WADA Report Excerpt on Russian Athletes and the McLaren Investigation

WADA Leaks proves questionable use of medicine/drugs for Van Der Burgh and Niyonsamba


As the big ones like Chris Froome, Serena Williams and others has been credited by major papers as they has to come out with statement on their use of questionable medication to might bolster their achievements as athletes in professional sport. This has been scrutinized over time and trying to stop doping happing as the doped athlete has an advantage, but also cheats themselves to victory over the ones who doesn’t do it to stimulate better results.

First: Cameron Van Der Burgh, the South African swimmer we’re authorised by the Federation Internationale de Natation (FINA) by Cornel Marculescu on the 8th July 2008. The Swimmer was accepted to take Salbutamol with an inhaler. That would be effective from 23rd June 2009 and expire on the 23rd June 2013. His biggest victory as a Swimmer was winning a Silver Medal on 100 meters breast under the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics.

The WADA regulation says this:

“     All beta-2 agonists, including all optical isomers, e.g. d- and l- where relevant, are prohibited.


  • Inhaled salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours);
  • Inhaled formoterol (maximum delivered dose 54 micrograms over 24 hours); and
  • Inhaled salmeterol in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regimen.

The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 40 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of the therapeutic inhaled dose up to the maximum indicated above” (http://list.wada-ama.org/list/s3-beta-2-agonists/).

Cameron Van Der Burgh - Silver Medal Rio 2016
Cameron Van Der Burgh – Silver Medal Rio 2016

Even if it is okay on the list, the question remains why these are okay by their regulation to open up windows for enhancing body functions.

To tell what they found out of a test with the medical use of this for non-asthmatics athletes got this:

“after administering a single oral therapeutic dose (4 mg) of the β2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol to healthy, elite endurance trained male athletes, acute ergogenic effects were shown in terms of a reduced extent of EIAH as well as an increment in time to exhaustion during a constant-load test, which indicated a meaningful performance-enhancing effect in a race situation” (Andersen, Kim F. & Kanstrup, Inge-Lis, 01.02.2009 in ‘Official Research Journal of the American Society of Exercise Physiologists (ASEP)’ ). So the drug has effect in a race situation, that means the effects of it will help when it means the most for the individual using it. So if there is a swimming race the ones taking it will gain advantage for the reaction the body has to the stimuli of the beta-2 agonists.

This was also written about the concerning drug:

Many athletes use the Beta-2 agonists to increase the oxygen intake. Beta-2 agonists such as salbutamol have become a concern in sports because the high doses of this drug can act as an anabolic agent to promote gain in weight, mainly in the form of muscle in the body. However, this increased strength and the increased oxygen intake comes with a risk of health damage. Beta-2-adrenoreceptor (beta-2) agonists are drugs that act as bronchodilators. The drugs stimulate the airways in the lungs to open wider, permitting maximum air to pass. Before coming to be misused in sports as well as certain beta-2 agonists were used illegally in intensive livestock farming. When administered in high doses, these substances promote protein synthesis, which in the case of animals resulted in an increase in the proportion of muscle mass to fat mass. Athletes using these substances for doping anticipate similar effects, as well as a short-term enhancement of performance due to the dilation of bronchial passages. Scientific research has not substantiated these expectations, however. Some beta-2 agonists are prohibited in sports. In some cases therapy for medical reasons must be approved by applying for a therapeutic use exemption (TUE). The drugs are especially helpful to asthmatics athletes, who can suffer from insufficient air supply to the lungs due to narrowing of the bronchi. Athletes who take beta-2 agonists can also improve their athletic performance, because of the increased infusion of air. However, this type of athletic enhancement is illegal” (PET, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya-Butana, Distt-Sonepat, Haryana (India) – ‘Beta 2 Agonist: Therapeutic Use Exemption, Misuse in Sports and its Adverse Effect on Health’ (December 2013) – International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR))

So if this was legal by the WADA and their laws to enhance the race of single individual athletes. We all have rights to question this loophole for using asthma medication to get better results when the person involved isn’t asthmatic, which is insulting to the ones who actual need the medication to breath more normally. As these are supposed to be better trained and life-long goal orientated people who shouldn’t need to cheat to gain a medal at any bigger tournament or series. This is two different studies shows that the drug enhances the Athlete for their performance.

