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Archive for the tag “Loans”

Opinion: Hope Kagame learns from Sri Lanka!

As conning as President Paul Kagame are, he will never outsmart the Chinese in their loans and agreements, especially when concerning their moneys and the planned extension of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Before I show the naive relations that Kagame has with Xi Jinping on the visit. I will first show the statements made by Kagame as he is signing agreements and loans. Kagame is really risking natural resources and the infrastructure projects that the Chinese are supporting. If there is any default on loans or problematic to pay back. The Rwandan state will repay with the resources in the soil or within bound of the structures put in place. Therefore, Kagame shouldn’t think of himself as an equal with China, he should think of it as a borrower and find ways to secure repayments.

I also want to say a few words from the heart. The growing relationship with China is based as much on mutual respect as on mutual interests. That is evident in your personal commitment to our continent, Mr. President” (…) “More generally, China relates to Africa as an equal. We see ourselves as a people on the road to prosperity. China’s actions demonstrate, that you see us in the same way. This is a revolutionary posture in world affairs, and it is more precious than money” Kagame stressed” (Abdur Rahman Alfa Shaban – ‘’China relates to Africa as an equal’ – Paul Kagame’ 23.07.2018 – Africa News).

When you see this, you wonder if the Rwandan President is naive or if he thinking that the Sri Lankan experiment of high loans and bad repayments cannot hit Kigali, like it hit Colombo. Not that I want this to happen to any state. I am as worried about this in Uganda and Kenya, as the loans to for instance Madaraka express, Karuma Hydroelectric Power project and Kampala-Entebbe Expressway. This has to be repaid to the Chinese at some point and with interest.

Kagame is foolish, if he thinks the Chinese will not expect a return on their investment, that is what they do.

Here what happen with the Chinese loans in Sri Lanka:

Some Sri Lankan economists had privately told me in 2011 that their country will find it difficult to repay the massive loan of USD 8 billion at an interest rate of more than six per cent taken from China for modernising the Hambantota port and that it may ultimately have to convert these loans into equity. That warning came true on July 29, 2017 when Sri Lanka and China signed the Hambantota Port Concession Agreement. Soon after the Agreement was signed, China declared that the Hambantota port is a part of its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). According to the agreement, China will pay USD 1.12 billion upfront in a debt-equity swap in the ratio of 70:30 approximately, with the China Merchant Port Holdings Company (CMPort) getting 69.55 per cent of the shares and the Sri Lanka Ports Authority (SLPA), a public sector organization, holding the remainder 30.45 per cent. After 10 years, SLPA can buy another 20 per cent of the shares, making the two companies equal partners” (…) “The conclusion of an agreement with China to manage the Hambantota port was seen as inevitable after the government buckled under Chinese pressure when the China Communication and Construction Co Ltd, which was building the port city, demanded USD 143 million as compensation for the stalling of the work. The Sri Lankan government was also compelled to renegotiate the Colombo Port city project last year, which had been suspended due to criticism about the Chinese ownership of 20 hectares of freehold land as well as controversy over the project’s possible negative environmental impact” (Smruti S. Pattanaik – ‘New Hambantota Port Deal: China Consolidates its Stakes in Sri Lanka’ 17.08.2017).

So if the Rwandan take the grants and loans for granted, they might be forced by the financial pressure from Beijing to give away either infrastructure or even make concession of some other vital resources. Because the Chinese expect some value for their money, they are not doing this for charity, but for development of themselves. Therefore, Kagame is not an equal and will not be an equal. I wish that was a serious thing, but the way the Chinese play these agreements. They are not playing around and doling out money for the hell of neither. Neither does anyone else, that is why usually with Western Aid the state expect bought from same source imports and also with strains of governance to get the funds. So, the Chinese does it their way. That is respected, however, the worry is what the aftermath is the for the ones that swallowed to much debt and cannot repay.

Will that happen to Rwanda?

Kagame shouldn’t see himself as an equal, but wonder how he does fit as a piece of the puzzle in the BRI project of the Chinese and how he can pay back with interests. Because that is the next step. The should also worry the neighbors who has borrowed heavily as well from the same They should all be careful and wonder what would happen. This is isn’t only for Kagame, but he was today speaking a bit to friendly to the Chinese.

As if he haven’t gotten the news of what happen in Sri Lanka and for everyone else, that should be warning. Peace.

