Opinion: Hemeti will challenge the Gods

The Commander of Rapid Support Forces (RSF) the former Janjaweed, General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo “Hemeti” is now challenging the state and the Sovereign Council. As he has not accepted to fully integrate the militia into the army.

RSP is already semi-autonomous, but by the act in government from 2017. The powers of the President can still command it. Therefore, the manner in which the law is created. It is creating a hard way to find ways to measure it. As it was an autonomous unit, but can be commanded by the President. This is maybe why the Sovereign Council and the Transitional Government want it under the same umbrella and not run as a separate outfit anymore. Especially, when the integrity and the power imbalance it might create.

The National Army is about 110,000 soldiers. While the RSF is about 20,000 militia men. Therefore, the size of RSF is substantial. Though, Hemeti is overplaying his hand here. Al-Burhan is the President (Chairman) of the Sovereign Council and Commander of the Armed Forces. By the laws of RSF Act of 2017. This means Al-Burhan can direct the RSF the way he see fit.

That means the RSF have to comply. The RSF Act was created for Al-Bashir’s wishes and whims. However, he is no longer the President and Commander-in-Chief. At this current time Al-Burhan runs as the President with Hamdok as the Prime Minister. Therefore, Hemeti which happens to be the Deputy of Al-Burhan doesn’t have the mandate to rebel against this.

Yes, the law is made in a way, which creates a lot of issues. Certainly, it was wilfully done so. In such a way that Al-Bashir could put all the blame on Hemeti and say he acted on his own merit. Instead of having to take responsibility for the actions made by the RSF in Darfur. Now, the same protocols are stifling the integration and furthering the process of a peaceful transition.

Hemeti doesn’t want to give up now. After years as a General and continued to rise to prominence. He has tried to make himself look more feasible and trade-off as a political broker. Still, everyone knows his past and willingness to dip into the coffers and get dirty. This man is willing to sell arms to Tchad or the Central African Republic. His willing to kill civilians and be a militia leader. So, it is not like his a man of protocol and a man of procedure. The RSF web page proves that as well.

Now, his willing to bet on the prestige and the ambition on his past. That he has the ability to overcome this obstacle and loose some sort of independence from the army. While the law, which he himself referred to recently. Is stating that the President can direct it and appoint it’s leadership. Meaning, if he Hemeti goes hard on this. Al-Burhan can in effect demote him and appoint someone else who is willing to accept the fate of the RSF in the SAF. That is just a mere fact and Hemeti should be aware of that himself.

His 20,000 combating a strong national army is a bloodshed in awaiting. Hemeti already have a war-torn Darfur and is known for his attacks on civilians there. Not like there is much love lost between the general public and the RSF. They still remember how the RSF was used to quell the revolution and civilians demonstrating against Al-Bashir. Therefore, he will not garner their love anytime soon.

This is why Hemeti should accept this plight. Swallow his pride and be happy that his even the Deputy in the Sovereign Council. That even with his horrific and depressing history, which he should have answered for in the court. The lives and the families he has hurt over the years. Still, he has rose to power and sitting at the high table. That man should feel lucky and not take this for granted.

Al-Burhan and the rest of the Sovereign Council is in it’s right to integrate and get the RSF into the SAF. That is just natural and not continue the agony of having it separate. Hemeti should understand that and just move-on. If he does… he will still have the reigns and be considered influential. However, if he gambles this all now.

Both the laws, the people and the Sovereign Council will dismiss him. There will be little to no redemption and what’s worse for him. That if they arrest him or start investigation of all of his acts during the years. The man will not see the light of day again. He will either be brought to court or get jail time. That is something you don’t want when you gotten this far…

However, Hemeti rather risk it, it seems and possibly loose it all. As he challenge the Gods, thinking they will forgive him. What a fool(!). This will only hurt him and he will not see it coming. Peace.

Ethiopia-Sudan Tensions: Sudan requests UNISFA to kick-out Ethiopian Peacekeepers from Abyei

Since December 2020 the Ethiopian National Defence Force (ENDF), Amhara Paramilitary Group ‘Fano’ and Eritrean Defence Force (EDF) have all been spotted and attacked border points on Sudanese soil. They have gone after border points in and around Al-Fashqa region. The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) have been reported to retake these and stationed more soldiers there.

