Jamaica: Energy Minister Updates National Partnership Council on Country’s Fuel Supply (10.03.2022)
I write what I like.
“The basic confrontation which seemed to be colonialism versus anti-colonialism, indeed capitalism versus socialism, is already losing its importance. What matters today, the issue which blocks the horizon, is the need for a redistribution of wealth. Humanity will have to address this question, no matter how devastating the consequences may be.” – Frantz Fanon
The true value and who runs it is proven when the former head of the Commonwealth for decades has been Queen Elisabeth II, which of yesterday put the mantle of leadership to her son Prince Charles of Wales. The Statement from ‘ Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018 – Leaders’ Statement’ said: “We recognise the role of The Queen in championing the Commonwealth and its peoples. The next Head of the Commonwealth shall be His Royal Highness Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales” (Commonwealth, 20.04.2018).
We can also know the perspective the Great Britain has for the organization, as Boris Johnson wrote so clearly in March 2018: “The good news is that when we leave the EU, we will regain the power to sign free trade agreements with our Commonwealth friends, allowing the UK to make the most of thriving markets. Brexit will give us the ability to open a new era of friendship with countries across the world. A key theme of the London summit will be how to boost trade within the Commonwealth. We’ll also discuss how to improve security co-operation and take joint action to protect the world’s oceans, bearing in mind that the Commonwealth includes island states in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean” (Boris Johnson – ‘Commonwealth has key role to play in the bright future for Britain: article by Boris Johnson’ 12.03.2018, Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO)).
It shows that the United Kingdom own problems and issues is key for the Summit. The others are more a circus that the old empire can play into it. That happen and the Commonwealth Declaration on the 20th April 2018 named ‘Declaration on the Commonwealth Connectivity Agenda for Trade and Investment’ part of it says: “We, the Heads of Government representing member countries of the Commonwealth and one third of the world’s population recognise international trade and investment
as an engine for generating inclusive and participative economic growth and a means to deliver the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (…) “In particular, we recognise the importance of the multilateral trading system in ensuring the integration of small, vulnerable and least developed countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific into the world economy, and welcome initiatives which will support greater and more effective participation of these countries in international trade” (…) “To promote the realisation of these goals, we hereby launch the Commonwealth Connectivity Agenda for Trade and Investment. This Agenda will be guided by the principles that: co-operation should be pragmatic and practical, leading to credible results; take into account regional integration initiatives; take into account the needs of small and vulnerable economies and least developed countries; avoid duplication with initiatives where other organisations are already working; add value in areas of engagement; and adopt a progressive approach towards a long term vision for closer trade and investment ties. It should also recognise the vital role of the private sector in delivering the 2030 Agenda and facilitating the promotion of the blue and green economy” (Commonwealth – ‘Declaration on the Commonwealth Connectivity Agenda for Trade and Investment’ 20.04.2018).
We can see that Boris Johnson’s goals for the Commonwealth Head of Government Meeting (CHOGM) appeared on the last day, yesterday, as this declaration is to anticipate the Commonwealth secretariat and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) will work on this now. To make sure the former Colonies are more connected. Not only to themselves through trade, but also to the United Kingdom. This is to give the United Kingdom bigger trade and partners through the use of the former colonies. To look at it differently, is to be naive. The other agreements is to make the public perception positive, but this here was to grease the wheels of United Kingdom, who are soon losing the trade-agreements through the membership of European Union, because of their silly decision to leave the Union.
We can see that the Commonwealth all benefits the United Kingdom and the others just has a place multi-nationally to be represented, though a loose organization, that isn’t to formal. But is a place to make them look better and get exposure through the perspective of their former colonial master. That is why they still has the inter-connected ministry FCO. It is a reason why even Zimbabwean Non-Governmental Organization was petitions the Department for International Development (DFID), so the former colony could have funds to hold Presidential Candidate National Television Debate before the General Election later in the year.
Well, that was a sidetrack, but very fitting. Because, the Commonwealth, still seems like a UK based organization, where it is all because of the mercy of the UK. The Commonwealth communiques, declarations and the meetings is because of UK leaders. Not because of the Kenyan President wanted it or the Indian one wanted some. We know there are someone even questioning it, the Bangladesh PM has been stating this today:
“LONDON, April 21, 2018 (BSS)- Seeking inclusion of representative from Asia in the High Level Group to review the Commonwealth Secretariat’s Governance, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina yesterday suggested making the Group more representative with inclusion of member states of different regions. “We value the knowledge and expertise of the Secretariat for furthering work of the Commonwealth. However, we believe that views of the member states through appropriate representation, is equally important,” she said” (Bangladesh Sangbad Sangstha – ‘PM suggests making CW high-level group more representative’ 21.04.2018).
This is what I started it, and it is made like this because the Commonwealth are made for the needs of United Kingdom, then the second interests. That is why the head of the Commonwealth has to be the Royalty of the UK. Now it is the Prince of Wales, which was nudged in by the Queen. The same happen to Prince Harry, who was appointed by the Queen to become the Commonwealth Youth Ambassador. We can see that the Commonwealth is a UK enterprise. The view can be seen that way, the way the Royal family has key roles and that the FCO is involved. Therefore, the meetings and statements coming from Boris Johnson with everyone he could. Making photo-ups with anyone he could during the CHOGM.
We will clearly see the Commonwealth Secretariat work on the Declaration, especially now that the UK is gearing up for the Brexit and leaving the Union. They need new secure trading partners and what better, than using the informal body of Commonwealth to get trade with. That is what even Johnson has been writing and proves his ideas. That is why he has been so diplomatic and kind with words. Because some of the nations and state leaders he has meet these days, he has written in the past ill-words of their republics and their kind. Therefore, we know he has sudden swift change of interests. That interests being the benefit of London and not of the former colonies.
The Commonwealth seems more like a savior and needed trade-partners right now, because of the problems coming with the loss of the EU membership. FCO and Commonwealth member-states with this declaration are opening for negotiations. Something that Johnson has been hoping for all along. Since he wanted that and hoped that CHOGM would deliver. However, it did that in some respect with the Declaration.
Seemingly again the Commonwealth is made for the benefit of the UK and their needed gains. If it was otherwise, than the Bangladesh PM wouldn’t asked for what she did after the CHOGM. That proves the problems within the Commonwealth Secretariat and with the Declaration itself. Since in that one in question isn’t mentioned even directly in the declaration.