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HF Group Press Release Statement on article titled “Inside Kshs.4.3 billion HF Loans Scam” that appeared on Sunday Standard Newspaper (24.01.2017)

hf-group-24-01-2016-statement

World Bank Statement on Withholding New Lending to Uganda (13.09.2016)

 

Ugandabills

UGANDA, September 13, 2016The World Bank Group took a decision to withhold new lending to Uganda effective August 22, 2016 while reviewing the country’s portfolio in consultation with the Government of Uganda.  We continue to actively work with the Ugandan authorities to address the outstanding performance issues in the portfolio, including delays in project effectiveness, weaknesses in safeguards monitoring and enforcement, and low disbursement.

We reiterate our commitment to doing everything possible to work closely with the Government of Uganda, as well as with other stakeholders, to support the country’s development and ensure that all World Bank-supported projects deliver tangible and long-lasting results to all Ugandans, especially the poor and vulnerable.

#Scambailouts; Moses Musinguzi Vs. Bailed Out Companies on Good Governance (29.07.2016)

Petition 28.07.2016 P1Petition 28.07.2016 P2Petition 28.07.2016 P3Petition 28.07.2016 P4

Seemingly the Ugandan Government bailing-out corporations… or is it way of Mzee to give monies to his loyal cronies?

Scambailouts Uganda

There are talks of bailing out businesses or corporations in Uganda, as the failing; it is not only the Republic of Uganda or the Government of Uganda is striking more and more debt to fulfil the budgets. As that happens, the businesses together with Ugandan Banks are sustaining investments and fiscal monetary situation for industries and businesses; something that is occurring with a steady pace.

The Steady Progress from the National Resistance Movement comes with a price of loyalty of the cronies and the elite; that happen to be fundraising for the NRM-O before the General Election of 2016 and building the famous “NRM-House”, for some strange reason never sees the light of day. Dwindling away in T-Shirt Money and other ways of funding the expensive campaign of ruling regime.

Here is some of the companies and some information on them. There are many more, but this shows certain levels of questions and also, the needed for funding should be gone, except if the owners have allegiance to the NRM-Regime. So it seems like the Executive wants them to have debt and all of a sudden he needs to save them.

Shumuk

Shumuk Aluminium who has failed on loans; these loans are Shs. 8.2bn to DFCU Bank, Shs. 6.6bn to Baroda Bank and Shs. 17bn to Crane Bank. The Shumuk Group have been an industrial manufacture that has made everything from steel to plastic bottles in Uganda since 1984. That is now troubled in debt, has also gotten donor-aid or grants through Danish Aid in 2008 on the level of USD 170.102 and in 2006 a total USD 167.940.; Still with time been able to get unsustainable, really?

Roofing Steel Mines have failed loans; Shs. 201bn to IFC and Shs. 8bn to Diamond Trust Bank. Company’s assets supposed to be Shs. 15bn. It’s a company that has existing since 1994. “Mr. Sikander Lalani, Roofings Group has recently completed its ambitious expansion plan by commissioning Roofings Rolling Mills (RRM) limited, a Ugx320 billion(US$127 million) mega project which is set to change the face of steel manufacturing in the East African Region. This state of the art complex is located in Kampala Industrial Business Park, Namanve” (Constructionreviewonline.com, 2013). In 2014: “Prime Minister Amama Mbabazi and his wife Jacqueline were the chief guests at the Serena event, hailing the Lalani family for creating jobs for Ugandans in their business empire and contributing to economic development of Uganda” (Scoop.co.ug, 24.01.2014). Apparently now the business of Lalani is creating a debt issue and not jobs.

BM Steel has debt of Shs. 66bn. President Museveni said this about the company in the 2015: “The recycled steel that is being produced by Casements, Roofings, Tembo Steel, BM Steel (Mwebesa), Modern Steel etc. cannot be used for very high-rise buildings, hydro-power dams etc. It does not have that strength” (Museveni, 29.04.2015). With this in mind the quality of the steel is low, but their debt is still raising, and the same apparently with Roofing as well, who has debt. Worrying sign?