Just to prove the levels of insincerity from Addis Ababa towards Khartoum. The Sudanese Authorities even intercepted illegal arms export to the rebel outfit of SPLM-N in Blue Nile State. That is what they have been doing and shows how sinister the Tripartite Alliance in Ethiopia is at this current stage. As well, as doing what they have been doing on the border of Sudan and trying to annex Sudanese land.

Clearly, the Sudanese has taken this seriously and sent their Rapid Support Force (RSF) – Desert Shield Force to the borders .They have sent the ones who has tormented Darfur for ages. These folks are the ones who they trust to stop the Tripartite Alliance on the border. That says a lot about their will to defend their borders.

Now the Sudanese has taken it a further step and escalating it further, which is only natural.

Sudan Foreign Minister Mariam Al-Mahdi stated this yesterday:

““Sudan has requested the United Nations to replace the Ethiopian troops present in the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNIFSA) with peacekeepers from other countries,” Mariam Al-Mahdi added.“It is not conceivable to accept Ethiopian forces deployed in the strategic depth of Sudan while the Ethiopian troops are massing on the eastern borders of Sudan,” she said. The minister said that Sudan is now reviewing its relations and cooperation agreements with Ethiopia but stressed that this will not affect the Ethiopian residing in Sudan including refugees” (Koang Pal Chang – ‘Sudan wants Ethiopian peacekeepers out of Abyei’ 07.04.2021, Eye Radio).

When Addis Ababa have been as insincere and been as violent on the border. When they have used all the various alliances to go and attack Sudan. It is only natural that the sovereign state of Sudan doesn’t trust Ethiopian soldiers on their soil. When they have attacked them, illegally armed rebels and been dishonest about their skirmishes as well.

The Ethiopian authorities is calling the neighbours their brothers, but they are coming with weapons and soldiers. That is why the Sudanese see it as a danger to have the Ethiopians as Peacekeepers. That says how much the Ethiopians has destroyed their credibility or trust. The distrust now is shattered and the Khartoum administration only see it fit to “kick them” out.

What will also happen with the changes of Peacekeepers means that the Ethiopian state will not get the profits or the foreign currency for the UN services in Abyei. That is the second price of this. Not only are they demoted and sent home. The Ethiopian state will also loose funds by this action. That is the double strike against Addis Ababa.

The Sudanese authorities are in the right here. How can someone who attacks you on the regular and makes reasons for you to deploy the RSF and more SAF brigades on the borders. A trusted ally to create peace in one of their states. That doesn’t make sense and is a sensible reason to kick Ethiopia out. Peace.

Ethiopia-Sudan Tensions: The tormentors of Darfur sent to the border region

Since 13th December 2020 the Ethiopian and Sudanese troops have had skirmishes at the border-regions. The Ethiopian army and Amhara Para-Military Group ‘Fano’ have attacked Sudanese territory. This have been amplified and the state are hardening its stances.

Now, the Sudanese are even amping up more. After they have said to retaken border points and their claimed Al-Fashaqa region. This is further extending the warfare from the Law Enforcement Operation in the neighbouring Tigray Region inside Ethiopia. The Ethiopian National Defence Force (ENDF) is stretching their battle-lines and also their manpower in their newest quest.

However, to go against the Sudanese is a risky game. As they will now meet a conning and warlord of Darfur. The Sudanese isn’t just sending new recruits to the borders. No, they are now sending the Janjaweed aka Rapid Support Force (RSF). The state militia co-ordinated and controlled by the Vice President of Sovereign Council Lt. Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo “Hemiti”.

Hemiti isn’t just anyone. His a ruthless warlord and a someone who has no issues with sending his enemies to their demise. Now, that the RSF is sending its ‘Desert Shield Force’ to the Eastern Borders towards Ethiopia. Expect horrific reports and striking images from the region. The Janjaweed have been a click of murderous mercenaries. These will use all means to settle the score and they will not come with mercy.

This is why the usage of RSF into this operation. Shows that the Sudanese is amplifying their operation in the border region to Ethiopia. There will be more conflict and they will use guerrilla tactics to conquer the Ethiopians from entering.

Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali should be concerned about this. His ‘Fano and ENDF haven’t met the capabilities of RSF yet. The RSF is another breed than what his used too. The Janjaweed have gone after their own and been a violent force for decades. The ENDF will clearly meet their end here.

