations, controlling territories with militias and youth wings that disperse and assassinate people. This happens with own Warlords, Proxy-Militias, Guerrillas and serious amount of looting from the Democratic Republic of Congo. I will look quickly into it and explain how I see it, with the looting and little responsibility, since this a question that should be asked, again and again, until there are taken down the men who support the militias, the guerrillas and warlords in the DRC.

That is where I am going as there are so many Warlords that have entered from the DRC during the last two decades; certain ones have earned lots on it and gotten away, like Gen. Paul Kagame, the former Intelligence Officer for Gen. Museveni. These are now Presidents of Rwanda and Uganda, as Kagame have been in central government of Rwanda since 1994, and Museveni have been in charge since 1986. The both took Power with the gun, and are still using it at any point of possibility.

Rwanda has had the CNDP (National Congress for the Defence of the People) that was established by Laurent Nkunda, they we’re a militia from 2006 to 2009, became a political party, while Nkunda have been in exile and in peace in Kigali. The others have been FDLR that have both fighting the FARDC (Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo) and other militias. This fighting have been in mineral rich areas, both gold, cobalt and earth minerals that are used in cellphones, aircrafts and other important industrial production in the west and technology we are all used too, and expect naturally to be there.

M23 Picture

There is also Allied Defense Force (ADF-NALU) that is militias that came from Rwenzori region in Uganda, and have been moved over to the DRC. With that in mind they have constantly taken areas and territory with both minerals and burning villages, while not the focus of international media, as the other Ugandan Rebels of LRA have gotten, as they went from Northern Uganda, into DRC forest, then the armies of UPDF (Uganda People’s Defense Force) and FARDC pushed them into the uncertain areas of Central African Republic (C.A.R.) with their ‘Operation Thunder’.

With all of these militias, the biggest one of late M23 (Mouvement du 23-March) who controlled areas for 20 months before the peace-agreement, but the M23 leadership had deliverance of weapons from Uganda, as there was reported training in Kisoro, Uganda and Gisenyi of Rwanda. As the main routes for minerals from Democratic Republic of Congo towards the Rwanda; and there are over Rwenzori and Kabale from Congo as well. So with the well-known knowledge of the looting of DRC, the levels of impunity and fragile borders have been used by Rwandan and Ugandan Government earned money on the inflicted militias.

DRC Minerals

There been so much money involved that at one point the 2002 U.N. Panel  of Experts  report on Congo further notes: “A reliable source associated with the Congo Desk have circulated that income to the Desk provided 80 per cent of all RPA expenditure of 1999. The official Rwandan budget for 1999 allocated $80 million to the military… The Congo Desk’s contribution to the Rwandan’s military expenses would therefore have been in order of $320 million. The activities funded by revenues generated by number of domains. These transaction are, however, hidden from scrutiny of international organization,” U.N. Security Council “Final Report of the Panel of Experts” 5/2002/1164 Para 71.

With that in mind, as this was in the middle of the war that happen and took control of the nation together with Uganda, which toppled the Mobutu-Regime. As they we’re reporting on point: “Now it is Kabila, whose steady rebel advance has turned into a juggernaut, who apparently can afford to be coy. His rebels are less than 150 miles from Kinshasa and on Friday added the northwestern city of Lisala–Mobutu’s birthplace–to their conquests” (…)”Truckers attempting to bring food to Kinshasa returned home empty Friday, saying they turned back at Mbankana, a village 50 miles east of the capital, because the road was blocked by fleeing government soldiers and the rebel advance” (…)”Before the meeting, Kabila had said he was prepared only to discuss Mobutu’s swift departure from power. Aides to Mobutu, however, said the president wanted to obtain a cease-fire, to be followed by negotiations for a democratic transition in Zaire. Asked whether Mobutu would announce his resignation, Mobutu’s chief of staff Felix Vunduwe, said, “No. Why should he?” Overshadowing the diplomatic maneuvers has been the rebels’ swift advance, which has exceeded the expectations of military observers. “There’s obviously a plan they’re working to, and they’re doing a very good job at it,” said one diplomat” (Daniszewski, 1997). As this was the beginning, and certainly the Rwandan helpers was paid for their help. Something that was shown by the UN Security Council in 2002; still there haven’t been done much about it, as the violence and killings have lingered and done to this day.

