MinBane

I write what I like.

Archive for the tag “Kagame”

Muse Report shows how the French Government supported Habyiramana during the 1994 Genocide!

Just two days ago an American Law Firm studied the Rwandan Genocide as they say it themselves: “In light of that inquiry, the Government of Rwanda has retained the Washington, D.C. law firm of Cunningham Levy Muse LLP to review and report on the material available in the public record on the role and knowledge of French officials regarding the Genocide against the Tutsi” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 3, 2017). This here is will be quotes from that report that is on the role of the French Government in the Rwandan Genocide. Clearly, there has been allegations and has been some talk about that, concerning the arms and the knowledge of it. This report are putting light on some of that. I will take the quotes that is substantial for the French intervention in the civil war and genocide in Rwanda.

The expansion of France’s military support and strategic advice began within days of the war’s commencement. On October 11, 1990, Defense Attaché Colonel René Galinié recommended sending French advisers into the field, northeast of the combat zone, to “educate, organize and motivate troops that had been ossified for thirty years and who had forgotten the basic rules of battle.” (…) “In addition to advice, French officials supplied the FAR with modern mortars, armored vehicles, and other vehicles, along with ammunition and rockets. French officials also provided and helped maintain helicopter-gunships, which fired upon RPF fighters. According to jokes at the time, the only thing Rwandan soldiers did was pull the trigger” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 12-13, 2017).

Massacres of Tutsi continued throughout 1991, 1992, and up until the Genocide. French officials were aware of massacres at this time, as well as the role of the Habyarimana government and its military in them. Despite this knowledge, French officials maintained their support of the Rwandan military and funneled weapons into Rwanda” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 20, 2017).

Thus, in February 1993, after the Noroît detachment had just been reinforced . . . , the Army Chief of Staff reminded the defense attaché that he was responsible for “ensuring that the Rwandan army does not find itself in a stock shortage of sensitive ammunition . . . and that deliveries to the FAR of military equipment be made in the utmost discretion.” In fact, in the timeline laid down in his end of mission report, Colonel Philippe Tracqui, commander of the Noroît detachment for the period from February 8, 1993 to March 21, 1993, noted “Friday, February 12, 1993: landing of a DC8 50 with a 12.7mm machine gun plus 100,000 cartridges for the FAR. Wednesday, February 17, 1993: landing of a Boeing 747 with discrete unloading by the FAR of 10 mm shells and 68 mm rockets (Alat).” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 23, 2017).

The French Parliamentary Commission accordingly found: Faced with procrastination by Rwandan authorities and concerned about the stability of states and regional security, France never made the decision to suspend all cooperation, or even to decrease the level of its civil and military aid. Thus, President Juvénal Habyarimana was able to convince himself that “France . . . would be behind him regardless of the situation, and he could do anything militarily and politically.” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 27, 2017).

Arms flows to the FAR were not suspended immediately by France after the imposition of the arms embargo on May 17, 1994. Rather, they were diverted to Goma airport in Zaire as an alternative to Rwanda’s capital, Kigali, where fighting between the FAR and the rebel RPF as well as an international presence made continued shipments extremely difficult. Some of the first arms shipments to arrive

in Goma after May 17 were supplied to the FAR by the French government. Human Rights Watch learned from airport personnel and local businessmen that five shipments arrived in May and June containing artillery, machine guns, assault rifles and ammunition provided by the French government. These weapons were taken across the border into Rwanda by members of the Zairian military and delivered to the FAR in Gisenyi. The French consul in Goma at the time, Jean-Claude Urbano, has justified the five shipments as a fulfillment of contracts negotiated with the government of Rwanda prior to the arms embargo” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 39, 2017).

Information in the public record also shows that in the months that followed the Genocide against the Tutsi French officials continued to support génocidaires. On August 3, 1994, the UN Secretary General suggested that the international community should coordinate with UNAMIR to identify within the camps perpetrators of the Genocide against the Tutsi, with an eye to bringing them to justice. But instead, French soldiers escorted and released suspected génocidaires in Zaire. Between July and September 1994, French military helicopters evacuated Bagosora, along with Interahamwe leader Jean-Baptiste Gatete, and other ex-FAR troops and militia members, out of Goma” (…) “Finally, we urge the Government of Rwanda to seek France’s cooperation in this endeavor. To this end, France should make available its archives, documents, physical evidence and officials (current and former). Any investigation by the Government of Rwanda should evaluate what occurred in the 1990s, as well as what has happened since then, including France’s cooperation with this investigation into French complicity in the Genocide” (Cunningham Levy Muse, P: 48, 52, 2017).

This one collected lots of public information and put into account. This is damning evidence and not just random quotes from a mad-man, but from lawyers collected information as ordered by the Rwandan Government. The could have been done by the French, they might have given other insights and even transcripts we haven’t seen. Even as the Rwandan has and can get documentation on the actions during the genocide and before. Since the Rwandan Government wants closure and might want the French to answer for their crimes.

French President Francois Mitterrand at the time was loyal to President Juvenal Habyarimana, therefore wanted to stop the Rwandan Patriotic Front from overthrowing their man at any cost apperently. The French really showed it with the ammunition, training and also helping them flee with weapons to Zaire/Democratic Republic of Congo. Clearly, the French knew what they did and did it with a reason, as of they wanted someone loyal to them and also a weapons brother at any cost.

So the continued trouble of the Great Lakes Region has been created by the French as well. Since they let the Interahamwe and Ex-FAR leave with weapons in the refugee camps in the DRC. That has been an initial reason for violence since the 1990s. The French should step up and take responsibility for what they did and who they gave power to. Which also created this genocide. The PRF and President Paul Kagame did his part, the RPF is not a holy and non-violent movement who just brought peace. They also killed and took control. However, the French did aid and abide help to the other partner in the crime. Therefore, they are responsible for their part in this genocide. That shouldn’t be left alone and the stones should be turned, the ones sanction this and ordering this on behalf of Habyarimana and his government.

This report was compelling and it shows how disgraceful the French was and how they really wanted the dictator Habyirmana to continue to rule in Rwanda. Peace.