That Hemiti and the Al-Burhan is calling them in. Shows their resolute act to defend its border. They are taking it further now. After Ethiopia have breached their borders for months. This is really signalling to the world. That the tension is spiralling out and a full out war between the neighbours.

Its not just a few skirmishes or small brigades going to far on a whim, but deliberate warfare. This is worrying. What is striking that Abiy is willing to have so many conflicts going at one time and not worried about the strain it causes to his troops. He clearly have the idea that his able to overcome any challenge. If not his “Yes-Men” is telling lies to keep his moral high.

This conflict in Sudan is a fools mission. It is now a bloodbath in the waiting. The Janjaweed have been deadly force for years in Darfur. To bring them here is only a sign of future death. There is nothing good coming out of this.

Abiy will indirectly challenge Hemiti, but I don’t think he knows what is coming his way. He should study the Darfur conflict. However, don’t expect him to do so. Because, he will only order the demise of his men on the front. Peace.

Sudan: Resistance Committee’s revive the ideals of the revolution

The Resistance Committees of Al-Jarif East announce the complete closure of Al-Jarif Bridge, east of Al-Jarif, on Thursday evening, and the start of the revolutionary escalation to topple the military and civilian alliance

The last Sudanese revolution lasted from 19th December 2018 to 11th April 2019. As the Transitional Military Council (TMC) took control of the Republic. Later with negotiations with the Forces for Freedom and Change Declaration (FCD) lasted into the fall when they we’re able to make a mixed Transitional Government in the establishment of the Sovereign Council. Which still gave a lot of power to the men that toppled Al-Bahir and was his henchmen. Therefore, these leaders and rulers are mostly military fashion and not caring about the will of the people. That is a counter to the ideals of the revolution.

Now it’s two years since the start of the Sudanese Revolution. The citizens are again reviving the ideals of the Revolution. As they are seeing a slow change and nearly none. That being no accountability for the deaths, murders, extra-judicial killings and neither better governance. The Sudanese government is more of the same and only one civilian Prime Minister Abdualla Hamadok. Still, his appointment haven’t given more hope for a transition.

The ones that was skeptical to the ideals and the inception of Sovereign Council clearly see that they we’re right. As the military and former big-men of the dictator got legitimized by doing this. The Transitional Military Council and it’s members have become “state” figures, even as they still rules with the same army command of the past. Therefore, the revolution never got its results.

The FCD and SPA traded their chips early last time and that’s maybe why the Resistance Committee’s is starting a new Sudan Uprising. These RCs are planning to start on the 19th December 2020. However, some Committees have started and preparing their protests on the streets. Burning tires and other means to show support of the failed revolution that got hijacked by the TMC.

The message sent out was this: “Resistance Committees across the country must take utmost security [precautions] and begin serious preparation for the December 19 Millioniya by intensifying advertisements in the streets, raising patriotism, awareness”.

So, be aware there will be more and message is being spread. The public and the RCs are preparing ahead. This might spark the same crowds and possible rebellion in a manner, which we saw in 2018 and 2019. Where the public showed their tiredness and took all means. Just to show the power of all the feet on the ground. The Sudanese people have shown their character before and beaten one dictator. The same people can easily get rid of a temporary one and his Sovereign Council. Peace.

Al-Bashir: The Legends of the Secret Skulls

There is revelations now of 28 deceased army officers found in Omdurman from a foiled coup in 1990. This is evidence of extra judicial killings done by the state under President Omar Al-Bashir. A man who ruled with an iron-fist since 30th June 1989 until 11th April 2019. That is 30 years in power and he used military means to stay there.

It is not shocking that its extra judicial killings done during the Al-Bashir regime. He has the secret police against his enemies. Used militias like Janjaweed and Rapid Support Force (RSF) to kill three tribes in Darfur for years. Also other usage of the military to control the state.

From the years of government militia attacks in Darfur, Blue Nile State and South Kordofan. Where there been genocidal missions with estimated murder between 300,000 to 400,000 citizens. Also, up to 3 million internally displaced persons.

Who knows how many people have died during custody or was arbitrary arrested during the reign of Al-Bashir. There are surely plenty more unanswered cases during the 30 years of power. The President who used all means to stay in power. A man who was bloodthirsty, who used paramilitary groups and intelligence organizations to undermine the public.