Hope I am wrong, but as long the British Royalty is running it and is the heads of it. Their interests will be in line of London, not being for all the members of the Commonwealth. To think otherwise to be naive. Peace.
It has come to the attention of the Government of Guyana through a media report in the Venezuelan publication El Nacional of 15th March 2017 that a resolution of the Energy and Petroleum Commission of the National Assembly of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela entitled ‘Approved Agreement to Reject Oil Operations in the Essequibo’ has called for the immediate cessation of on-going offshore oil exploration and exploitation activities under Guyanese license in the Stabroek concession block well within the maritime Exclusive Economic Zone of Guyana in accordance with international law. So far as the Government of Guyana is aware, the Government of Venezuela has not adopted or otherwise endorsed the resolution, in which case the Government of Guyana would respond as appropriate.
The inflammatory resolution contains serious factual and legal errors. First, it suggests erroneously that the offshore activities in Guyanese waters have “recently” commenced whereas the Stabroek license was awarded in 1999 and exploration commenced the following year in 2000, 17 years ago. Second, it suggests erroneously that Guyana is prohibited from developing its resources in this area because of Article V of the Geneva Agreement of 1966. But nothing whatsoever in the terms of that provision indicates that the parties cannot exercise jurisdiction over their sovereign territories. Otherwise, it would mean that for the past fifty years, Guyana had no right to develop 70% of its territory, and the same applies to Venezuela’s development of the Orinoco region and adjacent maritime area which, like the Essequibo, was the subject of the 1899 Arbitral Award. Needless to say, such an argument is manifestly absurd.
This political posturing comes at an unfortunate time when the UN Secretary-General has appointed Ambassador Dag Nylander as his Personal Representative to provide Guyana and Venezuela a final opportunity to resort to the Good Offices process in order to resolve the controversy arising from Venezuela’s contention that the 1899 Arbitral Award delimiting the land boundary between Guyana and Venezuela is “null and void”. The parties have until the end of 2017 to make significant progress in arriving at a final resolution of the controversy failing which the Secretary-General will refer the matter to the International Court of Justice. Guyana is fully committed to the search for a full and final resolution of the controversy under the Good Offices process in the limited time that remains. Such deliberate provocations and absurd demands that Guyana halt all development activities, especially when for over fifty years Venezuela has intimidated Guyana and obstructed a resolution of the controversy in accordance with international law, only serve to undermine this final opportunity for the parties to once and for all bring an end to this matter by agreement, failing which adjudication will be the only remaining means of settlement.
Guyana remains committed to friendly and neighbourly relations with the Government and people of Venezuela, but it will categorically refuse to surrender any of the sovereign rights to which it is entitled under international law, not least in this, the fifty-first anniversary of its independence from colonial rule, as a new period of prosperity awaits its people.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
March 17, 2017
Press and Publicity Unit
Ministry of the Presidency
There been in the works for years about offshore drilling on the outside of the coast of Guyana. This has been well-known and is internationally known, as before the drilling the start. There was made arrangement between Exxon Mobile and Republic of Guyana. Therefore the squabble of the sea-bed and the ocean with Venezuela and Guyana… shows that both nations knew the value, as even at one point the Suriname could have showed with aggression of force towards Guyana. This was in the calculation of the United States Oil Company. Exxon Mobile was aware of this even in the 1990s and therefore before the boarders of the sea nd the republics right of the possible offshore adventure, the company had assessed the possible problems ahead. That shows how far this company goes to get massive profits. This is one of the Standard Oil babies, therefore the Exxon Mobile has a history and that repeat itself. Even Rex Tillerson the newly appointed State Secretary in the Trump Administration had something to do with newly forged deals with the Guyana republic. As the Republic of Guyana, also difference in value of the oil reserve between 2016 and 2017 is staggering. That the oil value goes from $70bn in 2016 instead of $200bn in 2017. This shows the proof what is coming and what the state can benefit from the oil drilling. Take a look!
Tillerson in Guyaya:
“Rex Tillerson was scheduled to meet with Guyanese President David Granger at mid week to discuss ExxonMobil’s humongous oil and gas find of the country’s Atlantic coast back in May of last year. He was due to arrive late Tuesday” (…) “Oil Minister Raphael Trotman says every effort is being made to avoid this. Legislation which had catered mostly to deal with exploration rather than production is being updated, local content clauses requiring companies to hire locals and buy local will be included and professionals are being scrambled for overseas training in areas including petroleum law” (…) “Trotman has also said that a big chunk of revenues from the first few years of production — expected to commence around 2019-20 — will go to Exxon, meaning that Guyana “would be getting hundreds of millions of dollars but once that phased is passed we are taking about billions annually. At today’s prices the Liza find is worth about $70 billion dollars” (Wilkerson, 2016).
By law in Guyana Parliament:
“This Order may be cited as the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) (Tax Laws) (Esso Exploration and Production Limited, CNOOCNexen Petroleum Guyana Limited and Hess Guyana Exploration Limited) Order 2016” (…) ““Agreement” means the Petroleum Agreement between the Government of Guyana of the one part and Esso Exploration and Production Limited, CNOOCNexen Petroleum Guyana Limited and Hess Guyana Exploration Limited of the other part dated 27 June 2016 concerning the Stabroek Block, Offshore Guyana, which is a production sharing agreement” (Guyana, 2016).
Agreement in 1990s:
“Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Limited (EEPGL) has a Production Sharing Contract with the Government of Guyana dating back to 1999, which now covers 26.8k km2 in the Stabroek block, following required acreage releases (Figure A.1). In 2014, Hess (30%) and Nexen (25%) farmed in to the block. In May 2015, EEPGL announced a significant discovery of high-quality oil-bearing sands with the Liza-1 well (approximately 190 km [120 miles] offshore Guyana)” (Esso, P: 1, 2016).