Reference:

Cunningham Levy Muse LLP – ‘REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION TO THE GOVERNMENT OF RWANDA ON THE ROLE OF FRENCH OFFICIALS IN THE GENOCIDE AGAINST THE TUTSI’ (11.12.2017)

Advertisements

[Wish I had a bigger Microphone] The World right now is too Bloody…

south-sudan-army-pic

There aren’t only murders and mysteries on the telly, its real life and not fiction as the Syrian civil war continues rapidly without whomever force and whomever ally around Aleppo or other check-points where the Presidents force, rebels or ISIS are shooting. The bullets don’t have names, but the men and woman on the side-line and at the battle who dies does; the men and woman who loses their life for themselves or a Nobel-cause.

As much as there are forces battling inside the Iraq nation as Government Forces are attacking together with American soldiers ISIS stronghold around Mosul. There are continued fighting inside of Afghanistan. Still battles between civilians and the Indian Army inside the Kashmir state that has issues there and on the Pakistan side of Kashmir. The long battle for freedom or justice, as the Kurds are battling for in Syria, Turkey and in Iraq; being the minority in the middle of the civil war in Syria and Iraq.

That is just some places, as the deteriorating state of affairs are attacking all sort of freedoms inside Ethiopia, as the army and Aghazi squad are killing and harassing the people’s in Amhara and Oromia states. Together with the arrests of bloggers, silencing media outlets, and detaining demonstrators, burning the homes of people and inflicting violence on the citizens. This state of emergency is used as a useful tool to oppress, silence and make sure the violence and killings doesn’t get out; while the Central Government works to find reasons and solutions to ways of total control of minds and bodies in the states of demonstrations against the Addis Ababa regime.

In Burundi the central government are using the Police and army, together with the Imbonerakure that are detaining, harassing, killing and torturing civilians, silencing the opposition and the ones not loyal to the  President Pierre Nkurunziza narrative of keeping power by any means. The Burundian Government has claimed that the Rwandan Government has created armies and guerrillas that wished for a coup d’état against the Nkurunziza regime. Therefore the fleeing civilians are in the wind as the Rwandan government has been wonder for a spell, if they would banish the Burundian refugees a place in the country.

FARDC Beni May 2016

While in the Democratic Republic of Congo, several guerrillas are still running wild, burning and killing villagers in the States of North and South Kivu, Katanga and so on. Where the foreign based groups that have been started in Rwanda and Uganda, continues to battle the locals for the valuable minerals; as even today a former M23 Commander Sultani Makenga who been in Uganda has crossed with a militarized group, surely from Kisoro as before to cause more havoc in the Kivu’s. The ADF-NALU, Mayi-Mayi and others doesn’t create enough death and crimes against humanity already, as the MONUSCO and FARDC haven’t the ability or will to silence them.

In South Sudan, the internal battle that started in July 2016, the resurgence of skirmishes between the SPLA/M and the SPLM/A-IO who are the TGNU and the Opposition party, which is the armies for President Salva Kiir and his former First Vice-President Riek Machar. That has since July battled each other with forces, in Western Bahr El Ghazal State, Equatoria State and Upper Nile State. There been fighting between the two in other states, but just show how big and powerful the forces are. The South Sudanese civilians are the losers who flees to Ethiopia, Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo, even in Congo because the Opposition we’re there has been asked to leave to other destinations. Therefore the internal power-struggle those fear of genocide, as still creating implications inside other nations.

In Somalia the Al-Shabab, the different state continues to have infighting together with the AMISOM mission. The running battles for land between Galdumug Interim Administration and the Puntland Government inside the Federal Republic of Somalia. Doesn’t really help for a peaceful session and making dialogue in the war-torn nation where Piracy and Khat been the ways of securing funds for ammunition and AKs, not for building a state and security.

eritrean_troops_control_ministry

Eritrea is closed and the continuation of the flow of refugees, as the internal controlling central government that forces the freedoms and liberties, as the men and woman does what they can to even enter Ethiopia, where they are badly treated. Eritrean reports are staggering as they are even supporting internal guerrillas in Ethiopia and Djibouti to unsettle their neighbours.

There are wars and running battles between government forces and rebels in Central African Republic, Mali, Mozambique and so on. This is happening in silence and without little flash, even as the ones are guerrillas like Boko Haram that are going in between Nigeria and Cameroon, to stop the Government from functioning and spreading fear of locals.

What is worrying how these actions continues, and how there are other I could mention, the issues in Libya, the Algerian complex and the Western Sahara colony of the Kingdom of Morocco.

Peace Ethiopia

The death that dies in silence, in the midst of homes, villages where their families have been living for decades, while big-men fight like two elephants; the grass get hurt, but the big-men be fine. The same is with all of these civil wars, the civilians are dying, the societies are deteriorating, the central government are controlled by little amount of people instead of procedure and rule of law.

The worry is how it becomes pro-longed, how the innocent dies and the power-hungry survive and the lucky get refugee somewhere else in uncertainty, like for how long can they stay, as been seen with the Kenyan Government work to get rid of Somali refugees in Dadaab Refugee camp during this calendar year, while the Somalian Federation if far from peaceful. Even as the Ethiopian troops has went home again surely to use their knowledge to chop heads in Amhara and Oromia. That is what they do now, they just doesn’t want people to know about it.

We shouldn’t allow this actions to happen, this killings, this violence and the silence of freedom, liberty and justice to our fellow peers, we should act upon it, question our power-to-be and the men who rules over these armies, the ones creating the havoc and the ones who are behind the crimes against humanity. Those are the ones that earning money on the wars and the ones that doesn’t want the words on the acts; those are the worst ones in it all as they are accomplices to destruction of lives and societies as we speak. Peace.