Therefore, a mere 28 decomposing bodies of former army officials, who allegedly conspired to overthrow Al-Bashir in 1990. There might be plenty of more hidden skulls from the time that is unaccounted for and from events hidden from the public. We can only imagine what else is 6 feet under.

President Al-Bashir is not only wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for genocide in Darfur. He is also charged with grand corruption and other charges. Now, only a prosecutor is charging him for the murder of these 28 former army officials.

A President who has killed for living. 28 army officials is nothing. For the families of the deceased its a matter of justice for them. However, all the ills and crimes against humanity during his day. We can just wonder if there are more secret skulls.

It is like a horrific movie, the Legends of Secret Skulls. Surely, the President knows what he has done and doesn’t want to accountability for his actions. Some of the acts have been revealed, but there is more to come.

However, we also know that plenty of his comrades are still in-charge and running vital parts the Sovereign Council in Sudan. They are not willing to trade it all, they will be implicated too. These people are not asking for that and will not be charged themselves.

That’s why there is likely more skulls we don’t know about, but was ordered dead during the reign of Al-Bashir. With time these stories will be revealed and it will be more than 28 bodies unaccounted for. Peace.

Sudan: The Sovereign Council serves Al-Bashir to the ICC

The Sovereign Council, the transitional government in Sudan has finally done the big act of sending their former head of state for 30 years and former dictator, Omar Al-Bashir to answer his charges at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Hague.

Now his final reckoning. Even after being charged with grand corruption in December 2019. This after being overthrown on the 11th April 2019. That after months of demonstrations and continued protests, a revolution where the public had the slogan “We’re All Darfur”. Meaning they are all victims of the atrocities and genocide in Darfuf, which Al-Bashir and his henchman did on his orders. All those years of violence, killings and looting. The President had his end.

Now, 9 months since his fall from power. His been charged and detained. The Sovereign Council partly with military cadres of Al-Bashir and technocrats from the Forces of the Freedom and Change Declaration (FFC) are now ending his “quarantine” and limbo. They are sending their former master to the lions. The ones whose collected evidence and charged him. The ones who has hunted for him and wanted him for years. They have even condemned other nations for hosting the President and Head of State. As they violated the charges and the ICC arrest warrant on him.

Now, nine months after they are doing this. Surely to get some goodwill. You can beg to question: Why now? Are the banks empty again? Are the Sovereign Council running out of fiscal cash and needs some foreign exchange to run government?

Because, giving away and sending him to the ICC. Would give international goodwill. Would be a leap of progression. That would be deemed as a positive step in respecting international law, but also co-operate with an entity respected across the globe. However, it adds questions, which is unresolved.

It also begs the ICC, will they indict and give arrest warrants for people connected with Al-Bashir in the Sovereign Council or the Janjaweed (Rapid Support Force)? Because that would make sense. That the other men who followed orders and on their watch did the atrocities in Darfur and Blue Nile State would answer for it. Not only the Head of State alone in the Hague.

Al-Bashir was a tyrant and a grand dictator. However, he didn’t do this acts a vacuum and alone. He did it with the people around him. That was done deliberate by him and his security organizations. If that was NISS, RSF or anyone else. They did that to enemies, activists or anyone else who dared the regime.

Therefore, his day of reckoning is here now. The Sudanese is sending him to the lions. The big-man, the former leader of men, will be court-side and answering for his actions. He will be humiliated further and even beg for mercy. Only if the ICC does technical glitches or doesn’t follow protocol he will win. Also, only the Sudanese doesn’t comply and intimidate victims and witnesses. Than Al-Bashir will get of the hook.

Nevertheless, it is a historic day. That the man ruling with an iron fist and with a trigger happy army , his now awaiting a new trial, a new court and answer for his misgivings. Which is about time. Who wonders what will happen with the charges in Sudan itself. If they will be followed and actually followed through.

What we do know, is that one man is down and his lost it all. The Sovereign Council has lifted one of their burdens. Maybe there is a pay-off, but that is just mere speculation for now. Peace.

UN strongly condemns the harassment of humanitarian staff and looting of humanitarian premises in North Darfur (23.01.2020)

Zalingei/Khartoum, 23 January 2020- “This emerging trend of harassment of UN and NGO staff and subsequent looting and vandalization of UN and NGO premises and assets is not only very disturbing but totally uncalled for. UN and NGO staff are in Darfur to provide critical humanitarian and peacekeeping support in the region and deserve the full support and appreciation from the communities they serve,” UNAMID’s Joint Special Representative/Joint Chief Mediator, Jeremiah Mamabolo stated in response to reports received about the wanton destruction of property in Kabkabiya, North Darfur.