Staboek oil drilling:
“The FPSO will be designed to receive full well stream production and process oil at a design rate of 100,000 Barrels of Oil Per Day (BOPD) annual average, with the ability for sustained peaks of up to 120,000 BOPD, and a minimum oil storage capacity of 1.6 million barrels of oil. It will be designed to remain on station continuously for at least 20 years. Production and injection wells will be tied back (i.e., connected) directly to the FPSO via flowlines and risers. Umbilical(s) will provide power, control, and subsea chemicals to the drill centers” (…) “At peak production during Phase 1, the FPSO will offload up to 1 million barrels of oil to a conventional tanker approximately once every 10 days using an industry proven FPSO tandem offloading configuration. The conventional tanker will be held in position with the assistance of tug(s) to maintain a safe separation distance of approximately 120m from the FPSO” (Esso, P: 8, 2016).
Plan for Decommissioning:
“At this time, the expectation is that the SURF components would be detached from the FPSO and abandoned-in-place on the sea floor, consistent with standard industry practice. Risers and umbilicals would be flushed before being abandoned and wells would also be plugged and abandoned. For each well, cement and mechanical barriers would be used to secure the well casing and isolate the wellbore from the formation. A cement plug would also be set near the mudline surface to cap each well. The FPSO is expected to be towed away” (Esso, P: 11, 20016).
The new report of 2017 has more details into the production offshore of Guyana. There are certainly new aspects of the oil drilling. Where the environment get a little bigger aspect as even the changes of environment get a few more fleshy details:
“Air emissions resulting from the Project have the potential to change ambient air quality in the Project Area of Interest (AOI) on a localized basis. Potential impact of greenhouse gas emissions from the Project on climate change” (…) “Subsea sound could cause impacts to sensitive marine fauna (e.g., whales, turtles, and fish) in the PDA” (…) “The Project will disturb marine geology and sediments on a localized basis in the PDA and could impact sediment quality from non-aqueous base fluid (NABF) on drill cuttings discharges” (…) “The Project could potentially impact beaches, mangroves, and wetland habitats in the Project AOI as a result of non-routine, unplanned events” (…) “The Project has the potential to adversely impact cultural heritage through localized disturbance of archaeological or historical sites related to Project development. These resources have conservation, cultural, and other values to stakeholders” (Esso, P: 14-17, 2017)
So with this in mind the government has even had a workshop in February this year. So that the Exxon Mobile Corporation and their drilling and offshore petroleum in the sea of Guyana. The whole deal and agreement between the nation and the business is not clear to the public, except that the business is supposed to be licenced for the drilling and give tax-monies of the production. The Exxon Mobile has already proven that they don’t build a refinery, so the export from the platform to the specialized boats to transport petroleum. Therefore the meeting in Jamaica, Kingston, shows the ability to speak with the ones that starting industry in the South American Nation:
“A HIGH-LEVEL team of Government officials was on Wednesday morning briefed by ExxonMobil on its production preparations, a move which marks the commencement of a series of consultations by the U.S. oil giant with stakeholders.The technical briefing was held at the Marriott Hotel, Kingston and a similar exercise was also expected to be carried out later in the day with a team led by Opposition Leader, Bharrat Jagdeo” (…) “The report stated that early, rough estimates by experts of how much recoverable oil Guyana could have range to more than four billion barrels, which at today’s prices would be worth more than US$200B.
In addition to the Liza field, Exxon and drilling partner, Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Limited are also exploring the Payara field, which is part of a block of 6.6 million acres. On January 12, Exxon announced that its drilling partner encountered more than 95 feet (29 metres) of high-quality, oil-bearing sandstone reservoirs at Payara. It said that the area was safely drilled to 18,080 feet (5,512 meters) in 6,660 feet (2,030 metres) of water” (Solomon, 2017).
So the plans of drilling are set and the anticipated waste is happening as well. That Exxon Mobile will make a killing on these fields in pure and true. The massive reserves will surely make the government of Guyana happy as they even got settled who owned the waters between them and Venezuela.
There are so many more things to come as the proof of the environmental problems and the financial implications is also coming to the forefront with the different values in 2016 and 2017. Exxon Mobile has been hands on and used all means, even foreseen the implications of their activity in Guyana, as they we’re even embedded with the government before the drilling and before the settlement and lawful judgement on who could licence the sea and offshore areas was put in order. Even decades before and therefore the problems with Venezuela and Surinam over who owns it, shows the true levels of planning that the Oil Corporations does. That the Exxon Mobile leadership does what it takes to get giant petroleum reserves. Like the Standard Oil did in the past, so does it future clone Exxon.
We can just follow and wonder what this will lead too and what sort of ways the state can get the funds and resources into the consolidation funds, not to speak of in use for the citizens of Guyana. Not only the elite and the central leadership as so many petro-dollars have ended at. Let’s hope that the Guyana Republic and their leadership can sustain the offshore adventure and also give it back to its citizens. Peace.
Esso Exploration and Production Limited Project – ‘SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION TO THE APPLICATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AUTHORISATION FOR EEPGL’S LIZA PHASE 1 DEVELOPMENT, STABROEK LICENSE AREA, OFFSHORE GUYANA’ (8/2/2016) “ESSO EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION GUYANA LTD”
Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Ltd – ‘PROJECT SUMMARY FOR LIZA PHASE 1 DEVELOPMENT, STABROEK LICENSE AREA, OFFSHORE GUYANA’ (January 2017)
Memorial of Guyana – ‘Exxon signs PSC for Deepwater Acreage off Guyana; Adds to Global Deepwater Portfolio’ (14.06.1999).
Guyana: ‘THE PETROLEUM (EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION) ACT – IN EXERCISE OF THE POWER CONFERRED UPON ME BY SECTION 51 OF THE PETROLEUM (EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION) ACT, I MAKE THE FOLLOWING ORDER’ No. 10 of 2016 (2nd August 2016).
Solomon, Alva – ‘Oil Brief –Exxon briefs Gov’t, Opposition on preparations for oil production’ (01.02.2017) link: https://guyanachronicle.com/2017/02/01/oil-brief-exxon-briefs-govt-opposition-on-preparations-for-oil-production
Wilkinson, Bert – ‘Tillerson scrubs Guyana visit’ (15.12.2016) link: http://www.caribbeanlifenews.com/stories/2016/12/2016-12-16-bw-tillerson-trump-pick-cancels-guyana-visit-cl.html
“Whether I choose him or not for “State”- Rex Tillerson, the Chairman & CEO of ExxonMobil, is a world class player and dealmaker. Stay tuned!” – Donald J. Trump on Twitter 11.12.2016.