Salim Selah NAPIL

Namunkekera Agro Processing Industries Ltd (NAPIL) has an outstanding debt of Shs. 4.8bn to the Uganda Development Bank. It was incorporated 25.06.2007. It is a business run by the family member of President Museveni, General Salim Selah. In 2015 Gen. Selah said this: “made these remarks as he toured 40 agriculture projects under the umbrella of Namunkekera Agro Processing Industries Limited (NAPIL) in Kapeeka” (NTV Uganda, 20.03.2015). So the Government will on this bail-out the family member for his miscalculation on the Agricultural investment.

Job Coffee got a debt of Shs. 21.3bn to Stanbic Bank. In the month of September 2014 number 7 exporters from Uganda, with 7,960 bags of coffee. Total market share of 2013/2014 we’re 1.97%. What has happen since is not easy to know, but what is certain is that they have accumulated debt.

Simba Group owned by Patrick Bitature has debts of Shs. 210bn. In 2012 Forbes wrote this about him: “Bitature is the founder and chairman of Simba Telecom, East Africa’s largest mobile phone retailer with over 100 modern retail outlets in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya Telecom. The company is also the largest mobile phone airtime distributor in the region. Bitature owns Protea Hotels Kampala, a 5-star hotel located in the upmarket suburb of Kololo in Kampala. He is also chairs the Uganda Investment Authority and Umeme, an energy distribution firm which is gearing up for an IPO on the Uganda Stock Exchange” (Nsehe, 06.11.2012). In 2015 in the African Report said this: “When asked about his net worth, he says: “That I don’t talk about. I have shares in listed companies in London, Johannesburg and here. The share prices keep changing. All I know is that I have a portfolio of different companies.” He says Simba Group employs more than 1,700 people” (Mbanga, 19.06.2015). Certainly he should talk about his net-worth now as his being bailed-out in Uganda, maybe he should sell some of the companies in London and Johannesburg, if he is as rich as that or maybe it is just big-talk?

Freedom City

Grapes Construction has a debt of Shs. 100bn to Stanbic Bank. Who owns the Freedom City Mall in Kampala; The owner of Grapes Construction is subsidiary of Grapes Group who is owned by John Ssebalamu. In 2014 he had an issue with the Kenyan renter at the mall of the Company UCHUMI: “At the end of last year, it emerged that Ssebalamu the owner of Freedom City had sued UCHUMI for failure to pay him arrears amounting to over Shs340million” (Red Pepper, 2014). In 2015 he had monies to spend on the NRM: “John Ssebalamu shs100M”. This Shs. 100m was going to build the NRM House, so the coins given seems to give back profits. (Xclusive.co.ug, 28.06.2015).

Sojovalo Hotel has debt of Shs. 8.3bn to the Kenya Commercial Bank. The owner William George Kajoba also gave Shs 50M to the NRM House(Xclusive.co.ug, 28.06.2015). So with this new project from the government, the pledge in 2015 gave a hand back to the businessman and his Hotel close to the Kabaka in Kampala.

Krone Limited Uganda

Krone Uganda Limited owes Shs. 2.5bn to the Tropical Bank; the business has 3.000 empolyees. Krone Uganda Ltd is the largest miner and exporter of wolfram (tungsten). In the Daily Monitor in 2015, this was written about the company: “the ministry refused to allow them export three containers – 20 metric tons of wolfram worth about Shs1.4 billion ($450,000) that is stuck in various warehouses. They are charged Shs640, 000 ($200) every day as “demurrage” (charges that the charterer pays to the ship-owner for its extra use of the vessel) since February” (Musisi, 18.07.2015). So the government own policy on mining and Value-Added Producing is the reason behind the debt growth of Krone Uganda Limited.

MS Frank Ssonko Ltd owes Shs3.5bn to the Crane Bank, but got assets worth Shs. 9.9bn. Another one is Ahmed Zziwa owes Shs. 10bn, but has assets worth Shs. 20bn. Ahmed Zziwa are the owner of Anglo Fabric (Bolton) limited who imports and sells soap in Uganda. Steven Mukasa owes Shs. 10bn. While having Shs. 40bn in assets. Even owning land on Makerere University, at the level of 8 Acres and even at one point was putting Prof. Baryamureba for stealing Shs. 140m of building material from him in 2010. So he must be NRM guy!

I hope this was enough for now. Not to talk about too much tax-money given away in the name of saving them, instead of making the rich even richer! Peace.