On 22 January, a large crowd of men, women and children harassed staff from the International Organization of Migration (IOM) who were on mission to distribute non-food items to victims of flooding that occurred in Kabkabiya, North Darfur last October. The distribution commenced on 20 January at the premises of an implementing partner and was supposed to conclude on 22 January. However, towards the end of the distribution program, some looters attacked the IOM staff alleging that they were not included in the distribution matrix. It was later reported that the premises of five other local NGOs were also looted.

Later in the day, government security forces intervened whilst UNAMID’s Pakistan Contingent based in the area, also secured the World Food Programme (WFP) premises and four local staff remaining in the offices.

“We appeal to both federal and state government authorities to thoroughly investigate above incidents and bring all persons responsible for these unwarranted actions to book,” JSR Mamabolo added.

The Humanitarian Coordinator in Sudan, Gwi-Yeop Son, condemned the attacks on humanitarian offices, assets and looting of humanitarian supplies in Kabkabiya, North Darfur.

“I condemn these acts and call upon the Government authorities to launch a swift investigation and bring those responsible to account,” Ms. Son said. “Attacks against humanitarian actors and operations endanger lives, violate the protection of civilians, including humanitarian workers, under international humanitarian law, and jeopardize the provision of life-saving aid to people in need.”

Over the past year there were several other incidents of looting of humanitarian supplies in Darfur.

UNAMID continues to monitor the situation and will take taking appropriate measures to continue to facilitate humanitarian access in Darfur, in line with its protection of civilians’ responsibilities as mandated by the United Nations Security Council.

2020 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) launched (23.01.2020)

Families cannot afford a nutritious meal – let alone other essential needs such as medical care, water, and education.

KHARTOUM, Sudan, January 23, 2020 – The 2020 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) partners plan to support 6.1 million of the most vulnerable people in Sudan, which will require US$1.4 billion. Due to the current fragile economy, more people are unable to meet their basic needs, as high inflation continues to erode households’ purchasing power. An average local food basket takes up at least 75 per cent of household income. Families cannot afford a nutritious meal – let alone other essential needs such as medical care, water, and education. With fewer resources, people adopt negative coping mechanisms, exposing them to more protection risks—particularly gender-based violence and increasing school dropout and child labour. The economic crisis has overwhelmed already-weak public services, further deepening humanitarian need in the central and eastern parts of Sudan, where humanitarian partners have a limited presence. The 2020 HRP will scale up assistance in these areas. However, humanitarian response alone is not enough to reduce needs, vulnerability and risks; longer-term action is also urgently needed. The UN and partners are committed to work closely with the Government and the people of Sudan to create a strong foundation for Sudan that realizes the hope and aspirations of the Sudanese people.

Donors show strong international support for Sudan in 2020 On 17 January, at a High-Level Roundtable in London co-hosted by the UK, Sweden, OCHA and with participation of the Sudanese Government, 19 international donors affirmed the importance of scaling up humanitarian assistance to Sudan in 2020 and providing resources early in the year. The participants emphasized the importance of providing funding effectively, including through multi-year and flexible support modalities. Sudan also received assurances from the UN and NGOs to step up response to address the country’s urgent humanitarian needs.

For a link to the full 2020 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) document click here

Sudan: The Mutiny proves the Skeletons of Al-Bashir haunts the Republic

The end may justify the means as long as there is something that justifies the end.”Leon Trotsky

President Omar Al-Bashir might be behind bars and be charged for several offences. In the Sovereign Council, the Transitional Military Council (TMC) still have vital places in the technocratic government with militarised leadership in it. Its not like wholly elected entity of civilian government. There are still bits and pieces of the henchmen, which the National Congress Party (NCP) and the armed organizations it had.

The TMC and Sovereign Council have reorganized the National Intelligence and Security Security (NISS) to the General Intelligence Service (GIS). It was in this organization the mutiny came from this week. This was from an organization, which was loyal to the President and his mandate. That is why the Sovereign Council have also put a warrant on Salah Gosh. Now, the Lt Gen Abubakir Dambalab has resigned and there is a new chief in town.