We have to scrutinize and look over the men that possibly will be the most powerful men and woman in the Trump Administration, as they should not be forgotten what they did in the past. Especially when Trump himself has branded Obama Administration as ‘hopeless’ and ‘bad’; therefore his Administration should be better, though by the men and woman who is already picked his stature for military and rich-men is staggering, more than the qualifications for each role in Government. That is what is worrying. This time around it is the current Chairman of ExxonMobile, a negotiator and deal-maker for the grand-oil empire from Texas, the Rex Tillerson who is connected in Venezuela, Russia and Kazakhstan. He is the next in line for the possible task of Secretary of State!
“If you ask the average person on the street about U.S. energy and U.S. oil in particular, our situation, most Americans would say, ‘Oh, we’re energy poor; we don’t have enough oil; we don’t have enough natural gas.’” – Rex Tillerman
What he even wished to happen inside the US in the midst of the Obama Administration:
“Q: President Obama has outlined a plan to cut oil imports by one-third over the next 10 years. Is this feasible?
A: We expect gasoline demand in the U.S. to decline about 17% over the next 20 years. And that’s a function of both efficiency standards that have been put in place for automobiles, but also an ongoing penetration of hybrid and hybrid-electric vehicles. There’s going to be a natural decline in demand for motor fuels from that. That will be partially offset by increasing demand for heavy-duty fuels like diesel. That, along with the penetration of bio fuels, is going to result in a mitigation of imports. Whether we eliminate a third of the imports is hard to say. Another piece of our success will rest on whether the U.S. government decides to make available the lands that it controls, because 60% of the remaining oil resource in the U.S. is on federal lands and 40% of the remaining gas resource. It’s up to the federal government to allow the industry to explore those lands and develop those resources that could have a big impact on supply in the future” (Bartiromo, 2011).
Secretary of State does: “The Secretary of State, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is the President’s chief foreign affairs adviser. The Secretary carries out the President’s foreign policies through the State Department, which includes the Foreign Service, Civil Service, and U.S. Agency for International Development” (Secretary of State, link: http://www.state.gov/secretary/).
So as the foreign affairs job has lots of responsibility to be the face of the nation when the President self cannot travel or negotiate, even do diplomatic missions to keep up with alliances and treaties that the US Government have or currently in the works. So the position should be done by somebody with tact and courtesy for the will of the US Government and the foreign dignitaries so that the person doesn’t offend either party while working for the common good. That is something that the possible former ExxonMobile chairman Tillerson has to do.
Negotiations in Venezuela:
“According to the XM executives, the last significant contact XM had with the BRV or PDVSA was XM Chairman and CEO Rex Tillerson’s May 16 meeting with Ambassador Bernardo Alvarez. During the meeting, Tillerson told Alvarez that XM must have a confidentiality agreement before it could begin negotiations on the remaining migration issues. In addition, he stated book value was not an acceptable basis for compensation for lost value. Finally, Tillerson said XM was looking for a win-win solution but warned that XM was willing to go to arbitration if it had to do so. The executives later mentioned that PDVSA’s stake in the Chalmette refinery was mentioned as a possible component in a compensation package. They did not specify who raised the topic” (…) “When asked if other IOCs had entered into negotiations with the BRV, XM executives replied they did not believe any companies had entered into meaningful negotiations. They stated they met with Total executives on May 22 to discuss the general situation. The Total executives stated their company has also rejected book value as a basis for compensation for lost value. In addition, they told the XM executives they believe the Sincor strategic association will be hit with a large tax assessment in the near future. Seniat, the BRV tax authority, presented CP and Chevron earlier this month with tax bills for close to USD 550 million for back taxes for the Petrozuata and Hamaca strategic associations for the years 2003 to 2005” (WikiLeaks, 2007).
In 2008 – Trading oil in Kazakstan:
“(Note: The one exception was a threat by President Nazarbayev in a December meeting with Tillerson’s deputy to use the subsoil legislation. Nazarbayev, however, reverted to his previous public line when he reassured the Ambassador privately the next day that the legislation would not/not be used against any existing contract. End Note.) In the end, both ExxonMobil and ConocoPhilips confirmed that the GOK used tough, but legitimate business pressures to pursue their case” (…) “ExxonMobil told us that CEO Rex Tillerson had decided that Exxon was going to hold the line on this issue. However, all our sources indidated that Tillerson was subjected to very strong pressure in the final negotiations, both by the other CEOs and by the Kazakhstani side. According to our in-country ExxonMobil contact (who was not in the meetings but who was extensively debriefed about them), it was the lure of future business in Kazakhstan that eventually led Tillerson to reverse course, and to agree to a “below market price” figure of $1.8 billion as the valuation of KMG’s increased share. (Note: Determining the “market price” for this share is essentially impossible, as different financial models will yield wildly varying results depending on the assumptions used. That said, all parties involved agree that $1.8 billion is a “below market price,” even if they can not tell you how much below market. End Note.)” (WikiLeaks, 2008). In 2011: “0100 Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev meets Rex Tillerson, the CEO of ExxonMobile corporation, and Dhimitrios Khristofias, the president of Cyprus, within the framework of his visit to New York to attend 66th session of the UN General Assembly. Video shows meetings; Rex Tillerson and Dhimitrios Khristofias, speaking to camera” (WikiLeaks, 2011).
“Experience tells us that a good foundation is critical for success in the Arctic and elsewhere. ExxonMobil’s Sakhalin-1 project with Rosneft is an example where we have put this experience to work.” – Rex Tillerson
“Tillerson said he valued the efforts of the Russian government to improve the tax regime and that it would have a positive effect on Russian and foreign investors.The moves will help expand cooperation in the complex situation in Russia, he said. Tillerson said he was encouraged to see Russia move to create a competitive environment, taking into account the experiences of other tax regimes in other countries” (WikiLeaks, 2011). “Prime Minister Vladimir Putin yesterday put the total of direct investment in joint projects by Rosneft and ExxonMobil at 200-300 billion dollars, but “if we are talking about infrastructure, the construction of the necessary buildings, and surface facilities, the investment could reach 500 billion dollars”. However, ExxonMobil expects its agreement with Rosneft to encourage the Russian authorities to ease the tax regime for the industry. “Such steps will help the government to expand cooperation in the difficult situation that is taking shape in Russia,” the head of ExxonMobil, Rex Tillerson, explained” (WikiLeaks, 2011).
“Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson speaking at a January 2010 congressional hearing concerning the $41 billion merger of Exxon with XTO Energy (one of the worlda**s biggest natural gas drilling companies), said he could support revealing toxic frack mixes. He added that, by combining the hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling processes a**we can now find and produce unconventional natural gas supplies miles below the surface in a safe, efficient and environmentally responsible manner.a** Exxon has threatened to nix its XTO acquisition if Congress makes fracking a**illegal or commercially impractical.a**” (WikiLeaks, 2010).
Article about Tillerson faith in Global Warming:
“They’re clearly cognizant of global warming – they employ some of the world’s best scientists, after all, and they’re bidding on all those oil leases made possible by the staggering melt of Arctic ice. And yet they relentlessly search for more hydrocarbons – in early March, Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson told Wall Street analysts that the company plans to spend $37 billion a year through 2016 (about $100 million a day) searching for yet more oil and gas.
There’s not a more reckless man on the planet than Tillerson. Late last month, on the same day the Colorado fires reached their height, he told a New York audience that global warming is real, but dismissed it as an “engineering problem” that has “engineering solutions.” Such as?” (Bill McKibben – ‘Global Warming’s Terrifying New Math’ 09.07.2012).
David Fenton sent an E-Mail titled: “Murdoch climate campaign” on the 19.02.2015 to Clinton Campaign Manager John Podesta that said: “Hi again. Here is the plan to go after WSJ and FOX on climate. I have 500,000 of this pledged if I can raise another million. It’s a real pledge from Graeme Wood in Australia. I sure hope something like this can happen it’s long overdue. Thanks again, David”. This E-Mail had an attachment where this we’re said:
“1) A climate science ad series (surprisingly affordable) on the Wall Street Journal’s opinion page, sponsored by a mainstream institution like Columbia University’s Earth Institute or the Union of Concerned Scientists. These would be unassailably factual and scientific but also compelling, memorable and clear. They would show the facts the Journal denies — Co2 from fossil fuels traps heat, the earth has warmed, the CEO of EXXON believes it why not this paper? This series would stress consequences for the economy and mainstream support from groups like the World Bank, International Energy Agency, PWC, NAS, the Royal Society, etc. Of course the Journal would attack the series in editorials, which will help it get more attention” (WikiLeaks, 2015).
This here shows some of the stories of the man in the past, Rex Tillerson who has apparently massive faith in fracking and negotiation with Putin for the business he was running ExxonMobile. The WikiLeaks stories are special in themselves, but there other lost tales that needs to show the character of the man.
Like the Kurdistan adventure:
“Exxon Mobil Chief Executive Rex Tillerson refused Tuesday to answer questions about a controversial deal the oil company has signed with the Kurdish government in northern Iraq” (…) “Exxon, (XOM, Fortune 500) which holds big contracts with the Iraqi government to develop oil fields in the southern part of the country, was sharply criticized by Iraqi government ministers last month over the deal. The Iraqis suggested Exxon might be sanctioned over the move, possibly putting their deals in the southern part of the country in jeopardy” (…) “Iraqis in Baghdad are loathe to see oil companies sign separate deals with the semi-autonomous government in the Kurdish north, preferring instead that all deals go though the central government” (Hargreaves, 2011). So the next Secretary of State is ruthless in trade for fortunes that he picked deals with Kurdistan government over the Southern Iraqi Central Government that counters the diplomatic way that the governments do with Iraq. So Rex Tillerman could surely do the same in charge of the State Department under the Trump Administration.
Here is a story in the inner workings in Chad:
“There was Exxon’s meddling in a 2006 standoff between Idriss Déby, the authoritarian leader of Chad — a Central African country with rich oil reserves — and Paul Wolfowitz, then the leader of the World Bank. Déby wanted weapons to fight rebels supported by nearby Sudan, but good-governance clauses in loans Chad had received from the World Bank restricted the country’s ability to purchase arms. Wolfowitz was ready to freeze some of Sudan’s bank accounts, prompting Déby to threaten to effectively kick Exxon out of Chad. That could have cost the company billions of dollars. So Exxon lobbied the U.S. ambassador to Chad to fix the problem, which led to Déby getting his weapons and Exxon its oil” (…) “By now ExxonMobil had made its own choice clear,” Coll writes. “It was more interested in the survival of Chad’s oil production than it was in the World Bank’s experiment in nation building.” (Walsh, 2012). So he would use World Bank loans to trade weapons to make sure that the ExxonMobil get the possibility to the Oil Reserves in Chad. That proves how far the man will go for profit, that the authoritarian leaders needs for arms can be meet, if he get the oil as long as he makes a killing.
Than you have the story of how he worked in Guyana:
“US oil giant ExxonMobil made waves in Guyana last Thursday by announcing it had confirmed a “world-class discovery” of oil offshore. The company said results from its exploration well in the Stabroek block, about 120 miles (193 kilometres) offshore Guyana, found between 800 million and 1.4 billion oil-equivalent barrels” (…) “The waters around Guyana are largely unexplored. According to a Forbes story quoting Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson, the 3-D seismic survey that Exxon conducted in the area was its largest in history — “the equivalent of 1,400 Gulf of Mexico blocks” (…) “In November 2015, Guyana’s government faced accusations that the state didn’t have the capacity to independently monitor ExxonMobil’s compliance with environmental regulations. The worry arose after it was alleged that ExxonMobil was promoting and funding climate change denials” (Abdelwahab, 2016).
So now that he is peculiar connected into the oil developments outside Guyana, as it was profitable for the company without considering the environment of the ocean and the sea as the we’re even paying climate change deniers in Guyana. That the billions of barrel is more important that the effect that oil drilling will have on the nation.
This from the guy that are key part of the former Standard Oil companies that we’re re-merged from Exxon and Mobil Oil Companies, that we’re too powerful in the United States. The US Company now are now so big Multi-National that they can secure the World Bank to fund Chad Government loans so they can buy weapons, and exchange give possible oil fields to the ExxonMobil. If that doesn’t say anything nothing does. This sort of fellow will now run the Secretary of State, not to talk about the Foreign Affairs of the United States. The diplomatic correspondence and according to due procedure of the Trump Administration; that will be interesting as the CEO Tillerman has been focused on profits and not on anything else. We can wonder what will be his Modus Operandi as a Secretary of State, what his policies and foreign affairs chief under Trump. Peace.