UNCTAD Warns on Debt, Says Africa Should Find New Ways to Finance Development

Ghana Currency

This year’s UNCTAD Economic Development in Africa Report 2016 finds that Africa’s external debt ratios appear manageable, but African governments must take action to prevent rapid debt growth from becoming a crisis, as experienced in the late 1980s and 1990s. 

NAIROBI, Kenya, July 21, 2016 – African governments should add new revenue sources to finance their development, such as remittances, public-private partnerships, and a clampdown on illicit financial flows, an UNCTAD report said on Thursday, warning that debt looks unsustainable in some countries.

This year’s UNCTAD Economic Development in Africa Report 2016 finds that Africa’s external debt ratios appear manageable, but African governments must take action to prevent rapid debt growth from becoming a crisis, as experienced in the late 1980s and 1990s.

“Borrowing can be an important part of improving the lives of African citizens,” UNCTAD Secretary-General Mukhisa Kituyi said. “But we must find a balance between the present and the future, because debt is dangerous when unsustainable.”

At least $600 billion will be needed each year to meet the Sustainable Development Goals in Africa, according to the report which is subtitled Debt Dynamics and Development Finance in Africa. This amount equates to roughly a third of countries’ gross national income. Official development aid and external debt are unlikely to cover these needs, the report finds.

A decade or so of strong growth has provided many countries with the opportunity to access international financial markets. Between 2006 and 2009, the average African country saw its external debt stock grow 7.8 percent per year, a figure that accelerates to 10 percent per year in the years 2011–2013 to reach $443 billion or 22 per cent of gross national income by 2013.

Several African countries have also borrowed heavily on domestic markets, the report finds. It provides specific examples and analyses of domestic debt in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia. In some countries, domestic debt rose from an average 11 percent of GDP in 1995 to around 19 percent at the end of 2013, almost doubling in two decades.

“Many African countries have begun the move away from a dependence on official development aid, looking to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals with new and innovative sources of finance,” Dr. Kituyi said.

The report argues that African countries should look for complementary sources of revenue, including remittances, which have been growing rapidly, reaching $63.8 billion to Africa in 2014. The report discusses how remittances and diaspora savings can contribute to public and development finance.

Together with the global community, Africa must also tackle illicit financial flows; which can be as high as $50 billion per year. Between 1970 and 2008, Africa lost an estimated $854 billion in illicit financial flows, roughly equal to all official development assistance received by the continent in that time.

And while governments should be vigilant of the borrowing risks, public-private partnerships have also started to play a more prominent role in financing development. In Africa, public-private partnerships are being used especially to finance infrastructure. Of the 52 countries considered during the period 1990-2014, Nigeria tops the list with $37.9 billion of investment, followed by Morocco and South Africa.

Barclays Bank Uganda Limited’s Operations Not Affected By Impending Shareholding Decisions (01.03.2016)

Barclays Uganda

There have been some local, regional, and international media reports regarding a decision by Barclays Bank Plc to reduce its shareholding in Barclays Africa Group Ltd which involves twelve (12) African countries including Uganda. Barclays Bank Uganda Ltd. has since held two press conferences to clarify the details of these new developments.

Further to the clarifications offered by Barclays Bank, I wish to reassure the Ugandan public that the Barclays Bank Plc announcement does not affect the operations of Barclays Bank Uganda in any way and there will be no interruption to the services Barclays Bank Uganda Ltd extends to its customers.

The regulatory framework in Uganda ensures that any transitions of this nature are orderly and do not affect the soundness and stability of the financial sector as well as provision of financial services to customers.

Please note the following salient points

1. Commercial Banks in Uganda are incorporated locally and function as independent subsidiaries and not as branches. As such, Barclays Bank Uganda Limited is an independent subsidiary of the Barclays Bank Africa Group (in which Barclays Bank Plc owns 62.3% ) and is fully incorporated and registered in Uganda. Being a subsidiary, Barclays Bank Uganda has its own capital base, Management and an autonomous Board of Directors. This insulates the subsidiary from issues affecting the parent entity.

2. The Financial Institutions Act 2004 as amended by the Financial Institutions Amendment Act 2015 and associated regulations provides for a clear procedure for the disposal of Bank of Uganda supervised financial institutions’ shares. If the shareholders of any bank choose to dispose off their shares, the Bank of Uganda will undertake the necessary process of vetting new shareholders to ensure they are fit and proper to run a financial institution in Uganda.