H.E. Benjamin Mpaka Statement at the Extra-Ordinary EAC Heads of State Summit recently (Earlier in September 2016)

mpaka-statement-p1mpaka-statement-p2mpaka-statement-p3mpaka-statement-p4

Opinion: A little rant to the long serving Presidents out there; I had too after the NBS TV Uganda 100 days since M7 stole the Election BS recently…

M7 100 Days

With the NBS TV Uganda who wanted to ask President Museveni how he felt after his first 100 days into his 5th official term… how he felt of his achievements as Executive after a hundred days we’re the journalist questions to the man who have ruled since 1986. President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni has run the Ugandan Republic for over 10950 days! So the question was blurred out and surely lost sight of the reality of their long serving Executive.

The same can be said with President Robert Mugabe who is heated and demonstrated against in Zimbabwe. In a country with fiscal economic issues and loss of agricultural output together with weaken production as the El Nino has hurt the economy more. Together with rampant corruption and a Zanu-PF Elite who are more concern with their luxurious vehicles in Harare than the empty stomachs of the poor working class. This happens while the Police are brutalizing the demonstrators and the ones speaking against the government are either harassed or detained. Even hurt so they end up at the Hospital. So the dire oblivion for the economic landscape as the tension between the citizens and draconian state will not dissolve overnight.

Hon. Kemi Adeosun said this on the 18th August: “The Economy is challenged and people are extremely frustrated, and we need to rebuild fundamentality. We need to prioritize… We need to realize that with the collapse of commodity prices. We don’t have enough  foreign exchange to buy as many imported goods as we like to, so when there is import substitution, we must embrace it”.

Zim Ministry of Information

When the Financial Minister says this as the Opposition are harassed and the public is silence and more draconian laws like Cyber Crime laws coming in Parliament. Show’s the ability of Zimbabwean regime wishes to push laws to silence social media and other dissidents as the policies and the regulations of Zanu-PF haven’t born fruits. This has to be hurtful for the President who has had years upon years to build, instead has skimmed money for himself and his elite.

Therefore with the knowledge of President Museveni (Sudan), President Deby (Chad), President Dos Santos (Angola) , President Nkurunziza (Burundi) , President Kagame (Rwanda), President Kabila (DRC), President Bashir (Sudan), President Afewerki (Eritrea), President Guelleh (Djibouti) and President Mugabe (Zimbabwe) has all been sitting a long time and has nothing new to show (and surely I could given some honourable mentions that I haven’t said). They can’t and they are not hungry to deliver. If they deliver or does anything profound it would be by rare luck or a new cash-cow for their elites and the political affiliates.

It is a reason why the Members of Parliament are greedy, why the corrupt behavior is happening and why the transparency is so low. The Executives who runs for life and runs for decades upon decades wish to run the game without question. That is their wish and their ways of assembling the needed riches for themselves.

NRM Oyee! 09.04.2016

President Museveni might drop by district and deliver some equipment and check of a few million shillings, but the depleted hospitals and schools isn’t built on wink and nudge from the master. While the inflation and the unstable currency doesn’t make the investors safe to have a haven of business in Uganda. This together with everything is connected to the President and his entourage as the family of Museveni is connected to all kind of business and agreements. Land is being delivered to the Elite or Financial backers, while locals and Internal Displaced Persons are living decades-on in camps. So the Museveni cannot drop a new sense of accountability as the walking budget isn’t promising anything new or creating a solid foundation now as that is not in his interest.

The interest of these long serving leaders isn’t to have strong institutions; they want them weak and keep people loyal around them. The Electorate and Citizens are not really important they are only important when they are pawns useful to trade aid or trade agreements of government loans to secure fiscal funding of the Financial Year and the Budget.  

These long serving leaders have control over foreign exchange, central banks and also the businesses that are vital for export commodities so that they can earn money on the hard work of the citizens as they do what they can to survive and live basic on the mercy of these political leaders. This happens years upon end… without question and with the powers of controlling the heads of the Military and Police so they can silence the population. Therefore the worst crimes aren’t murders or stealing under these dictatorships. The worst crime and worst offence is to offend and counter-claim the legitimacy of the Executive. Parts of that is also to solidify popular support of the public and therefore needs to be detained and charged with amazing amounts affidavits and draconian laws to determine the fate of the opposition by any means.

So this is the profile of the fellow Presidents, they are doing it in their own way, but the key of results is this: keep themselves in Power and secure the government funds together with business in the Nation for their loyalist and the people that the President can trust.

swiss leaks africa accounts

Since they cannot win the popular ballots as some of them could have in their first elections and ballots as they might have liberated the Nation or even gotten rid of former dictators or the fantastically corrupt who used the army and economy themselves to build palaces and get more government funds into Swiss Bank Accounts than amounts of sheep on New Zealand. The Presidents and their elites are in recent elections either using fear, armies to disrupt and silence opposition; if that doesn’t work ballot-stuffing, pre-ticked ballots and even stop the counting and fix the result for the Ruling Regime. So that the “legitimate” government is still there and with their “elected” men and woman even if the Electorate meant differently. That has happen again and again. The Presidents uses elections as big-caving events and periods to finally buy loyalty of local communities and give pledges that they have never plans to achieve as they keep the district in dire poverty to secure the aid and donor funds. While having ability to skim the funds and take the taxpayer’s money as the accountability doesn’t matter as much as the personal relationship between the Elite on the top. So when the President passes by the impoverished district he would drop some shillings and pay the community leaders with a new car or big brown envelope.

Why do we accept these men to run these ruthless games and when is this supposed to end?

When will the public and citizens be respected?

What do you think about my opinions, does they fit the bill?

Do you have any answers as I was just ranting again today! Peace.

Discussion: Should the French get jurisdiction for trials of Rwandan Genocide? Since they now are breaching international boundaries and judging acts not happening on French soil, but in Rwanda.

Mittrand Rwanda President

It is not that I am for the Rwandan genocide or partial in any sense of the actions done in Paris today. I will just spill the beans and ask for questionable trial and courtship in Paris as that is France, not Kigali that is Rwanda. If it still we’re tribunal in Arusha, Tanzania then this would be understandable for court outside as it was an agreement between United Nation and the Rwandan Government for this Tribunal as Peaceful change after the civil war and the genocide in 1993-1994 in the country. There I will question the action of the French Authorities today.