Abdelwahab, Alex – ‘ExxonMobil’s significant oil find off Guyana leads to questions about the country’s future’ (05.07.2016) link: http://www.caribbeannewsnow.com/headline-ExxonMobil’s-significant-oil-find-off-Guyana-leads-to-questions-about-the-country’s-future-30969.html
Bartiriromo, Maria – ‘ExxonMobil CEO: Open more federal land for oil and gas’ (18.04.2011) link: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/bartiromo/2011-04-18-bartiromo-rex-tillerson-exxonmobil.htm
Hargreaves, Steve – ‘Exxon silent on controversial Iraq oil deal’ (06.12.2011) link: http://money.cnn.com/2011/12/06/news/international/Exxon_Iraq_oil_deal/
Walsh, Bryan – ‘Inside the Death Star — Also Known as Exxon’ (01.05.2012) link: http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2113546,00.html
Wikileaks –‘KAZAKHSTAN: ALL SIDES SMILING WITH KASHAGAN DEAL’ (18.01.2008) link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08ASTANA91_a.html
WikiLeaks – ‘FAJA NEGOTIATIONS: NO NEWS IS BAD NEWS’ (25.05.2007) link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/07CARACAS1030_a.html
WikiLeaks – ‘KAZAKHSTAN/CYPRUS/UK – Programme summary of Kazakh Khabar TV “Zhanalyqtar” news 1400 gmt 21 Sep 11’ (21.09.2011) link: https://wikileaks.org/gifiles/docs/71/711052_kazakhstan-cyprus-uk-programme-summary-of-kazakh-khabar-tv.html
WikiLeaks – ‘RUSSIA/FORMER SOVIET UNION-Exxonmobil Hails Russian Government Efforts to Improve Tax System’ (31.08.2011) link: https://wikileaks.org/gifiles/docs/25/2574477_russia-former-soviet-union-exxonmobil-hails-russian.html
WikiLeaks – ‘Murdoch climate campaign’ (19.02.2015) link: https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/emailid/27241
WikiLeaks – ‘Re: FRACK – W.Va. eyes fluid disclosure; quote from Lachelt’ (09.03.2010) link: https://wikileaks.org/gifiles/docs/38/386876_re-frack-w-va-eyes-fluid-disclosure-quote-from-lachelt-.html
WikiLeaks – ‘RUSSIA/CANADA/MEXICO – Russia’s oil firm signs partnership deal with ExxonMobil’ (02.09.2011) link: https://wikileaks.org/gifiles/docs/70/705223_russia-canada-mexico-russia-s-oil-firm-signs-partnership.html
“A man who has never gone to school may steal a freight car; but if he has a university education, he may steal the whole railroad.”
― Theodore Roosevelt
Thieving never stops through systematic and planned behaviour of state officials and government men and woman who wishes a short-cut to earning the big-bucks. It is an international problem. Again I will, blatantly address recent cases because this is something that doesn’t stop. Because of the greed and wish to be rich, in our time and before people and leaders isn’t happy with an ordinary life; they want to live in luxury instead of in normal household. Therefore they go to the extent of making sophisticated ways of trading and using government funds to steal and corrupt systems on their own behalf. Instead of delivering the service and institutions the citizens are supposed to have gained with this money and taxes. Here are some cases!
Back in time the Olympics we’re also corrupt:
“The fact is that even this Olympic truce often broke down,” says Large. “Famously in 364 BC when soldiers from the city of Elis actually invaded the Olympics grounds in order to retrieve protection rights over the games, that had been taken away from them in the years before. So there was a bloody battle going on right during the wrestling competition” (…) “The Spartans were also a problem,” adds Large. “They had been banned from the Olympics for many years. They themselves thought the Olympics, in any event, were not bloody enough for their taste. But they did show up in the 420s and they got themselves banned once again for extra-curricular fighting.” (…) ““It’s often assumed somehow these ancient Games were purer than the modern ones,” Large concludes. “In fact, if anything they were even more corrupt, perhaps.” (Woolfe, 2016).
Cashgate of Malawi continues:
“Seven cabinet ministers are reported to be implicated in the K577 billion (about $856 million) financial analysis report of what has been dubbed the Capital Hill ‘cash-gate’ scandal, named after the seat of government” (…) “He added that he had not received any names in connection with the audit query as yet” (…) “Last week I sent Chief Secretary to Auditor General [to get names] b,” said Mutharika, adding that he did not have any name of a minister” (…) “Where they [media] get the names I don’t know,”he said” (…)“If anybody has got names please bring them to State House, I would like to see them and action will be taken,”Mutharika said after being asked by one citizen during the program when he will act on the rotten ministers and cronies” (Chiluga, 2016),
“Speaking about perceptions currently enveloping the political atmosphere in Guyana, Rohee said the subject is of importance to any society. “Perception is important in any society. As they say, perception is reality, and I’d like to emphasise that. And we can’t view that selectively; it is a general, universally accepted social and psychological phenomenon, that perception is reality,” he said” (…) “It is not for me to say that. Why should I say that? That is a general perception out there,” (…) “Said he: “They are helping to reinforce that perception; when we were in government and now that we are in the Opposition. And now the government is being driven by media houses to deal with that matter by setting up SARU [State Asset Recovery Unit]. So let’s take it from there.” (Singh, 2016).
“CENTRAL Division police arrested a building contractor on Friday as he attempted to bribe a Local Government councillor who had cautioned him about substandard work on a project in the district” (…) “The Fyzabad contractor was arrested at the office of People’s National Movement (PNM) councillor for California/Point Lisas, Alif Rodney Mohammed, at around 10 a.m” (…) “Mohammed said he was offered a $1,000 bribe to turn a blind eye to shoddy work on a project in his electoral district” (Kissoon, 2016).
In the Philippines:
“THE Office of the Ombudsman affirmed the indictment of Cebu Provincial Board Member Celestino “Tining” Martinez III and former Bogo City treasurer Rhett E. Minguez over allegedly irregular release of fertilizer fund amounting to P6 million in 2004” (…) ““As signatories, respondents should have raised reasonable questions on the legality or regularity of the transaction,” said Morales in her order” (…) “The Ombudsman also dismissed Martinez III from government service over the same case” (…) “In 2004, the Bogo City Government received six checks totaling to P6 million from the Department of Agriculture in Central Visayas for the procurement of fertilizer for rice and corn in 2004” (…) “Government auditors, in their 2006 report, said the foundation failed to liquidate the money. COA’s Audit Observation Memorandum also noted that the foundation failed to submit a list of previous projects implemented and that no accomplishment reports were submitted” (…) “State auditors also pointed out that officials failed to make representations with Sikap Yaman for the liquidation of the P6 million, while the Commission on Audit (COA) named the foundation as the supplier of 250 bottles of overpriced liquid fertilizers in Tuburan in 2004” (Dalipe, 2016).
“Ukrzaliznytsia Head Wojciech Balczun. He wrote: “We will change railway tickets booking system. Also discussed this topic during the board meeting. Moving in the direction of the elimination of so called “commercial booking”, the huge source of abuse and corruption. Like when it is impossible to buy a ticket while trains are going empty” (…) “The commercial agent should take all risks. In one form or another there will be a reservation for vulnerable groups and government authorities. Majority of tickets for the open!” Ukrzaliznytsia CEO stressed” (Censor.net.ua, 2016).
So as seen now the cases are all over. It is one continuation from before from Malawi as the President are wondering how the Media got the hold of names involved in the greatest scandal with government funds except for the Zambian Maize fiasco. The others are proof of how old the corruption of back to ancient Athens and their Olympics. Also actions in the Guyana, Trinidad, Philippines and Ukraine; so the tales of corruption happens everywhere and showing tales that isn’t the Fox News crap or something else biased nonsense. This is just common corrupt behaviour. And there are always more! Peace.
Chiluga, Zawadi – ‘Malawi President to act on corrupt gangsters in cabinet: ‘Give me names of 7 cashgate ministers’ (09.08.2016) link: http://www.nyasatimes.com/malawi-president-act-corrupt-gangsters-cabinet-give-names-7-cashgate-ministers/#sthash.VgmukkdB.dpuf
Censor.net.ua – ‘Ukrzaliznytsia to change railway tickets booking system: majority of tickets to be availabe for open sale, – Balczun’ (10.08.2016) link: http://en.censor.net.ua/news/401159/ukrzaliznytsia_to_change_railway_tickets_booking_system_majority_of_tickets_to_be_availabe_for_open
Dalipe, Gerome M. – ‘Ombud affirms graft rule on Martinez’ (04.08.2016) link: http://www.sunstar.com.ph/cebu/local-news/2016/08/04/ombud-affirms-graft-rule-martinez-489427
Kissoon, Carolyn – ‘Contractor held: offered bribe to councillor’ (06.08.2016) link: http://www.trinidadexpress.com/20160806/news/contractor-held-offered-bribe-to-councillor
Singh, Raven – ‘Rohee rocks the boat –confirms PPP corrupt perception; declares ‘perception is reality’ (05.08.2016) link: http://guyanachronicle.com/rohee-rocks-the-boat-confirms-ppp-corrupt-perception-declares-perception-is-reality/
Woolf, Christopher – ‘The ancient Olympics were dirty, violent, corrupt affairs. There was even regular ‘doping.’’ (05.08.2016) link: http://www.pri.org/stories/2016-08-05/ancient-olympics-were-dirty-violent-corrupt-affairs-there-was-even-regular-doping
Today is the day after we have celebrated our Constitutional Day here in Norway. This is the day after the giant national party. Last week it just happened to be an election in the small South-American state Guyana which is in-between Surinam and Venezuela. As the Corruption Perception Index shows the magnificent position that Guyana in the world that there in the place of number 124 of 175 countries. Here is the chart from Transparency International:
To follow the story, I have looked for sources and how it has gone. This I had to do after reading Chris Lang’s report ‘Why did Norway agree to pay US$40 million just before Guyana’s election?’. That he published on the internet page red-monitor.org. As a Norwegian I haven’t really heard anything about the election or the funding of the rainforest projects in Guyana. We have seen our development minister Erik Solheim travelling to Brazil and looking at the crazy animals and green trees in the rainforest. So I had to check what has been said. Here is what I have found. And hope it’s worth five minutes of your day.
The now former president of the Republic of Guyana H. E. Donald Ramotar on the 5th payment on the 7th of May 2015 stated this: “Fellow Guyanese, I am pleased to announce today that Guyana has received a payment of $8 billion (Guyana) from the Government of Norway. This is a billion more than last year’s payment, and brings the total received from Norway to $38 billion” (…) ”All Guyanese should feel proud of the vote in confidence expressed by Norway in announcing that they are willing to pursue a second agreement up to 2020, a policy that only the PPP/C supports in Guyana. And all Guyanese should feel proud that we have earned the most money from a forest partnership in the world, after Brazil. Money that is being directly spent on the people” (…) ”the LCDS has done a lot. Guyana has now deployed US$120 million into projects, which are enabling the rehabilitation of Cunha canal that will protect Georgetown, and the communities and farms along the Mahaica River from floods like we saw back in 2005” (…) ”First, the opposition tried to stop Norway from paying Guyana the money that we earned from keeping our forests standing. When the opposition failed to achieve this, they tried to stop us from spending this hard earned money on the Guyanese people by cutting the entire LCDS budget!” (…) ”we have always been fighting to protect our nature so that we can leave an even more beautiful Guyana as a legacy to our children – and today we are leading the world in showing how finances can flow to forest countries. Guyana was once known for rigged elections and economic decay – today we are known for global environmental leadership. The benefits are for all our people, and we must not throw them away”.
On the 8th May “The Government of Guyana this morning announced the receipt of US$40 million from the Government of Norway for maintaining low deforestation rates and improving forest governance” (PRNewswire).