Even if WADA allows this one and this drug, why shouldn’t’ they allow the other ones who are similar with the same effects? I am sure there will be reports that counters it, even read one funded by WADA claiming it didn’t and that make me more sceptical as there are so many studies surfaced online that are showing positive results for Athletes without Asthma; which means that the athlete use it can get better results with this. So the individual who does this has to question their own ethics as they are using medication for a chronic disease who many people all over the world has. That athlete’s use it to cheat is insulting to the supporters and the other ones they compete with unless all of them are using it. Then the competition would be the same.

Francine Niyonsaba - Silver Medal Rio Olympics 2016
Francine Niyonsaba – Silver Medal Rio 2016

Second: Francine Niyonsaba, the Burundian runner has been authorised by International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) on 15th June and it was effective from the same date by Pierre-Yves Garnier, the allowed the Athlete to take Tibolone (Livial) taking it oral, once a day until 15th June 2017. Francine Niyonsaba won a silver medal at the 800 meters at the Rio 2016 Olympics.

Francine is controversial because of the ruling of CAS and IAAF before the Rio Olympics that faced scrutiny as the court gave way for Francine Niyonsaba, Caster Semenya and Margareth Wambui to run as Woman in the Rio Olympics. I will not go into that, but just so that isn’t forgotten as the Tibolone and doping is my key aspect to matter in the same regard as the previous athlete.

The Tibolone (Livial) is a: “Livial is different from other HRT. Instead of actual hormones (such as oestrogen and progestogen) it contains tibolone. Your body breaks down tibolone to make hormones. Its effects and benefits are similar to combined HRT” (Livial 2.5mg tablets – 04.04.2016, link: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/2391).

In 1999 BBC wrote an article about the drug:

“However, Dr Morris says this too can be an advantage since many post-menopausal women have very dry, thin skin. “Replacing hormone levels with Livial can thicken the skin and have the effect of reducing wrinkles,” he said. He added that, besides side effects like bleeding and worries about breast cancer, the reason many women come off HRT is because they expect miracle results from it because of media hype. “HRT just restores hormonal levels to what they were before the menopause. It does improve a person’s sense of energy, relieve hot flushes and protect against osteoporosis, but it is not a miracle tonic,” he said” (BBC.co.uk – ‘HRT treatment ‘can increase libido’, 08.08.1999, link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/388675.stm).

So the menopause and osteoporosis can be “cured” with this drug. The strengthening of bones with added hormones and improves energy for a person. That most seem like a perfect remedy for a runner and Athlete. This is giving an advantage to Francine Niyonsaba towards the other ones she is competing against. That she has hormones used to stop Menopause and osteoporosis, I hope that Francine has the first as woman, but she uses hormones that most likely have enhanced her performance; that is not righteous towards the competitors. Give her strength to compete and energy to achieve more. That the IAAF accepts and acknowledges that the Athletes can do so, apparently!

After just these two cases that Cameron Van Der Burgh and Francine Niyonsaba uses medicine and drugs that enhance their performance and therefor can perform better in competition.

So if the WADA together with the FINA and IAAF accept the athletes to go on like this is proving if we really should believe that professional sports and tournaments are filled with drugged athletes who compete for the first price. But what is the value of the sports if some get rights to use drugs while others get suspended for doing same? Either all of them are using enhancing drugs or none of them. But if WADA together with other International Sports Organizations contributing to the factor that the athletes are not clean; that is on the accord between them and therefore they are not stopping this behaviour. The Sports enthusiasts should complain to their organizations and sports bodies to make sure they stop these kind acts from them doesn’t reoccur if they want honest sports. If the enthusiasts don’t care about the drugs and enhancement of performance, than you can just let slide.

Still, these cases are far from alone as mentioned in the beginning. There are many more questionable cases and athletes who have gotten away with taking enhancement drugs to perform better. While others been sanctioned and been banned from continued to perform on international stage as athletes in Olympics and such. There is a double standard somewhere… and hope somebody catch it. If not I am sure FIFA can help out with their accountability executive? Peace.

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