In Paris today:

“On Tuesday, Octavien Ngenzi, 58, and Tito Barahira, 64, will go on trial for allegedly playing a direct role in the massacre of hundreds of Tutsi refugees in a church in the eastern town of Kabarondo on April 13, 1994” (News Wires, 2016).

Milwaukee-Journal-April-7-1994

Because it is an important question and with the implication of history between Rwanda and the France; France have been the colonial master on the African Continent and still have control over the Central African Franc (CAF) and with that has an economic stake in many African nations. Still, this should not be implicated into why they can take Citizens of another Nation and also order their trial, even if it is breaching with Human Rights and Roman Statute. Most Countries have ratified the Roman Statute and also parts of UN Charter for Human Rights and even the Geneva Convention on justice in War. Still, this does opens the door from who has the right to sanction and the right to create justice.

Some people might say the Rwandan Government is a totalitarian and a Police State under strict control from a central government under the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) under President Paul Kagame who does not have the will to take certain Génocidaires to court as they might implicate certain close allies of the government. Still, that does not open the question that I will talk about. Because even if the courts and judges are premature and built for the Government in Rwanda, does not take away their jurisdiction and their own rights of rule of law in their own country. Even when it is the violations are a crime against humanity as Genocide.

KagameCartoon

Not that I want the men and woman behind an action of this size to get away is not my intention to discuss it. It is more the example of colonial law and the post-colonial acts that are not just or justified. We as people have to set standards and use our minds. I will not let the French or British control the Central Arguments, as much as I don’t want the Americans or Chinese doing it. What is important is this. We have Nations, which is a set territory, a territory where they keep citizens safe and have the monopoly for violence is for the state; in that sense that the nation have an Army to keep foreign forces away and the town a secure to raise families and work. Second part of that security is the internal security to make peace inside the country with a Police that takes criminals and courts of laws that with justification condemns and detain fellow citizens that have breached the national laws. All of this should be universal and understood, as ordinary understanding of what a state should do. And it with this matter I will take a step further.

Because this is important even when the States and Governments who controls their nations and does the wrong acts against fellow peers. Their citizens should then as long as the nation and state have ratified international laws and statutes get their crimes against humanity in the International Criminal Court of Hauge. Even if the ICC and it’s attack on African Leaders, it still have the authority as given by the United Nation and the other bodies together with the ratified laws that the States and Government have signed at one point in time.

rwandan-editorial-cartoon

The problem I have and the reason for it is simple and it’s basic for any Republic/Kingdom/State/Nation their sovereign rights and their sovereign rule as a Sovereign Power in their own Territory as it is with the Army and the Police inside that nation. That is the main issue I have. Even when it comes to Crime Against Humanity.

Let’s say that the unlawful and unjust war from the United States of America under President George W. Bush who even address the world on 20th March 2003, which started a war on false premise and lies to American public and the United Nations, without the international states accept for United Kingdom accepting the attack on the Sovereign Nation of Iraq under President Saddam Hussain. I am not saying President Hussain we’re a saint, as his acts with certain gas and weapons against Iran was not justified, still the matter at hand can question the jurisdiction of the ones implicated and breaches of justice from the American Government at the time and the United Kingdom Government who went in Iraq. They all certainly we’re behind acts against Humanity on some levels as they went to war and even did torture in certain chambers in Iraq. Can the Rwandan Government and their courts if they collect evidence and collect for instance affidavit of victims and of low-level civil servants of the time, could they take President Bush for trial at the High Court of Kigali?

Time Saddam

I am just asking the question, because the case today is an act upon the same sovereign question as the former Mayors of two towns or villages are taken to court in Paris. They are in foreign land as they are not in the Jurisdiction and the Territory of where the crimes happen and in the State where the claimed Génocidaires are citizens.

If citizenship and if sovereign nations still means something, then we have to ask the question and ask the matter. Even when it grimes crimes and crimes against humanity as the laws should be the same for Western Nations as for the African Nations. This should open up the questions for French interaction with the Génocidaires of the official government at the time under President Habyarimana with the military training and equipment before Operation Turquoise turned into the UNAMIR mandate under Dallaire. In that sense, the black-box sage that never really been answered as the training and interference of the French, should give the Government under Rwandan Patriotic Front to be allowed to Court the French Men who served the Génocidaires, right? Since the French now is doing the same in Paris, just because they are French and European should not make them able to clean their hands of the blood, just as much as the RPA, now RPF should not be white-washed over time. The law should apply alike to either side. Something that should not be needed to explain or take on; as any crime on humanity and support of the attacks with weapons and structures should be taken to court as violation of these men and woman.

The case is not that the Génocidaires should be dealt with from authorities and the men behind killings should not be punished by the Government or any other piece international legal-body that has the jurisdiction on it. If so then the men and woman should go to international court or a national one that could offer a fair judgement on the causes behind the violations and assess the criminal activity.

Rwanda Paris Court

But what bugs me is the easy way the French and Government of France overturn the Rwandan Government as a sovereign nation to turn their citizens and their eye-witnesses to Paris for the trial to concede the judgement of these two mayors. Not that I am defending the Mayors for their activity, it’s the actions of French I am still questioning.

That is why, why couldn’t the Rwandese if they could collect information on the French involvement and support of the late-President Habyarimana in the turns up-to the genocide. Since the French can now take Rwandese to court in Paris and collect the witnesses from Rwanda to serve these men and woman in the capital of France. There questions about it and if it is justified as the precedence this kind of cases set. As if the French Authorities still can grant them authority to get these people to be eye-witnesses in a court case of actions against humanity in Rwanda and not on the French shores or near Caen. Therefore since this court is not directly based on the Roman Statute or the other ratified laws where the crimes against humanity are involved and control the verdicts of the judgements. So the matter is that if it was so, since this a case that is about crimes done abroad in alien jurisdiction, it might should have been posted in the ICC and not the High Court or whatever name the Court have in Paris.