To the Antigua Observerer President Ramotar is quoted on the agreement with Norway: “(This is) a policy that only the PPP/C (People’s Progressive Party/Civic) supports in Guyana. And all Guyanese should feel proud that we have earned the most money from a forest partnership in the world, after Brazil, money that is being directly spent on the people.” (…) “believe that not a single Guyanese living on the coast should need to worry when there’s heavy rainfall that their community will flood. And not a single Guyanese in the hinterland should need to worry about not having water during droughts. Nor should any Amerindian community need to worry about having enough economic opportunities to support their development.” (…) “Today, Guyana is one of the leading countries in the world in managing natural resources sustainably. And every Guyanese is benefitting from this. Our most recent deforestation rate was even lower than the previous year.” (…) “All Guyanese should feel proud of the vote in confidence expressed by Norway.” (…) ““I urge every Guyanese to think hard about what is at stake and to make the best decision next Monday to continue down a path of development and progress,” (Antigua Observerer).
On the 12th May reports was saying: “Guyana has received $40 million for climate services and intends to use part of the money for a transformational hydroelectric project in order to reduce the cost of electricity” (…) “The payment was made by the Government of Norway and represents earnings from the Guyana-Norway partnership which in total now amount s to $190 million out of a potential $250 million” (Caribbean News Service).
On the 16th May this new has arrived: “HIS Excellency, Brigadier (rtd) David Arthur Granger, is Guyana’s duly elected and sworn 8th Executive President, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Head of State of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. President Granger was administered the Oath of Office yesterday at the Public Buildings by Chancellor of the Judiciary, Carl Singh, in the presence of the thousands that converged to witness history. The Oath was administered following the reading of the Official Proclamation by Chairman of the Guyana Elections Commission (GECOM), Dr. Steve Surujbally” (…) “The official Inauguration Ceremony for the new Government is slated for May 26, at the Guyana National Stadium, and as had been promised by then coalition presidential candidate, Brigadier (rtd) Granger, Guyanese will celebrate the nation’s 50th Independence Anniversary from its colonial masters, under an APNU+AFC Government of National Unity” (Eleazar).
Newly elected David Arthur Granger said on the inauguration: “I extend the arm of friendship to former president, Donald Ramotar, and the members of the PPP to join this great movement of national unity.” (…) ”let us embrace each other regardless of religion, regardless of race, regardless of class, regardless of occupation…as fellow Guyanese let us work together to realise our inspiring national motto, One People, One Nation, One Destiny” (…) ”Guyanese, the elections are over, the people have chosen their representatives, the Constitution has been respected, our democracy has been fortified, let us now put past rivalries behind us and work in unity to banish poverty, ignorance, fear and hatred” (Eleazar).
Tweedie of the Morning Star tells the story of how close the election in Guyana really was: “GUYANA’S ruling party has alleged fraud in the general election, with just 43 votes separating the two main presidential candidate” (…) “It claimed that the opposition Partnership for National Unity and the Alliance For Change (APNU+AFC) received almost twice as many votes as there were voters in some regions” (…) “The PPP also expressed concern over the “extremely high” number of rejected ballots and accused the APNU of intimidating its representatives and chasing them away from polling stations” (…) “And the APNU declared victory for its candidate David Granger on Tuesday, long before the vote was complete” (Tweedie).
Former Speaker of the National Assembly, Ralph Ramkarran has commented: “No longer motivated by his high ideals, it (the PPP/C) allowed one-man rule, arrogance, crime, corruption, nepotism and high living to flourish and become dominant features of its governance” (…) “Ramkarran said that the PPP/C ignored the fact that it lost a significant percent of its support at elections held in 2011. “It deluded itself by a self-serving analysis that apathy caused its supporters to stay away from the polls in 2011. This prompted an expectation that elections with a divisive political strategy will restore its majority. Thus it rejected any idea of a coalition government.”(Rockecliffe).
If this isn’t getting your minds to think and I understand the thoughts of Chris Lang and Redd Monitor. I am just thinking. What is the real measure of the money spent into the saving of the rainforest? How will this sizeable funding scheme really be governed? We now can read reports of possible election frauds in Guyana, also considering the number and place of the country considering their position as the 124 of 175. There are expected that the former President will be happy for the agreement between Norway and Guyana. This is the 6th Payment and also building a Hydroelectric plant in Guyana for 40$B. If this doesn’t make your mind boggle a bit and how this doesn’t seem right. I get worried when the politicians and campaign talks about this funding of deforestation. If you don’t mind I will snip out the most questionable quotes from the ‘Joint Concept Note’ that both government agreed on 6th May 2015. Also the letter from Guyana Forestry Commission from 13. Januar 2015. Hope you enjoy! Peace.
The letter from Guyana Forestry Commission:
PS: If that wasn’t cool enough for you. Peace!
Antigua Observer – ‘Norway pays over $8B to Guyana – signals willingness to partner with Gov’t until 2020’ (08.05.2015) Link: http://antiguaobserver.com/norway-pays-over-8b-to-guyana-signals-willingness-to-partner-with-govt-until-2020/
Caribbean News Service – ‘Guyana $40 Million Fund to Help Develop Hydroelectric Project’ (12.05.2015) Link: http://caribbeannewsservice.com/now/guyana-40-million-fund-to-help-develop-hydroelectric-project/
Eleazar, Gary – Guyana Chronicle Online – ‘David Arthur Granger sworn in as Guyana’s 8th Executive President …extends ‘Olive Branch’ to ousted PPP/C administration …says let us put past rivalries behind us and work in unity’ (16.05.2015) Link: http://guyanachronicle.com/david-arthur-granger-sworn-in-as-guyanas-8th-executive-president-extends-olive-branch-to-ousted-pppc-administration-says-let-us-put-past-rivalries-behind/
Rockcliffe, Abena – Kaieteur News – ‘A Guyana void of poverty, corruption and nepotism awaits – Ramkarran’ (18.05.2015) Link: http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2015/05/18/a-guyana-void-of-poverty-corruption-and-nepotism-awaits-ramkarran/
Tweedie, James – Morning Star – ‘Guyana Election: Ruling Party Alleges Fraud as Candidates Lie 43 Votes Apart’ (15.05.2015) Links: http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/a-81e1-Guyana-elections-Ruling-party-alleges-fraud-as-candidates-lie-43-votes-apart
PRNewswire – ‘Guyana receives US$40 million payment from Norway for climate services and continued low deforestation’ (08.05.2015) Link: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/guyana-receives-us40-million-payment-from-norway-for-climate-services-and-continued-low-deforestation-300080282.html#