Digging600

Now it is not Laurent-Désiré Kabila that only did his duty towards the men who put him in power and set in his son into power as well. With the history in mind there are really been looting of the Democratic Republic of Congo, as with the recent knowledge of court justice that says this: “Rubaga South MP Ken Lukyamuzi and other lawmakers, quoting an August 27 Daily Monitor story, demanded to know who was behind the plunder of DRC. “We would like to know the people who committed these atrocities in DRC and how we are going to pay DRC before our country is mortgaged,” Mr Lukyamuzi said. He added: “Our country is about to be mortgaged and none of us can afford to pay Shs82.8 trillion because we are one of the poorest nations.” (Mugerwa, 2015).  This was reported on what the Ugandans did in the DRC: “According to press accounts, the ICJ began hearing the DRC’s case against Uganda on April 11.  The Congolese delegation, headed by Justice Minister Honorius Kisimba Ngoy, reportedly called for the Ugandans to pay $10 billion in reparations for a host of crimes allegedly committed by Ugandan forces in the Congo from 1998-2003, including murder,  human rights abuses, destruction of public property and illegal exploitation of the Congo’s natural resources.  The Congolese also reportedly claimed that the Ugandans’ main objective had been to overthrow the Congolese government in Kinshasa, and cited public statements by Ugandan authorities to bolster their case.  Press accounts said the Ugandan side rejected these accusations and explained that Uganda had acted to protect its own territory from rebels based in the DRC” (WikiLeaks, 2005).

So with the big money in the looting, even if the official armies are out of Democratic Republic of Congo, wouldn’t Rwanda and Uganda, still earn big bucks on having proxy militias in the DRC as they would always earn good monies on the mineral resources… with the history and the “house-arrest” of Laurent Nkunda in Kigali, proved the connection between Rwandan Militias and the DRC, the same can be said with the M23 that have been pardoned and left in military camps in Kisoro and then went over with military training and weapons from Uganda unto the rebels who even forced the hand of Joseph Kabila.

drc-mineralssupplychain1

The chronic issue is that in the midst of this the training have in the Kivu’s have happened in the midst of Internally Displaced Camps and Refugee camps, where both the arms and military training of the militias, that either Interahamwe or Génocidaire who the Rwandan have fought and used as reason for their presence instead of their looting of Congo. That can be proven with the soft actions toward Nkunda, as he has not really been punished, the same with the treatment in Kampala for the leadership of M23. While others have been delivered to the ICC, but not key figures in the supply chain from the Ugandan and Rwandan Government; as there haven’t been questions of the Gen. Salim Selah or others who have been in charge of certain ones have deserved scrutiny from the international world!

As much as the Ugandans army has been involved in the DRC, they have also been together with SPLA/SPLM under President Salva Kiir, as they both have together fought LRA and opposition of the South Sudanese, as President Museveni wants loyal leaders in the region, so that they can all bounce on each other. President Kiir had the support without consent or mission from the United Nations to control the rebels of SPLM-IO and others who didn’t like the sacking of VP Riek Machar. As he is now reinstated the fighting is not between them and the Ugandan army is supposed to be out, as there is not mineral rich in the sense of DRC. If the Ugandans wanted a stake in the oil money there, that would be through military support to suppress the ones who does not want to support Kiir as the head in charge.

Ugandan and Rwandan governments involvement in rebels, in militias, guerrillas in Congo, is not a question worth answering yes or no, it is yes, and that there is still militias that are foreign supported as the Kinyarwanda speaking forces have been collected stripes in the Kivu’s and even French speaking mercenaries have been deployed in Kampala during election period, there are certainly significant connection and monies at stake. The Ugandan and Rwandan want Kabila Reign to continue, as he lets rob and steal for a percentage of the spoils, instead of actually govern, that is why the citizens concerned with killings in Beni in May 2016, was really oppressed, while on the birthday anniversary for the President on the 4th June, they we’re allowed to walk the streets; the impunity and arrogance while the militias, the proxy guerrillas to loot Congo. What saddens me, is the silence, the ignorance, the little care for the violence and killings, the wrong zip-code as it doesn’t matter, but the mineral resources can easily be taken and used in our modern society and smart-phones.

Why are the so little actions from the world society towards the Ugandan and Rwandan Government when they are sponsoring these militias and guerrillas in the Congo and the Kivu’s? That is what I wonder about… this is happening and there is no reactions or real movements, there are some blue-helmets, but they are a stand-by force with no will. The others let the Rwandan and Ugandan does as they please, as the FARDC doesn’t have the commando or the will to act towards them, as they have had a decade to get rid of these proxy miltias; and they are still there earning money on exporting minerals. Something is wrong with that picture, if you don’t see how the Kinshasa-Government are letting the Rwandan and Ugandan friends eat of the Kivu’s, as they would have taken more command, if they didn’t have agreement between Kabila, Kagame and Museveni. I hope you see, what I see? Peace.

Reference:

Daniszewski, John – ‘Zaire Rebel Leader Kabila Shuns Talks at Sea With President Mobutu’ (04.05.1997) link: http://articles.latimes.com/1997-05-04/news/mn-55301_1_rebel-leader

Mugerwa, Yasiin – ‘Uganda: Government Asked to Name DRC Looters’ (02.09.2015) link: http://allafrica.com/stories/201509020664.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONGO DEMANDS $10 BN IN REPARATIONS FROM UGANDA’ (15.04.2005) link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05KINSHASA640_a.html

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