Rwanda France

It is not that I want the two Mayors to free-men without a court judgement or get the Génocidaires of the Rwandan tragedy to not be tested in Court and get fair trials, so that the men and woman who has actually done their crimes get their punishment. But the way it is done and how it is conducted as long as it talks about Sovereign States and Territory; when coming to court and to be able to conduct justice to its citizens and the condemn the crimes, condone it and make sure that criminals get fair trials before serving time as felons. That shouldn’t be too much to ask. The question is if we twisted the Courts to Kigali instead of Paris, if the French we’re sent to be on trial in Kigali instead of Paris. That should be allowed to ask, as the Rwandan Government and the French Government are both Sovereign States. As Sovereign they have rights, over territory and their citizens and nations are bound to respect these in any sense and be responsible for justice, also over boundaries and borders. And also respecting the international conventions, laws and other ratified accords that set the standards for justice in the State as the Citizens need safety and security; something the state should provide and make sure they have, by the peaceful means and rule of law. Peace.

Reference:

New Wires – ‘Rwandan ex-mayors face trial in France over 1994 genocide’ (10.05.2016) link: http://www.france24.com/en/20160509-rwandan-ex-mayors-face-trial-france-1994-genocide-Ngenzi-Barahira

Why are the leaders of our time so hooked-on Power? And some theories for why they don’t leave the Executive Power to somebody else..

Mugabe Military

We are living in a day and age where leader’s doesn’t leave from their office. You have likes of Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasongo who is making himself ready for another election in his country this year and he has been in power since 1979. You have the likes of President Paul Biya of Cameroon who has been the President since 1982 and was in government since 1970s. In Zimbabwe the President of the day President Robert Gabriel Mugabe has been the Commander in Chief.  And the list goes on.

Kagame Nkurunziza 2011

We have the third term phenomenon of President Pierre Nkurunziza of Burundi, President Paul Kagame of Rwanda both of them have changed the laws or used Courts to allow them to stay in power. So the leadership roles are sufficient to stay. You have the likes of President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni who has been in charge since 1986 and stayed ever since, changed laws again and again to linger in power and is rumored to fix the age limit to stay passed his 7th Term.

Mittrand Rwanda President

So with this in mind, I will discuss it today. It is not a new phenomenon or a new change of guards. There are always leaders who linger and overstay their time in power. As President Juvénal Habyarimana of Rwanda took power with a coup d’état in 1973 and was in power until his plane got shot down in 1994. Just like the overthrow of first President Patrice Lumumba of Democratic Republic of Congo in 1965, who by foreign powers supposed to install Mobutu Seko Seko Kuku Ngebendu Wa Za Banga who was born Joseph-Desire Mobutu who was the President of DRC from 1965 until 1997. So there are leaders of the past who has not left office and is now long gone.

The issue with this is the way we build society around people instead of institutions and government structures. The Structures of government is kept weak and is not strong with procedure and predicated work for the civil service. That is why the leaders can linger and the way they keep it is fueling resources away from the government structures and institutions, keeping the progress weak and keeping the circle around them tight knit. Instead of having inner-circles with wits, knowledge and people who wants to succeed in their field; the leaders around the president is instead hungry men and woman who works for more and better civil service for the citizens.

US Dollar Campaign

That is because the leaders who circle all of government around themselves are not interested in great policies or deliver the promised pledges to the communities since then they have to give away power. When a leader tries to strengthen the power all around themselves then the necessary leadership is not about the government, but about the person who rules. The ruler set the standard ,not the laws of the state or the laws of the Parliament. As the Executive can fix the Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, can rig the Constitution and make draconian laws that issues more help for the Executive; instead of the Constitution and the Parliament representing the citizens and for the citizens it becomes for the Executive.

That is why the Executive or the Ruler, the President doesn’t want to leave power since the whole state is built around the one person. The One Person who has in his image or her image built the government around themselves. And when they have it all for themselves they don’t have to fight for anything else then themselves. That is what matters, if he schools is depleting, health care is non-functioning, roads have bigger potholes then the ones on the moon, the government loans are worse than the subprime-mortgage and so on. That doesn’t matter because the situations doesn’t hit the Executive, because the government funds goes directly to him instead of the ministries, departments and sections of government than really-really need it!

Zim 2008

The Power that starts with personal movement of fights and liberation, the ones that are personalized towards the one man who saved them all and then doesn’t leave is that the EGO and used to be center of attention. To have the voice of being right, so they can’t do things wrong in their own mind as they risk to lose their wealth and strength if they are out of office.

Barre Somalia

Some of these leaders have lived on the strength of the loyalty to foreign powers as they need their alliance in a region to secure peace in the neighbor country or during the cold war as the Americans did whatever they could to control the world and not lose nations to the Soviet communism. Therefore they fall of Said Barre of Somalia and the struggles of the Ethiopian Dirg of the 1970s. As the Cold War complex policies dissolved and built governments with influence of American and Russian strengths of the time. Take the example of President Mengistu Hailemariam who kept the Power from 1974 – 1991 with the Soviet influx and the Communist agenda that made the result of Somalia invasion with support of the Americans in 1977. So he himself had taken power in 1969 in Somalia the army fueled government of Said Barre as his power-play internally to keep the power together with the back and forth from the leadership at the time led to his fall, as he also had long-term squabble with Ogaden and Ethiopian neighbor after the tried invasion there. This the fall after 20 years might be because he circulated all power amongst himself and not in the powers of structures and department to delegate the powers.

That is the problem with the leaders who get fueled with power. They circulate all power and decisions are under the Executive. So with this in mind instead of building institutions and government structures, they build the armies and police force to enforce the Power of the Executive, not only to enforce national security, but to secure the Power of the Executive. Therefore the first to get payment are the armies and police officers before the teachers and other civil servants.

social-policy-analysis-political-economy-of-welfare-38-728

The Rulers and the Executives keeps the ignorant yes-men around them to secure that they don’t get to opportunist or wanting to get the Executive position. Therefore they elite around the Ruler get lots of perks, tax-exemptions, cars, housing and servants while the rest of the country can’t afford that. Unless it is foreign investors in businesses owned by the Party Elite or the Government elite that belongs to the inner-circle of the Executive; as the license and openings happens on the watch of the Executive and the Power not the legal justice system or the society binding corporate bondage towards the procedures of setting up business in the country. So the way the Executive get drunk on power is set on the fact that they having everything at nearly no cost.