However, this proves that even if you get rid of the head. Their systems and their trained personnel are still there. The GIS or former NISS, who has not only a reputation for torture, monitoring citizens and handle the public with vicious intent. The GIS might start doing the same for the Sovereign Council too. They were trained to do so.

The mutiny or the failed revolt shows something is wrong and vacuum not filled by the Sovereign Council. The technocrats and the military men in power knows this. They have not reformed in such a manner, where the skeletons and the ones whose possibly causing trouble might return. Even if the head of the old regime is gone. Many of his players are still around.

The Sovereign Council knows this, but they are careful. Doing so by small measures like in South Kordofan, but there are troubles in Darfur still. There are acts are shown. The mutiny is a signal, that the ones fallen by the revolution wants to return.

Though, the Sovereign Council is what the revolution fought for. It is a half-way trick. Hopefully ending up in a civilian government, but that is still a dream. As the Sovereign Council are taking all measures slowly.

That is why things like these erupt and unless, they act upon the former heads and the ones loyal to Al-Bashir. There will happen more like this. The system was rigged for him. Al-Bashir had the whole system pumping for him. Some of the ones in Sovereign Council lived for that too. Until the revolution happened they wouldn’t have accepted the fall of Al-Bashir.

Therefore, this is not yet the end. This is a sign of maybe more to come. Unless, the Sovereign Council acts upon their mandate and dully find their ways. It will not be easy, but they are some of the former henchmen of Al-Bashir.

Nevertheless, we still have to hope for change. But, I don’t expect the guns of the former to be totally silenced. Unless, they are squashed or arrested. Than, again the Council has to work against themselves too. That is if they believe to truly reform. If not they are just stalling for time, hoping the public forget the causes for the revolution in the first place. Peace.

UNHCR seeks international solidarity for refugees and hosts in Sudan (14.01.2020)

Sudan has a long history of hosting refugees and asylum seekers but also struggles with its own internal displacement.

GENEVA, Switzerland, January 14, 2020 –This is a summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson Babar Baloch – to whom quoted text may be attributed – at today’s press briefing at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is calling for increased support for Sudan with the launch of a new funding appeal that seeks US$477 million to help over 900,000 refugees in the country together with nearly a quarter million of their Sudanese hosts in the coming year.

The Sudan Refugee Response Plan, launched in Khartoum this morning, foresees humanitarian activities by UNHCR with over 30 other partners.

Sudan has a long history of hosting refugees and asylum seekers but also struggles with its own internal displacement, while facing a severe economic crisis. Our call comes at a time when the country is going through a historical political transition, and requires international solidarity to achieve peace and stability.

The largest group of refugees hosted in Sudan are South Sudanese with some 840,000 seeking shelter in the country since 2013. Resources are also needed for other refugees from nine countries who have sought safety from violence and persecution.

In the meantime, Sudan also continues to receive new refugees. In Darfur, an ongoing influx of CAR refugees into remote parts of South and Central Darfur States has seen the number of refugees swell from just over 5,000 to nearly 17,000 in three months since September 2019.

Refugees in Sudan live in over 130 locations across the country’s 18 States. About 70 per cent live outside of camps in villages, towns and settlements. The majority of refugees and asylum-seekers in Sudan face high levels of poverty, limited access to livelihood opportunities, and are hosted in some of the poorest regions of the country, where host communities are also struggling.

While refugees often benefit from generous support provided by host communities, the ongoing economic crisis in Sudan has exacerbated the situation as local resources remain scarce.

UNHCR is also part of inter-agency humanitarian efforts to assist some 1.9 million internally displaced people inside Sudan, leading on protection and working on displaced peoples’ rights, emergency shelter and relief distributions. Since last year, the transitional government has facilitated the delivery of aid to areas which were out of reach to humanitarians previously including in parts of South Kordofan and Blue Nile and Darfur’s Jebel Marra.

Years of conflict and unrest have also displaced more than 600,000 Sudanese as refugees in neighbouring countries – including over 300,000 refugees from Darfur in in eastern Chad. Since a Tripartite Agreement between the Government of Sudan, Chad and UNHCR signed in May 2017, nearly 4,000 Sudanese refugees have chosen to return home. More are expected to return this year.

In 2019, UNHCR operation in Sudan remained one of the most under resourced with only 32 per cent funds being available out of the needed US$269 million.