3. Barclays Bank Uganda Limited remains solvent and liquid. It is well capitalised with a capital adequacy ratio well above the statutory minimum of 8.0 percent. The banking sector in Uganda as a whole has a strong asset and capital base with a capital adequacy ratio of 18.8 percent, as well as a relatively low level of nonperforming loans of about 5.3 percent as at December 2015.

I therefore wish to assure the Ugandan public and customers of Barclays Bank Uganda Ltd. in particular that there is no cause for concern arising from the media announcements by Barclays Bank Plc. Customers should therefore continue with their normal banking transactions without any anxiety. The Bank of Uganda is committed to prudent supervision and regulation of financial institutions in order to ensure the stability and soundness of the financial sector, as well as the safety of customers’ deposits.

Please direct any further enquiries to the Director Communications on calupo@bou.or.ug
Justine Bagyenda
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SUPERVISION
BANK OF UGANDA

What NRM’s #Steady Progress really is…

KCCA at work

We all know that the election is going on and that NRM have a campaign slogan as such: “Steady Progress”. This is the time when NRM is telling in each district they visit about the 29 years of “steady progress”. Well, I will not, I am not NRM. And not a great fan of the NRM. As those of you who read my page/blog should understand by now. I will show another story of the #Steady Progress have been under the NRM and Yoweri Kaguta Museveni’s presidency.

#Steady Progress under the NRM-Regime is that there been violence and arresting the opposition leaders with different claims. And have rhetoric that attacks others then look into their own missteps. Especially when Mzee hear the reports of the violence were from NRM-Supporters together with the Police in an area (Ntungamo clashes for instance). There isn’t the first time the President Museveni spreads fear in the name of democracy and not the last. He can put his words into a leopard’s mouth and see if the animal bites.

#Steady Progress is to have close hospitals in the weekends and having no nurses at the referral hospital in the districts. #SteadyProgess is to suspend health workers after showing the terrible working condition of the Health Care facility.

Burundi Report Police

#Steady Progress is to use the colonial law of preventative arrest when it fits the NRM-Regime and if it fits the new law Public Order Management Act then the Police will take care off or silence Political Opposition leader, Human Rights Activist or even random pedestrians.

#Steady Progress is that the police tells the world and journalist on how to conduct themselves and how to be a part of campaign convoys of the opposition leaders.

Jinja Police 10915 P1

#Steady Progress is that the Police are interfering in Opposition leader’s rallies instead of securing them.

#Steady Progress is to give a higher pay-rise to the Electoral Commission chairman from 6 million shillings a month to 35 million shillings each month.

#Steady Progress is first to lose the money to sustain and make the National ID cards, and not give them to the citizens. Then later deliver this to the Internal Displaced People in the camps and also immigrants from neighbor countries then the initial voters and citizens of the country.

#Steady Progress is to have terrible roads in and around the villages. #Steady Progress is to finally have rail system working between Kampala – Namanve, but not for the rest of the country, and it had to happen right before the election.

cadets10 UPDF

#Steady Progress is to go into neighbor countries with the army without international mandate for securing the friends and caretakers of nations around to secure loyalty to the President of Uganda, not to secure Uganda.

#Steady Progress is to make the currency weaker and weaker. #Steady Progress is to make the Bank of Uganda a personal visa card for the government because of the new amendments to the Public Finance Bill of 2015.

#Steady Progress is to make the nomination of candidates for elections more expensive so only the ones that are friends and cronies of the President will be sure of having the funding and support to stay on as candidates.

#Steady Progress is to bankrupt the national airliner and still only have on international airport in the country, also to get British Airways to cancel their flights to Entebbe and stopping fly to it after the set date of contract with the Airport.

Cars 051115 Frank Tun.. P1

#Steady Progress is to give away expensive cars to Regional District Commanders to ensure the safety of NRM and not the people of the northern regions.

#Steady Progress is to promise loyal cronies more districts and sub-counties to secure loyal men in charge over areas and make the opposition unsure of the new constituency.

Kable NRM Primaries P1

#Steady Progress is to have a chaotic internal elections with pre-ticked ballots, late ballot delivery, wrong names on the ballot, stealing the forms for final counting, winners jailed for misconduct, bribing voters in villages to vote for candidates, letting members of other parties vote in the internal ones, sole candidacy in many constituencies and also clear indication of rigged for loyal Mzee men and woman.