The Presidents who are drunk on Power have centralized all powers around them and not the government structures and the decrees and the policies are made to keep them in power; not to build a grand state who offers their citizens what they need. Therefore the laws becomes for the MPs and the Elite that fuel the money and Power towards the President, then the President delivering to the People.

The remains of Mobutu's Palce

The remains of Mobutu’s Palce

So with the Inner-circle finding ways to support the President instead of serving the citizens as a government is supposed to do. Why are the Executive and rules high-on-power you asked?

That is because all of the Power, all of the resources and all of the goodwill of the nation is determined by the Executive. As the Power is resumed and determined by the Executive there is hard to leave that, as the knowledge of the system given to coming new leader can take away what the Executive already have built around itself. Therefore the security of having the power instead of giving it the next; that is why the lingering Executives and Presidents are like alcoholics!

equatorial-guinea20100317-9-728

Let me explain why the similarities are there. An Alcoholic has the hunger and need for another drink and beer. They do whatever they can to get another drink and beer, at all means and steal if they have to get that fizz. So the Alcoholic is so used to the alcohol that the feel of it weaken and needs much of it to feel it. The Alcoholic just need another brew and another brew. And never stops taking in the alcohol. In the beginning the alcoholic never think that they would end being so, and the same with power-hungry individual. It just became a habit. The alcoholic needs the alcohol, just as the Executive is drunk on power and needs some more drinks. The Executive gotten so used to and the habit of getting their will and generating the funds out of the governmental funds; so if they don’t get more the donor-funds or the Bretton-Woods Loans to their nations then they feel something is missing. They need the spotlight to be the king of the nation and the supreme ruler.

So the drunkenness and needed attention, the needed judgement and decision rate from the Executive that lingers in powers while they build the government system around themselves and weakens the people around them. So they are more needed and so that ambition gets squirrelled around them. There can only be one vision, one leader and one nation under God. That is the usual factor and the events that unfold as the dissidents and opposition get harsh treatment without any cost spared. Something that happens because they crossed the territory of the Executive and the rules of set-up by the President and the predicated actions are seen as violations of laws and constitution; that apparently been rigged in favor of current leader. Therefore another bottle of beer for the President as the sufficient drunkenness of power is staggering. Suddenly change would be hard and taken with haste. Because the drunken leaders will with force and madness go all-inn if they all of sudden loose it, they will be become bush-warriors or stealing elections to continue their Presidency. As we have seen through 2015 and 2016 that is how far these leaders goes to get the shot of power and not stop drinking from the fountain of government power. Peace.  

UN Secretary-General Report on the DRC: the humanitarian and security situation of March 2016; Unsure situation with Guerrillas, M-23 and coming election!

M23 Goma P3

The Secretary General has written a report on the status of Democratic Republic of Congo. This here is for me the main aspects of it, as I don’t look at the general cooperation’s and work between the countries in the Great Lakes areas, I will not look into the laws and ratifications that DRC as a nation supposed to follow. As this is the UN and the moral authority, as they work together with other nations to set a standard in the nation, and create an environment for peace. Therefore I have picked certain aspects from the report. As it is a continuation of what I have described before and we can see continuation of it. Take a look!

Context of Illegal groups:

“Continued presence of illegal armed groups, including the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR), the Allied Democratic Forces, the Forces de résistance patriotiques de l’Ituri (FRPI) and several Mai-Mai militias, continues to threaten the security and stability of the region and negatively affects the implementation of the Framework. Furthermore, there was little progress towards the repatriation and demobilization of ex-combatants, including from the former Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) and FDLR, registered during the reporting period. The crisis in Burundi and its far-reaching impact have also contributed to the deterioration of the political, security and humanitarian situation in the region” (United Nation, 2016).

M23 Goma

On M23 situation:

“Almost two years after the signing of the Nairobi Declarations by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the former M23 rebel group, implementation remains stalled. Hundreds of ex-M23 combatants are yet to be repatriated from Rwanda and Uganda” (…)”On 23 October 2015, ex-M23 political leader Bertrand Bisimwa issued a statement asserting that the former rebel group would not continue to honour its commitments under the Nairobi Declarations on the grounds that the Government had deliberately refused to implement its part of the agreement. He further stated that the former rebel group would not accept any attempt to repatriate ex-combatants outside the provisions of the Nairobi Declaration” (…)”The National Oversight Mechanism denounced the lack of will by ex-M23 leaders and recalled the Congolese Government’s efforts to fulfil its commitments, notably by promulgating an amnesty law in February 2014 and by initiating the repatriation of consenting ex-M23 combatants” (…)”On 10 November, Mr. Bisimwa appointed Désiré Rwigema as the new ex-M23 coordinator tasked to oversee the implementation of the Nairobi Declarations in close coordination with the National Oversight Mechanism. Mr. Rwigema replaced René Abandi, who had stepped down as coordinator in January 2015 and is now in charge of transforming the former rebel group into a political party” (United Nation, 2016).

Lusenda Burundi Refugee Camp

Humanitarian Situation:

“The humanitarian situation resulting from the influx of some 245,000 refugees from Burundi into neighbouring countries since April 2015 remains a matter of concern and priority” (…)”Inside Burundi, the crisis has exacerbated the situation faced by an already vulnerable population that includes 25,000 internally displaced persons. Protection of civilians is a growing concern; over 445 people have been killed since violence erupted in April 2015. The country’s instability has also caused the deterioration of already fragile livelihoods, with the result that some 3.6 million people are considered food insecure and 150,000 children under 5 years of age acutely malnourished” (…)”Some 1.5 million people have been internally displaced, while 7.5 million people are in need of assistance throughout the country. The forced closure of the site for internally displaced persons in Mukoto, North Kivu, on 12 January 2016 caused new displacement” (United Nation, 2016).

