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Archive for the tag “Habyarimana”

Opinion: President Kagame won with 98.66%, just like his predecessors Kayibanda and Habyarimana!

Its been 17 years of RPF rule and will be 7 more years with President Paul Kagame. The ones that thought differently has lived under a rock and thought the whole world would stop spinning. The world stop and the hearts would stop pumping if there was a different result at this point. This was massaged and made ready for the world. The whole campaign and the race to the polls. You don’t manage a race of significance and get 98% by coincidence, that is measured and made sure off. Just like the Presidents before him.

Incumbent President Paul Kagame took a major early lead in Friday’s presidential polls with 5,433,890 votes (98.66 per cent) of the total votes counted by 12:30am. By press time (around 1am), the National Electoral Commission had managed to count about 80 per cent of the votes cast (5,498,414 votes) from 1,732 polling stations. There were 2,340 polling stations across the country. Independent candidate Phillippe Mpayimana was in a distant second having just garnered 39,620 votes (about 0.72 per cent). Frank Habineza, of the Democratic Green Party of Rwanda, trailed with a measly 24,904 votes, which is 0.45 per cent of the votes counted” (Mwai, 2017).

Because if looks into the Rwandan election history, it is not like the history isn’t telling of similar elections like the one seen this week. Not like the Republic of Rwanda has different results. If you go back to voting on the monarchy in September 25th 1961, if the Kingdom should be preserved it got 78,5%. So the people abolished it 1961 and the other ballot if the King Kigeri V to remain king or had to abdicate, the result that day was 79,60 % who voted him to become a civilian. So even in the 1960s the now Republic voted in high numbers for one thing.

The President George Kayibanda was voted for in 1965 election and he was elected unopposed with 100% support. The same happen in 1969. When Kayibanda was reelected. Then again it took sometime before the next election.

In an unopposed election of President Juvenal Habyarimana in the 24th December 1978, where he got 98,99 %. Again on the 19th December 1983 he got reelected and was unopposed who got 99,97%. The third election with President Habyarimana, again went unopposed on the 19th December 1988, that time he got 99,98%.

After that, there been lots of issues and the civil war, that ended in genocide in 1994. When the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA), who became the leading party Rwanda Patriotic Front. In the first Presidential election after the genocide, it was in 2003, when President Paul Kagame got 95,05%. So 7 years later in 2010, the incumbent President got 93,08%.

Now in 2017 and unleashing yet another term for the Rwandan President, who follows his predecessors. The ones that was overthrown and killed. These took so much control that they created a violent legacy. Certainly, President Kagame doesn’t want that, but he is following the footsteps of the leaders in the past. Nothing with is different from them, just another name and another time, but with the same controlling state and dark secrets. Kagame got this year 98,66% in the Presidential Election in 2017. Which, is very much alike like Habyarimana, who was shot down while flying in the 1990s. While the death of Kayibanda is still unknown. Therefore, if Kagame follows his predecessors it will end in genocide and a horrible assassination.

Not that we wish that, but the history repeats itself, as seen with the election and state control of society. As well, as internal affairs are controlled from the state. To way that even banished the World Bank from studying the poverty and analyze it to create programs to fight it. This was because the Rwandan state wanted to control the numbers and make sure the propaganda was fitting the vision of Kagame. Therefore, nothing is surprising.

That Kagame got 98% in the election was waited, just like the generations in the past expected Habyarimana and Kayibanda to win with overwhelming numbers. It is all repeating itself and going in circles. To overlook that is to be blind and trying to overshadow the history, which is the propaganda of the state. But that is to be expected. Peace.

Reference:

African Elections – ‘Elections in Rwanda’ link: http://africanelections.tripod.com/rw.html

Mwai, Collins – ‘Kagame wins presidential poll’ (05.08.2017) link: http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/217433/

WikiLeaks – Rwanda in the 1970s and the Coup d’etat

coup-detat3

This here will be about the coup d’etat in Rwanda in 1973 and the aftermath after it. This information found on WikiLeaks is interesting. Also the way they described the matters and actions on the ground. The way the President Kayibanda lost his power and how the new President Habyarimana took over. Enjoy!

In the Kibuye area there has been huts burning, reports are up to 500 peoples have been killed. Some estimates less and that there has been killed 200 people. On the 9th of March President Gregoire Kayibanda was tired and irritated while meeting with Nuncio at Gitarama. The irritation comes from the envoy from Nyerere that is Nyakyk – that is insisting that all the Tutsi’s should return home. There been Second General Ntalikure that Nyakyk can watch over the countryside with a car to monitor the situation (WikiLeaks, 1973).