#Steady Progress is to land as hunting-grounds or for services rendered for the government either to the likes of Aga Khan or other foreigners, even trade of forests and mineral rich land, to get it pocketed while the Government of Uganda can.

#Steady Progress is to borrow more and more money to fund the aid deficit created by the “Anti-Gay-Bill” fiasco. That left a vacuum from foreign interest together with the strategic loss of partners to sustain their aid to the country and picking other feasible projects there.

#Steady Progress is give money to religious leaders to secure their congregation who their God has picked as leader and who their lord has anointed to the position.

#Steady Progress is to get a bigger government and more ministries so that all the ones closes and most loyal get a place in the central government.

Uganda Parliament Museveni

#Steady Progress is to give a person the role of ministry without a portfolio or office

#Steady Progress is to use more on private plans and military equipment then on basic school kits, school buildings or even medical supplies.

#Steady Progress is for the President to claim again and again that he is the only Mzee who can keep the country safe and keep control of the army.

#Steady Progress is to have old medicine or copy medication instead of having extra supplies through the NMS.

#Steady Progress is to have ghost-workers, ghost-voters, ghost-schools, ghost-roads or ghost-expenditure.

#Steady progress is to fire all of the UNRA workers and getting the funding for bigger projects through the World Bank cancelled.

#Steady Progress is to see that Uganda Human Rights Commission loses it funding from it’s donors.

Crime-preventers-on-the-parade-in-Kasese-district-2

#Steady Progress is to hire “Crime Preventers” as securing votes and create havoc in other candidate’s rallies to make sure that people stay loyal to the Mzee, and also ship them from NRM rally to NRM rally to make the party look more popular.

#Steady Progress is to have more and more car accidents on the bad roads, even lose the lives of more Members of Parliament due to bad roads in the districts.

#Steady Progress is for the rich and for the wealthy to take their family members or themselves to health facilities abroad to heal and prosper.

#Steady Progress is to borrow money on the future-oil monies and trade of the oil refinery from Russian state-owned company to buy military equipment.

#Steady Progress is to lose battalions and soldiers in Somalia and leave new recruits with little or no supply. The army in Somalia has to sell equipment for food and necessities; instead of fighting the terrorist group Al-Shabab.

#Steady Progress is that landslides after heavy rains and floods have no covering or security funds from the government nor any restrictions or helping agents to save lives on that matter.

#Steady Progress is given funds of 51 billion to the post-election violence for the Police and army for the “excuse” to secure the safety and peace in the country.

#Steady Progress is to tear down other candidates posters while sealing off and securing with Police force the incumbent presidential candidates ones on the walls.

Ready to Move with Sevo Music Campaign for 2016 P5

#Steady Progress is to use a tiny fortune to make a gig-song and have singers on the campaign trail.

#Steady Progress is to pay boda-boda men in town and villages to not drive to opposition rallies.

#Steady Progress is to have a rising inflation and devalue the currency before and after every election time, leading the results for more expensive fuel, food and living prices in general. 

#Steady Progress is to send SMS’s to everybody to tell them to VOTE MZEE, even if they don’t are NRM members or belongs with the Party, instead he sends to all Ugandans in the companies to gain support.

#Steady Progress is to pay boda-boda drivers to drive people to Mzee’s venues, give away t-shirts, give away free fuel, feed the public food and give money to the attendance of the crowd.

#Steady Progress is to use 500 billion shillings for campaigning for the presidential candidate, to give out handouts to loyal men and woman in the districts, cars to chiefs and other gifts of that nature to feed the loyal NRM people in up-country and the rest of the country.

#Steady Progress is to close off transmitter of radios who send messages opposing the NRM-Regime.

#Steady Progress is to deliver a campaign package of 20 million shillings to NRM Parliamentary candidates.

We can all see and this a gist of the actions and events leading up to the 29 years of #Steady Progress from Mzee and his NRM party. This was certainly not the things he fought for in the bush-war or the idea he sold at the time. It has surely changed. I could have displayed all the corruption cases, embezzlements and such, but as I said this gist of the actions from the NRM party and Mzee. We have not taken in account his foreign adventures and military actions, or all the people that have been left behind. Peace.

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