Human Rights:

“In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, security and intelligence officers have reportedly clamped down on activists and political opponents opposed to changes to the country’s constitutional provision on presidential term limits. As indicated above, the security situation in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo remains volatile, with armed groups, particularly the Allied Democratic Forces and FDLR, carrying out deadly attacks on civilians and committing acts of sexual violence” (United Nation, 2016).

Ladislas Ntaganzwa

Arrests:

“the Congolese National Police arrested Ladislas Ntaganzwa on 8 December 2015, pursuant to an arrest warrant and order to transfer issued by the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals on 7 May 2014. Mr. Ntaganzwa had been indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda for genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, and crimes against humanity, in connection with his actions during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. He had been at large since 19 June 1996 and was allegedly living in North Kivu under the protection of FDLR” (…)”the Government of Rwanda reciprocates by transferring the former leader of the National Congress for the Defence of the People, Laurent Nkunda, as well as other Congolese nationals who are the subject of arrest warrants issued by the Democratic Republic of the Congo. On a related note, little progress was made in bringing to justice six ex-M23 members who are sought on Congolese arrest warrants for war crimes and crimes against humanity” (United Nation, 2016).

drc-election

Elections:

“The past six months have seen a number of electoral processes in the Great Lakes region. Elections will continue to be held in the region over the next two years, and the risk of attendant instability cannot be ruled out. Electoral processes must take place in a fair, transparent, inclusive and non-violent manner” (…)”The Democratic Republic of the Congo is entering a crucial period marked by preparations for a national dialogue ahead of upcoming general elections. I reiterate my call for any dialogue to be inclusive and enable stakeholders to discuss contentious issues in a climate of openness and mutual respect. I urge all Congolese to commit to resolving their differences through dialogue and consultations, with a view to creating the conditions for peaceful, inclusive and credible elections in an environment that provides adequate political space and in which human rights are respected. I express the full support of the United Nations for the former Prime Minister of Togo, Edem Kodjo, in his role as facilitator of the national dialogue” (United Nation, 2016).

Afterthought:

This here should be interesting and also seen as a continuation of the M23 situation and IDPs who has not a secure situation, as the violence, guerrillas, as the Nairobi Declaration is not been acted upon. Therefore the guerrillas are walking free with no pressure as the Nairobi Declaration gives pressure to Rwanda and Uganda who has kept the M23 Guerillas.

The situation is certainly questionable with the Human Rights situation with the arrests of certain people and the troubles of the Electoral Process before the General Election in the DRC, this report is about the general security situation, with the MONUSCO and the guerrillas that the National Army of the DRC work to contain, together with the citizens who lives in the conditions that the army and peacekeepers make. That is why the army and the Congolese have to follow.

The DRC continues to struggle with FDLR and ADF-NALU, also the issue with M-23 and other aspects that make the national security situation volatile and creates the problems for the citizens while the Army and MONUSCO have missions to sustain the guerrillas and secure that the M-23 get the trial and the once that are freed and the once creating a political party, while waiting for the Nairobi Declaration to be followed by the Authorities, and also get the once with the warrants has not been returned and worked on as they did crime against humanity. That is worth thinking about, and why certain government stifle on those guerillas. Peace.

Reference:

United Nation Security Council – ‘Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region’ (09.03.2016)

Hva skjer når en autoritær leder faller bort?

Hva vil skje med ett land når en leder faller bort. Spesielt når det er i land med autoritær ledelse hvor all makt er bygd rundt personen. Noe som blir mer og mer aktuelt! Fordi de som var den nye ledere på 70-80 tallet har eldet. De kom til makt med våpen og tok vekk forferdelige autoritære regimer. Samme lederne ble legitimt godtatt av vestlige makter. Som ble forsikret at disse skulle ta steg mot ekte demokrati. Hva er ett eventuelt demokrati? I en slik situasjon sier selvfølgelig den fremtidige autoritære aktøren ja til tilbudet. Noe som likegyldig blir godtatt av vestlige makter som får enkel adgang til markedene i disse landene. Derfor får de beholde makten så lenge markedene er åpne. Eller at FN sikkerhetsråd blir stoppet av Veto retten til visse faste medlemmer. Istedenfor å ta en avgjørelse og gi det som egentlig skal være en selvsagt rett – en hvis frihet under ansvar. Ikke ansvar uten frihet. Eller har jeg misforstått. Her jeg sitter i biblioteket til Universitet mitt.

Så hva er det som skjer når en leder som er kjent som autoritær og udemokratisk faller. Uten en reel «heir» eller en som er blitt klargjort til å ta over! Det var spennende å se hva som skjedde i Malawi. Bingu wa Mutharika som var inne i sin andre periode som president. Døde av hjertestopp. Deretter har Joyce Banda tatt over. Bingu var en eksentrisk person som ikke bare ledet AU i ett år i siste periode. Han stoppet også og tok valg som fikk givere til å kutte støtte til Malawi. Også de samme stoppet viktig handel med Malawi samtidig som råvare prisene har falt. Slik at utgangspunktet med handelsoverskudd økte i siste perioden til Mutharika. Noe som Banda har å jobbe med, en jobb som ikke være lett. La oss håpe at det vil bli forbedring!

Andre plasser det har vært stress når fallende ledere og usikkerhet. Libya som var en del av Midtøstens revolusjons vår. Som forsetter i Syria og Yemen. Det som skjedde når deres autoritære leder Gadaffi falt. Så falt også alle hans kontakter og kontrakter. Noen av disse er sikkert gjenopptatt. Slik som eksporten av oljen fra riket. Det som derimot er en usikkerhet. Er lederskapet og hvem som virkelig regjerer. Hvem tar valget? Var valget korrekt? Vil de som var lagt under grus i så mange år komme med harde skyts mot dem som levde rikt? Vil disse nye allierte være det lenge. Med å rive ned Gadaffi og hans styre. Har det ikke bare forandret Libya. Leiesoldatene fra Mali, har revolusjonert landet. Som nå mer ser ut CAR enn Mali. Med hovedstat med regjering. Noe som er langt unna Timbuktu og det nye landet Azawad. Så disse to hendelser har egen historie. I Libya kom Gadaffi og tok vekk et gammelt kongedømme. Å gjorde seg selv til det. Mali har det vært ledere som ikke har respektert Tourager. Som ikke taklet dette lengre. Noen andre sier at det bare en evig makt kamp og ikke handler om etnisitet! Det kan stemme, når du blir oversett og får masse våpen og trening. Kommer hjem og ikke får respekt. Er det lett å komme tilbake til AK47 og ta det du ikke hadde fått. Er det korrekt? Men var det andre korrekt? Vil vesten gjøre noe, eller skal Frankrike forsette med sitt Françafrique, slik de gjorde i Elfenbenkysten når Ggabo ikke ville gå av etter å tapt forrige valg til Ouattara. Så Frankrike bare holdt seg til sin stolte historie.