On the 23. March 1973 President Kayibanda comments on recent actions in the country.  He issued a statement on radio where he thanked the authorities for their actions. The president focused on that it needed discipline and disloyal acts will be punished. Also talk of Coup d’etat is pointless (WikiLeaks, 1973).

In May in 1973 the situation in Burundi escalated so much that Kayibanda sent minister of international cooperation departed from Kigali in 15th May on a plane to Goma and passing towards to Kinshasa. So that the Government of Rwanda can send a message to Mobutu that they fear for retaliation for the Rwanda refugee attack. Mobutu will understand Government of Rwanda’s innocence while Idi Amin in Uganda will promise to assist Burundi. The Belgian sent two Belgians to Northern Burundi and has reports of killings with arrows and machetes about 50 Tutsi’s and these insurgents are going to Ngozi. The Burundian Refugee Group has entered the country via Butare, this group is supposed to lead by former Burundi Gendarmarie officer (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Spokesman Mandrandele told that Mobutu had a message for Rwanda and Burundi. That Mobutu will mediate between President Kayibanda and President Micombero in the coming OAU. Also with the knowledge of knowing that Amin will intervene on Burundi’s side. Mobutu is clear that no international force should trespass on Zarian National Land or Air space (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Since 25th May the Rwandan radio responded to the attacks calling the Burundian population to liberate themselves. Also the Rwandan radio warned the Government of Burundi to do anything to Rwanda territory. The editorials that the Rwandan radio broadcasted lasted 20 minutes essays that was broadcasted from 25th until the 29th May. Papal Nuncio went to Europe after receiving information that Burundi had sent assassins to terminate him. He went the 24th May. There has also been reported that Perraudin a former secretary to Kayibanda has encouraged that Radio Burundi charged him with killing Tutsis in Rwanda (WikiLeaks, 1973).

The Government of Rwanda has dismissed early 5th July the National Guard. Former President Kayibanda is under “protection” and he is now ousted as chief of state. The General Habyarimana and a high command are running the government. At 1130 the diplomatic missions where invited to give a communique that the guards main point of this change of government was to prevent a “blood bath”. All is silent in Kigali though there is a presence of armed soldiers and especially around the houses of ministers (WikiLeaks, 1973).

The Church in Rwanda had issues with President Kayibanda so on 10. July 1973 the principal priest of Kabgayi (Gitrama) Archdiocese have accepted the guards takeover. This priest turned against the devoted catholic Kayibanda. This also happens with ethnic violence that happens last February and March. CRS Director a French man claims that 100% of the people is happy with the change (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Major Aloys Nsekalije told the German ambassador that in either one or two weeks the cabinet will be named. The German Ambassador Froewis said that the coup had to be planned in beforehand. Nsekalije is denying this accusation. Habyarimana said it happen because being fed up with the “radical” course of the government of Kayibanda. That was with ethnic violence, sending out foreigners, cronyism and inefficiency in actions. Nsekalije said also that the abolishment of the police also triggered the situation because Kayibanda saw this a measure to counter Habyarimana(WikiLeaks, 1973)

After the plan the Belgium mission to Burundi will quit by September 1973. Later the Belgium mission in Rwanda it will stop by the late 1974. Their primary reasons for this the Belgians feels that in both countries there is actively engaged in genocide. They also feel that they can’t be a part of the atrocities happing in both countries. The Belgian military is no longer advising any of the partners (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Now Court Martial has ended. Finally has the Military Court found former President Kayibanda and six former comrades has been also found guilty. They are former State Secretary Nyilibakwe, former Secretary General President Ntalikure, former Director General President Hodari, former Director President Gasamunyiga and Lieutenant Habimana. This sentencing are now before President Habyarimana, that will shortly making an announcement which also will be around the time for the one-year anniversary of the coup d’etat that was on the 5th July. The problem for President Habyarimana is that for some ex-president Kayibanda is seen as father of the country. And it would be seen and be seen by the outside world as a political crime if he execute the ex-president (WikiLeaks, 1974).

On the 5th July President Habyarimana the decision to act on the death sentence of former President Kayibanda. The spirit of the day is supposed to be “reflection and national reconciliation”. In the speech on the radio he introduced it as the second republic. The president also promised that political activities will be by 1978 (WikiLeaks, 1974).

How the Human rights situation in Rwanda after the Coup d’etat:

First to see the context is that the country is ruled with Authoritarian Social tradition and secondly is the issues of the revolution in 1959 – 1961 that ended the 400 year old feudal power structure. That has made changed to society in Rwanda. This has substituted the rule of the majority of the Hutu’s with the minority rule of the Tutsi. Tutsi’s are the losers, they lose their land and homes. Which forces the Tutsi’s into exile. One of the first actions that President Habyarimana took power after sentenced 30 former key members of the former regime. The Coup makers claimed that the former President Kayibanda made ethnic tensions in the country because of the massacres of the Hutu in Burundi in 1972. So now there are now no elections, but local community councils are chosen by a non-partisan vote. President Habyarimana is friends with Mobutu in Zaire and imitates his “Grand Chef” authoritarian style. Still he has a better relationship with Burundian counterpart Bagaza. They also will be a part of Human Rights international because this will open up to donors and aid dollars to the Government of Rwanda. Even though they do this still there are the legal standards in a modern sector. Like violations of prostitutes in Kigali that are rounded-up without due-process. Migrants from rural areas are uprooted from the capital and sent home. President Habyarimana has a five year plan to fix the food security and production in the country. Including in the health, housing, education in the rural areas where 97% of the peoples live. 19% of the budget of the Government of Rwanda goes to the Defense which is mostly to salaries to soldiers (WikiLeaks, 1977).

After three years of implementation of the Communal labor (Umuganda) ministry of plan has said it need more to meet the development needs. The works will focus on the works happening in the areas of hilly Gisenyi and Gikongoro prefectures. They also work for Kigali civil servants, on of the chief activities is to actually making brick manufacturing, fixing roads and coffee cultivation near the Kigali Airport. The minister said that this works was essential to the development of Rwanda. Burgomasters in the rural areas focus on persuasion for the workers then essential to encourage participating in the works. Rwandan Government has rewarded the Communal workers with cutting the work week of its employees from 49hours to 46,5 hours which includes 5 hours of communal labor. The Rwandan Coffee Board – OCIR is giving the producers of green coffee a greater price on it from 80 to 120 Francas a kilo. This is happening because the neighbors of the raise of prices in Zaire and Burundi. The fear from OCIR is that the bigger prices in the other countries they fear that the produce will migrate across the borders (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Reference:

WikiLeaks – ‘KAYIBANDA STATEMENT ON RECENT TROUBLES’ (26.03.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KIGALI00189_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘Ethnic troubles’ (12.03.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KIGALI00142_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘Burundi Situation’ (16.05.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KIGALI00319_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘RWANDA SEEKS MOBUTU’ S MEDIATION’ (17.05.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KINSHA04108_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘RWANDAN RADIO ATTACKS BURUNDI’ (30.05.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KIGALI00341_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘RWWNDA NATIONAL GUARD COUP’ (05.07.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973NAIROB04358_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘Rwanda Coup’ (11.07.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KIGALI00430_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘Rwandan situation’ (17.07.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KIGALI00439_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘DISCONTINUANCE OF BELGIAN MISSIONS’ (24.07.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973STATE145021_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ANCIEN REGIME: COURT MARTIAL RECOMMENDS SEVEN DEATH SENTENCES INCLUDING FORMER PRES KAYIBANDA’ (02.07.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974KIGALI00400_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ANCIEN REGIME FIGURES: DEATH SENTENCES COMMUTED’ (05.07.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974KIGALI00406_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘HUMAN RIGHTS: RWANDA ACTION PLAN’ (18.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977KIGALI00879_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘Trends in Rwanda’ (02.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977KIGALI00671_c.html

WikiLeaks – East Africa in the 1970s: how the tensions running high between the nations ,disbanding EAC, and US involvment.

Here is brief WikiLeaks on the rich history of the 70’s in East Africa. The interesting times and political play of an era which is now gone. What we can learn by this, is how to deal with tension between nations and also what values we should seek. Read this and hopefully you will be a bit more enlighten on some history which happened not too long ago.

Short historical pretense to the Uganda-Kenya-Tanzania tensions of the 70s:

“Kenyan press accused Ugandan soldiers of murdering and chasing off railway officials in February, 1973. Uganda claimed that it was planned by former Ugandan president, Obote and his supporters” (…)”President Amin of Uganda placed his military on alert for an invasion of British forces from Kenya as tensions grew concerning the death sentence of British journalist, Denis Hills who criticized Amin. On June 25, 1975, Amin accused Britain of sending two warships with soldiers to Kenya in preparation for an invasion. The British government called the deployment a routine visit. On July 1, 1975, Amin announced that he would grant Hills a pardon” (…)”President Kenyatta of Kenya threatened war with Uganda in February, 1976 over a border dispute” (…)”President Amin of Uganda withdrew his claims on the disputed area on Febraury 27, 1976, but tensions continued. Kenya protested the killing of a Kenyan student in Uganda on March 12, 1976” (…)”Israeli troops rescued some 100 hostages at Entebbe airport in Uganda on July 3-4, 1976, and Israeli military aircraft used in the rescue mission landed in Nairobi, Kenya for refueling before returning to Israel. President Idi Amin of Uganda accused Kenya of collaborating with Israel on July 4, 1976. Some 3,000 Kenyans fled from Uganda on July 5-15, 1976. On July 8, Kenya demanded that Uganda pay for all goods being shipped through Kenya because of the debt Uganda owed it. On July 9, Kenya restricted Uganda’s access by rail to the Indian Ocean. The Kenyan government reported on the tenth of July that 245 Kenyan citizens had been killed in Uganda” (…)”On July 16, 1976, Kenyan truck and railway workers refused to enter Uganda. Uganda promised not to invade Kenya on July 21. Uganda cut electricity supplies to Kenya on July 24. Kenya severed the supply of oil to Uganda on July 25, 1976, and President Amin retaliated by threatening to go to war with Kenya. Uganda agreed to hold negotiations with Kenya on July 30, 1976” (…)”President Amin of Uganda and President Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya signed an agreement in Nairobi on August 7, 1976, which provided for the withdrawal of troops from the border region. Kenya resumed the supply of oil to Uganda on August 11, 1976. This ended the series of conflicts that make up” (…)”Kenya and Uganda agreed to resume diplomatic relations on February 10, 1978. Kenya closed its border with Uganda in April, 1979 to stop the inflow of fleeing Ugandan soldiers fleeing from the invasion of Tanzania” (Dingu.sbs.arizona.edu)

This was the short history of the exiting times in East Africa. Here is what I found from the releases of documents on Wikileaks:  

In May 1973 Kampala Uganda, the elite or prominent people resigned their post.  Professor and Dean in Political Science, Ali Mazrui is specialized in the fields of Europe and American politics. Since the coup of 1971 he has given lectures that are pro-Amin, still with the repression of the elite has changed his views (Wikileaks, 1973). The reason why Ali Mazrui was turned against Idi Amin was the way he repressed the Acholi, the Langi, the Asians and the murders of Bendicto Kiwanuka and Vice-Chancellor Frank Kalimuzo of Makerere (Binghampton, 2011).

Ambassador Barigye resigned on the 3rd of May 1973. Julius Nyerere granted him political asylum in Tanzania. His travel paper told another story that he ended in Lusaka, because the work opportunity is supposed to be better there (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Certain diaspora in Tanzania:

Obote is reported to be in Tanzania, also with terminated cabinet ministers. Idi Amin has put new people who have to act in their position, leaving the other one to end their former minsters posts (WikiLeaks, 1973).

4th of May General Amin appointed soldiers to be Saza and Gambola Cheifs. Their training started on 7th of May which now has turned into 3 or 4 weeks. Amin told them: “When he completes reorganization and everything is seen (to be) working well, he will give six months or one year for people to prepare for general elections” (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Tentative coup plans of 1973:

The ones that were supporting this operation were the Tanzania, China and also possible USA to assist the coup in Uganda. Ugandan leaders supporting this were Ali Mazuri and Major Okoth. Richard Ojok was delivering a plan at the embassy at the 21th August (WikiLeaks, 1973). Ojok has organized a group called UNQTE. Ali Mazuri is a part of this outfit. Major Ojok has met Nyerere to get Tanzanian assistance for the coup. Chinese Millitary Attache Cho En Tieng was present and offered financial assistance. The Chinese also offered Army personnel, but Ojok was afraid that if the coup succeeded the Chinese would be tied to power. The plan for the plot was to let the army men travel in civilian at 5th of October on an East African Airlines. Mazuri has discussed the matter to a African American Arms dealer Julian Hilbert. Hilbert assistance will come if they get enough funding. Major Ojok has been into Uganda and knows that they have 200 well trained military men, with a unit of 400 Libyan troops and 21 Mirage Jet Fighters. On his assassination list is the Commander of the Simba Mechanized Regiment at Mbabara: Lt. Col. Maliyamungu. They fear him because he has control of the tank division. So UNQTE feel they need to get tanks and are trying to get funds to complete this. Former Minister Kibedi is offering a position to those who are supporting funds. Ojok is not planning to have the coup when Amin is departed trip to Algeria for a conference. It will be when he is in the country. 22th of August 1973 will Ojok be back in Uganda and stay at the Standard Hotel. Lindstrom forward all information to the Washington Agencies (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Problems between Uganda and Tanzania:

13th of July 1974 General Amin had allegation of supposed plans of a coup and invasion from Tanzania. Amin is saying that Zambia and Tanzania is wishing to get the ousted Obote back as president in Uganda. He says: “Actively supporting Dr Milton Obote to mount an invasion of Uganda” (…)” Continues to encourage and assist invasion of Uganda, battlefields will be Mwanza, Musoma, Tabora, and Dodoma. I am not going to kneel down in front of him, he must know that I am a General who can fight any war, at any time, anywhere” (WikiLeaks, 1974). Tanzanian Governement replied to Amin: “Government wants to make clear that should these allegations be used for an attack, Tanzania will be justified to take all necessary steps to defend itself”. Radio Tanzania has reported on 15. July 1974 that President SIAD has inquired to the Secretary General of the OAU to get a meeting between Uganda, Zambia and Tanzania. This tension strand from the prominent position Obote got under the 20th anniversary of TANU on 7. July 1974 (WikiLeaks, 1974).

Boycott of Ugandan goods:

Idi Amin statement: “Does not constitute apology for recent territorial claim which GOK is insisting upon before presently strained bilateral relation can be normalized”. Dockworkers in Mombasa boycott the boats with Ugandan destined cargo. This leading too delayed boats out of docks of Mombasa. Amin is waiting for a Government of Kenya (GOK) apology. This boycott could lead to Amin to cut electricity which Amin claimed was substantial for Kenya, the estimation is between 15-20%. The photographer of Jomo Kenyatta has been burned in public in Uganda (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Fuel Shortage in Rwanda:

Uganda has had economic setbacks due to the closure of borders with Kenya. This has led to the gas shortage in Rwanda – because of the Mombasa-Kampala line. Tea and coffee export is really hit by this gas shortage (WikiLeaks, 1976). Rwandan MINFIN, National Bank of Rwanda flew to Kampala with President Habyarimana on the 17. March to discuss a government deal with Amin. Amin snubbed it for three reasons:

  1. Rwandan transport is the reason why the Ugandan roads deteriorating.
  2. Rwandan economic policies are the reason why the Ugandan Shilling is weakened and making Rwandan Franc is staying strong.
  3. Amin Accused the Rwandan of selling Ugandan coffee.
  4. Amin wasn’t happy that Habyarimana met with Nyerere last month.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

President Habyarimana is sure this economic sanction from Uganda is because of his way of dealing with Amin. Also even with the new Rwandan Foreign Policy of having good relation to its neighbors. And continue with building relation with Tanzania, even hasten Mwanza-Rusumu to Dar es Salem (WikiLeaks, 1976).

MINFIN is Ministry of Finance (Worldbank, 2007).

Continuation on the tension in East Africa:

  • Nyerere is not happy about the arms deal that they have done with South Africa. Especially after the meeting between South Africa’s Heath and Zambia’s Kaunda. Nyerere said he “Put heat in the Dock”. Nyerere was now bitter about the whole affair.
  • UK was happy with the Amin coup, they supported him and to overthrow of Obote. UK wanted that Amin to get rid of Sudanese troops in the South. When OAU gave the conference to Kampala it “gave this crook continental respectability”.
  • Nyerere thought it was amusing now that UK, Israel and Kenya is now enemies of Uganda. He commented: “Jomo needs a little external trouble to reinforce internal unity right now and an external fool always help is such case” (…) “we all do sometimes”.
  • Nyerere had really not any real fear of Amin neither had Kenya. Secondly Nyerere wasn’t going to start anything.
  • What Nyerere was worried about what was US up to. Especially on sale of F-5. Since their trying to out maneuver Soviet military support to Uganda and Somalia. Secretary Rumsfeld visited Nairobi. Nyerere wished that UK and USA helped Kenya in all other ways then military operation towards Uganda as he said “Leave this quarrel to East Africa, we will take care of it”.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

Tanzania and USSR:

Nyerere will order Foreign Minister Kaduma question the USSR ambassador whom the Soviet arming Uganda against. Nyerere had done the same time before when Uganda got the military equipment called MIGS. Soviet answers said “Imperialist!” Nyerere answered “Nonsense” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Uganda – Kenya Tension continues:

It’s now 15 October 1976. Kenya has released the Bedford trucks as a quid pro quo for getting their electricity back. Still all military equipment isn’t being shipped from Mombasa. It will be that way until the OAU 6 nation based commission is put into place. There are negotiations in New York on the matter. Kenyan Foreign Minister Karithi says all non-military based deliveries to Uganda except for jet-aviation-fuel which they are holding back. Amin is more and more irritated at the Kenyan boycott of arms. This led to the point where Amin attempted to call VP Moi of Kenya to complain about the matter. Most of the members of Ugandan Defense Council are not unwilling to take action towards Kenya (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Arms from Tanzania to Uganda:

There been rumors of regular arms traffic from the Kismayu to Uganda via the Kilmanjaro International Airport without entering Kenyan Air Space. The route being: Kismayu – Somalia – Tanzania – Uganda. This been in Ugandan’s own C-130 Transport Aircraft. And an U.S. Citizen is involved in the arms trade. This increasing support of Uganda is happening, even after the assurance of otherwise from Nyerere during the last meeting in August between Nyerere and Kenyatta (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Tanzania – Kenya tensions:

Permanent Secretary of Kenya has claimed that the Tanzanian government is dealing with “trade sabotage” and also focusing funds on rebuilding Tanga and Ports of Dar-Es-Salam. They also preferred the Chinese over the Kenyan. Kenyan Foreign Minister Karithi also claimed that Tanzania doesn’t trade rightfully with Kenya. Especially when looking at the trade balance which was in 1975 2, 3 to 1, in the three first months of 1976 it’s 3 to 1. Nyerere’s answer to all this that the trade gap between Kenya and Uganda that was in 1975 20 to 1 and in 1976 became 40 to 1. Nyerere also admits that Ugandans smuggle coffee to Kenya so that distort the numbers (WikiLeaks, 1976). Tanzanian also claims that Kenya is taking the major share of the tourism. The East African Airways are supposed to lure tourist to all parts of East Africa, not only Kenya, even though the Tourist infrastructure seem superior in Kenya compared to the rest, even if the animal and nature sights in Tanzania is much greater (WikiLeaks, 1976).

1977:

5th July 1977 Amin approached Kenyan Foreign Minister Waiyaki at the OAU summit in Libreville. Amin claimed that Nyerere agreed to have a “save the EAC” meeting and Amin hoped that the Kenyan would have this meeting in Nairobi. This request comes at the time when Kenya won’t spend funds into the EAC until Tanzania reopens their common borders. Government of Kenya has also recalled their workers from the EAC headquarters from Arusha (WikiLeaks, 1977).

EAC and USAID:

Kenya already sees the EAC as and non-existent entity already at 15th of June 1977. In Kenya the EAC research programs that have been under EAC will now be under GOK (Government of Kenya). The Government desires that the aid continues and sign project agreements as soon as practical. Kenyan government has also started to convert community entities to Kenyan once. Uganda is supposed to pull unless Amin get to meet Nyerere on the 20th of July. There is no reason for that to materialize. The borders also still closed between Kenya and Tanzania (WikiLeaks, 1977).

US African Affairs – DRC’s Mobutu and Uganda’s Amin:

Mobutu responded positive to our request of approaching Amin. The matter at hand is if we’re give Amin something then Mobutu need something as well. We have been using Mobutu to deal with Amin, but we can’t expect him do the deals with him without some gestures from our part. The message US African Affairs sent Mobutu in September 1977:

  • We are pleased by Mobutu’s prompt, public support of our proposals on Zimbabwe settlement.
  • We appreciate also Mobutu’s intervening with Amin on Humanitarian grounds, and recognize the difficulties posed for him by this and other interventions he has made on our behalf.
  • We value Zaire’s continued corporations and wish to stay in close touch on issues of common concern.

(WikiLeaks, 1977)

Kenya trusted American ally:

Ministry of Defense briefed them on their situation:

  • Kenya is surrounded by alien ideologies and Soviet and PRC influence, and its economic development and political stability that have caused envy and hostile neighbors.
  • Somalia is recruiting actively guerrillas against Kenya. This in a so called Ogaden style to carry out the claims for the North-Eastern Kenya. The Guerrilla has now a force of up to 10 000. This with the training from North Korea and Cuba since 1969. With the expulsion of Soviets, this might lead to a better friendship between them. But Somalia has not renounced the territorial claims. The Kenya-Somalia relationship can be described as “No Peace, No War”. Kenya would not be offended by a tighter relationship with Mogadishu; they know that Somalis will not talk to the Americans since they have their relations with Soviet and Ethiopia, who provide those arms and aid.
  • Uganda is an unstable neighbor. And has threats to attack Kenya. The lifeline for Kenya is that if Somalia attacks North-East, then Amin might be tempted to go in the Western. Because Amin would like to upset Kenyan stability.
  • Tanzania hasn’t been an issue not until 1977. When they closed down the EAC and also their borders. Also with incursions from Tanzania with killings and cattle rustling. It seems as Tanzania now works more closely to Zambia and Mozambique.
  • Ethiopia because of Somalia is a reliable ally. Though if it is so in future, they are not so sure. This be given the Soviet and Marxist believes in the country.
  • Because of this, Kenya needs to strengthen its borders. Particular Uganda and Somalia.

(WikiLeaks, 1977)

Links:

Binghampton.edu – ‘IN PURSUIT OF PERSONAL EXCELLENCE: THE DECLINE AND REVIVAL OF ALI A. MAZRUI’: Second Draft (10.2011) Link: http://www.binghamton.edu/igcs/docs/In%20Pursuit%20of%20Personal%20Excellence-The%20Decline%20and%20Revival%20of%20Ali%20A.%20Mazrui.pdf

Dingu.Sbs.Arizona.edu – ‘Rivnotes’ Link: http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~ggoertz/rivalry/cmv5.10/cm500501v5.10.txt

WikiLeaks – ‘MAZRUI RESIGNS; SOLDIERS REPLACE CHIEFS’ (05.05.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KAMPAL01538_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA COUP PLANS’ (21.08.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973NAIROB05577_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NEW PROBLEM IN TANZANIA-UGANDA RELATIONS’ (15.07.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974DARES02360_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PRESIDENT NYERERE ON KENYA-UGANDA QUARREL’ (19.07.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976DARES02606_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA: AMIN SNUBS RWANDA ON PETROL CRISIS’ (30.03.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976KIGALI00245_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘KENYAN-UGANDAN RELATIONS’ (15.10.1976) Link:

https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976NAIROB11323_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘FUTURE OF U.S. AID PROGRAM TO EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY’ (26.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977NAIROB09350_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CODEL PRICE CONSULTATION WITH BOK’ (18.11.1977) Links: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977NAIROB15006_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PROPOSED MESSAGE FOR MOBUTU’ (10.09.1977) Link:

https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977KINSHA08671_c.html

WorldBank – ‘FINANCING AGREEMENT’ (05.02.2007) Link: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2010/06/03/54A8AF4762E6EA70852572A600670F84/2_0/Rendered/INDEX/FA01Conformed1010Corrected.txt

Gado siste (med kort CV til Museveni, Mugabe og Biya)

Bare for å gi litt kjøtt på beine til vitsen for de som ikke kjenner de Afrikanske lederne Gado viser. Her er en kort CV til Museveni, Mugabe og Biya.

Alex Ferguson:

Posisjon – Fotball manager

Ansatt/tatt posisjonen – 6. November 1986

Går Av: Etter denne sesongen og siste kamp i Premier League vil være mot West Bromwich Albion 19.05.

Historie/Oppnådd:

13 Premier Leauge tittler.

5 FA Cup tittler.

4 League Cup tittler.

2 UEFA Champions Leauge titteler.

1 UEFA Cup winner Cup tittel.

1 Interkontinental Cup titel.

1 Verdens Cup for Klubblag tittel.

Yoweri K. Museveni:

Posisjon – President i Uganda.

Ansatt/tatt posisjonen – 29. Januar 1986.

Historie/Oppnådd:

Var med i slutten av 70-tallet med samarbeid Milton Obote og fikk avsatt Idi Amin ved hjelp av Julius Nyerere fra Tanzania inn til Uganda.

–          April 1979: Forsvarsminister i regjeringen til Yusuf Lule.

–          Juni 1979: Minister for Reginale affærer i Godfrey Binaisa

–          May 1980 – Kupp av Paulo Muwanga

–          Desember 1980: Valg – Med ny opprettet Ugandan Patriotic Movement som tapte valget og startet det som blitt kjent som Obote II regjeringen.

–          1981 – 86: Bush krig og stiftelse av NRA(National Resistance Army)

–          29. Januar 1986: Offisielt president.

–          Resistance Council startet.

–          1987 – SAP: Structual Adjustment Plan med støtte av IMF.

–          1990: Støttet første mislykkete kupp forsøk til RPF(Rwandan Patriotic Front og Paul Kagame).

–          April 1994: Støttet andre invasjon til RPF etter Habyarimana helikopter styrter.

–          April 1995: Kutter støtten til Sudan etter Omar Al-Bashir gir støtte til LRA(Lord Resistance Army)

–          Konstitusjon i 1995.

–          9. Mai 1996: 72.6% av stemmene.  Sverget inn 12. mai.

–          1996-97: Rwanda og Uganda innvaderer DRC(Democratic Republic of Congo), styrter Mobutu Sese Seko og innsetter Laurent Kabila.

–          1997: introduserer gratis grunnutdanning.

–          1998: Rwanda og Uganda innvaderer DRC for andre gang.  Insetter sønnen Joseph Kabila i 2001(og forsatt er president).

–          2001: Får 69% av stemmene og første gang Dr. Kizza Besigye og ny startet FDC(Forum Democratic Congress).

–          Juli 2005 . Konstisjonell forandring – man trengte ikke lenger å stille som kandidat for parti, men kunne skal stille individuell.

–          30 Juli: Politisk alliert i SPLA John Garang i helikopter kræsj.

–          Februar 2006: Tredje valg – andre gang hovedmotstander Dr. Kizza Besigye(FDC).

–          2007 – Sender styrker til AMISOM og AU i Somalia.

–          2011 –  Fjerde valgperiode: Valgt med 68 % av stemmene og tredje gang hovedmotstander Dr. Kizza Besigye(FDC).

Robert «Bob» Mugabe:

Posisjon –  President i Zimbabwe

Ansatt/tatt posisjon – 31. Desember 1987.

Historie Oppnådd:

Lærer i Zambia (1955-58) og i Ghana (1958-60). I politisk fangenskap i Rhodesia(Zimbabwe) fra 1964 til 1974.

–          Lancaster House Agreement: September 1979. Valg i Februar 1980.

–          4. Mars 1980: Statsminister.

–          Juni 1980: Forsvars kontrakt med Nord Korea.

–          1982 Gukurahundi: Omstilling og sendte hæren mot ZAPU’s kjerne område.

–          1987 konsoliderte ZANU og ZAPU til ZANU-PF.

–          1980-tallet: Sosialistisk økonomiske reformer.

–          1989: Sparket ministere og parti medlemmer over korrupsjon.

–          1990: Gjenvalgt.

–          1990: Structural Adjustment Plan (SAP) reformer fra IMF.

–          1994: Sparket ministere og parti medlemmer over korrupsjon.

–          1996: Gjenvalgt igjen.

–          2000: Land Omstillingsreform – Kastet ut 75k hvite bønder.

–          2000: Hyper inflasjon: 40% innflasjon.

–          2001: USA setter inn saksjoner.

–          2002: Gjenvalgt atter en gang etter massiv valgjuks.

–          2002: EU setter inn saksjoner.

–          2002: Morgan Tsvangirai (MDC – Movement for Democratic Change )tapte valgkampen men vant internasjonal presisje .

–          2002: Commonwealth suspenderer Zimbabwe.

–          2005: Parliamentsvalget blir kritisert, utbrudd av vold og rigget.

–          29. Mars 2008: Tapte først valgrunde for MDC.

–          30 Mars 2008: Hemmlig møte med sikkerhetsperson som skulle skremme folket til å velge rett.

–          2. Mai 2008: Tsvangirai 47,9% og Mugabe 43,2%.

–          27. Juni 2008: Zimbabwe Electorial Commision – Mugabe 85,5% og Tsvangirai 9,3%. Valg var kontroversielt.

–          11. September 2008: Samarbeidsregjering etter forhandlinger mellom MDC og ZANU-PF.

–          Forsatt President – Vise President Tsvangirai.

–          2010: IMF – andre året med «flytende» økonomi.

Paul Biya:

Posisjon – President i Kamerun

Ansatt/tatt posisjon – 6. November 1982.

Historie/Oppnådd:

–          1968 – Første minister post.

–          Juni 1970 – Innenriks minister.

–          30 Juni 1975 Statsminister.

–          Midten av 1980-tallet økonomisk kriser.

–          1984: Vant valget med 99,98%.

–          1988: Gjenvalgt.

–          1990: Legalisere andre politiske partier.

–          1990 – tallet: Økonomiske kriser.

–          1992: Vant valget igjen med 40%.

–          1997: Gjenvalgt med 92,6%.

–          2004: Gjenvalgt med 70,92%.

–          2011: Gjenvalgt med 77,9%.

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