Ikke at de to siste fall bare var.. dødelig fall. Det siste som har fått meg til å tenke på dette. Er at Meles Zenawi av Etiopia. Har gått bort. Han tok makten for 21 år siden. Da tok han makten fra kommunister og det velkjente DERG. Siden den gang har han regjert med jernhånd. Kalt slik som Museveni og Kagame, kalt for fremtidens ledere. Han fikk holdt Etiopia i sjakk mot flere opprørstyrker. Da tenker jeg på kampene mot Oromo Federal Army(OFA), Ogaden og i  Gambela. Ikke minst også sin kamp om å beholde Eritrea som en del av Etiopia. Noe som sikkert ikke er siste Etiopiske statsminister kommer til å kjempe for akkurat dette. Det andre kontroversielle er hans involvering i Somalia som en del av intern politikk og for å ha ryddige grenser i delen av Etiopia som også heter Region Somalia. Som også skaffet Etiopia allierte i krigen mot teror! USA var velvillige med å stille med midler og utstyr når de gikk inn i Somalia. I senere tid har AU gjort tiltak og har styrker i Somalia. Som en del AMISOM, disse er Burundi og Uganda som har flest soldater. Så Meles Zenawi fikk en god hånd etter sin avgjørelse å gå inn i Somalia!  

Utenom dette har Meles Zenawi skaffet en buffer økonomisk. Eksporten av kaffe og andre råvarer har økt. Turismen har vært i vekst i sin tid. Også med tanke på at i hans levetid har AU fått hovedbase i Addis Adeba. Nå sist med hypermoderne kontorlokale bygd av Kinesiske selskaper. Det andre store prosjektet som nesten er ferdig, da tenker jeg på Gibe3, demningen som vil dekke Omo-elven og produsere 1470mw! Som vil være ferdig juni i 2013 hvis alt er etter planen.

Så nå som han er vekke, hvem vil ta over? Hvem er han som har lovlig tatt over? Hva står han for? Vil han være mann nok til oppgaven? Vil han gjøre som sin foregjengere å dvele og kvele all opisjon? Etiopia har nok av interne konflikter og konflikter rundt seg til å gi hodebry for enhver leder. Det må være en sterk leder. En som virkelig må kjempe å være sterk. En svak leder vil bare svekke Etiopias rolle i hornet av Afrika. Ikke minst også i konfliktene de har og er del av.

Siste fallende leder som ligger meg på hjerte er John Atta-Mills i Ghana. Som vant valget for NDC i 2008. Professoren og partilederen som fikk støtte av Jerry Rawlings ex president og leder for NDC. Respekt og anerkjent var Atta-Mills. Det han fikk til i sin korte periode som president i Ghana var å lede arbeidet med å finne Olje i gulfen på utsiden av landet. Der hvor Jubilee feltet ligger. Ikke minst også å styrke samarbeidet om handel med Kina. Begge deler vil ha enorm betydning for framtiden til Ghana. Økonomisk vil landet bli styrket. Håper bare at den som lovlig har tatt over stillingen har like respekt for lovene til Ghana. Ikke minst også ønske om å beholde demokratiet og den velutviklete posisjonen som Ghana har skaffet seg. Det som er viktig for meg å si var at John Atta-Milss var ikke en autoritær leder. Bare en leder, president som døde og i ett land i enorm utvikling. Som tredje president. Som har kommet ut av systemet til Jerry Rawlings som tok til våpen for å bli president. Senere gitt det videre til Kufour som tapte valget for Atta-Mills. Derfor er skikkelig spent på denne situasjonen.

Så jeg er bare sykt spent på hvordan dette vil innvirke på situasjonen i Etiopia og Ghana. Noe som jeg føler er naturlig. Med både frykt og masse håp. Uten håp har man intet. Likevel kan man jo se tegn i tiden og vite om de som er med en vil likedan den forrige å av og til.. dessverre verre. Hva er det som virkelig skjer i tomrommet til en autoritær leder? Noen plasser blir det helt dyttet vekk slik som etter Franco i Spania. Der har de fortsatt nesten ikke tatt oppgjør med diktaturet! Er det slik som fungerer. Eller finnes det andre veier? Vil opplysning og fredelig overtaking slik som Sør-Afrika og ANC være løsningen? Slik som deres Sannhets og tilgivelses kommisjon etter Apartheid? Jeg har ikke svarene. Dette er bare tanker jeg må få ut. Hvis ikke blir jeg gal! Hva er det som skaper og fyller tomrommet til en autoritær leder som har levd hele livet sitt uten å vite at han har fulgt ord for ord av Machiavellis Frysten! Kan noen fylle dette med rettferdig og vis leder? Eller er det et Metropolis eller Utopia? En drømmetilstand som vi mennesker ikke er gode nok til. For grådig til å innse og gjøre om de system som våre forfedre la til rette? Fordi å revolusjonere og omgjøre system koster så mye. Både tankekraft og penger. At det er lettere å falle til ondskap en til system som skaper en positiv utvikling. Alt dette er bare spørsmål som ligger meg på hjertet. Derfor blogger jeg dette! Om du blir klokere. Så er jeg takknemlig. Hvis ikke så skjønner jeg dette også. Uansett. Ha en god dag.

Post Navigation

%d bloggers like this: