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Archive for the tag “Frank Kalimuzo”

Makerere University: More depressing news…

Well, it is not enough that the authorities said they were redeploying the army elsewhere. The Council added news and resolutions yesterday. That the Management have decided to suspended nine students and warned 26 others, while the Guild President Julius Kateregga. The man who talked to the President yesterday, but apparently a criminal today.

We can see how the authorities are acting, as they are criminalizing the students, but not looking in the acts of the soldiers, the Special Forces Command or the Police Force. Whose despicable acts has continued for over two weeks now. As off today, they tear-gassed the library too. Because, why not? The halls of Mitchell and Lumumba have already been filled with the gas. So now lets take another building too.

The Guild President was first actually on the NBS Television Breeze show, before apprehended by the police. They knew he was attending before they arrested him. That is how the state operates at this very moment.

This is what the University itself posted earlier today:

“Management has taken disciplinary action on students who have destroyed University property, injured fellow students & property for businesses operating outside. The involved students have been Suspended & others warned. The list will shortly be shared on the University website” (Makerere University, 30.10.2019).

This is just showing how insincere, how blatant disregard of the students the management has. As they are targeted, even after their own industrial action to unfair tuition fees. Therefore, the management should answer to the student for why they had a barrack on campus and why the let them assault, hurt and arrest students. Why the management let the halls and homes of the students get destroyed and vandalized by outside armed personnel, while they lived lavish on expensive tea. Because, that is the truth. A truth, that the acting VC and others doesn’t accept. Since, that means they are culpable for hiring and ordering the army on the premises of their students.

The students also tried to assemble further demonstrations today at Freedom Square, but that was ambushed by the authorities with more tear-gas to disperse the ones attending this. Therefore, the state continues with their same ways. To break up dissent and silence the ones who tries to defy the authorities.

What we do know is that these strikes are not over. The torment and horrors at the halls are neither. Expect more raids at night from either soldiers or police officers. As the state retaliates with brutality. Even if the leadership is arrested and even kidnapped. That is what they will do now. Peace.

Makerere University: Resolutions of the Emergency Meeting of the University Council held on 29th October 2019

Joint Statement: Call for Respect of Human Rights at Makerere University (29.10.2019)

Foreign Correspondents’ Association of Uganda (FCAU): Statement from FCAU on press freedom and the Makerere University protests (29.10.2019)

Makerere University: It would have been better if Mama Janet didn’t say a thing…

The Minister of Education and First Lady Janet Museveni after three evening raids with horror, violence and arrests. Even revealed deaths has occurred because of the actions made b the Special Force Command, soldiers and Police Force during the raids. Still, the First Lady blame “outside” forces meddling in the student life and “non-students” attending the riots.

This is really rich, this is really insulting and insinuating a lot of things. Reverend Lokodo should teach this Minister a lesson in ethics, because this scriptural usage is bonkers at best. When, she defends the army attacking civilian citizens at night and comes with claims of opposition support. At best, that is not illegal, they are allowed to demonstrate and industrial produce for their own livelihood and student body. Unless everyone supposed to bow-down to the Queen and King like peasants, right?

However, she just shows her ignorance of the pleas of the students with her statement. I have only taken parts of it. Because, discussing it to broadly is not worthy of my time.

Just look!

“That notwithstanding, I have learned with dismay that some of the people involved in this “demonstration” are not students from Makerere University or any other university for that matter. They are people who have made it there way of life to be paid to joint any riot wherever it is happening. Apparently, the political opposition in this country – who are well funded “somehow” by some “unknown sources” – find it useful to pay unemployed young people to riot wherever and whenever they believe they see a viable opportunity” (Janet Museveni, 29.10.2019).

“For these vulnerable young people and the adults who pay them it seems as if nothing else matters – not these young people whose minds are distorted early in life; not the fact that the resources used to replace destroyed University property could have solved another problem somewhere; not the consideration that this is very wrong instruction to students of how problems are solved in life without confrontation and destruction of life and property. Nothing constructive or educational at all is achieved. Instead, the public is misled through there skewed propaganda as to what is really happening” (Janet Museveni, 29.10.2019).

The insults to injury to the side. Is that she has baseless claims, where she knows that the students and the Guild President is behind it. The raids yesterday was after 7 more ring leaders, where the live-bullets, tear-gas and violence occurred again. Just as the other nights, one has passed on from the violence done to her. She died in the hospital after the treatment and the suffering, which was not enough. After all, of that, she continues shifting blame.

The Minister of Education speaks of nothing constructive being made. Well, the state haven’t produced anything constructive or cared for the students life itself, when they raid with soldiers at night. When they barrage and besiege the campus with an army barrack. She speaks of knowledge, but this sort of action speaks of oppression and autocratic behaviour.

As this is happening, three journalists are arrested for reporting on campus. Two journalists was kicked-out by the students for pushing the state agenda. Lastly, the realities remain, that the state investigate the students and the funding of the demonstrations, but not looking in the hurt they have put the student through the last two weeks. It is outrageous and no-one want to see their kids live through this. No one in his or her right mind will defend making the army invade a campus, right?

Still, she was very silent about that, but targeting the students for their activity. Because, they are all to blame. They ordered the soldiers, they ordered the SFC, they bought the tear-gas and they wanted to see the live-bullets hit the halls at night. Let’s be serious, she cannot be this shallow, but then again. We know from the past that she got thin-skin and lack moral codes, that’s why she uses the bible as she see fit. Even when defending the indefensible. Peace.

Makerere University: Sound the alarm for more horror, not the bell for dialogue

Even as the Acting Vice Chancellor Umar Kakumba and Police Force earlier in the day called for dialogue. As the media houses are still in darkness on the acts done on campus. The little we do know is through the grapevine and through the leaks of the students with data-bundles and topping off airtime.

What we do know is that armed forces are again raiding the Lumumba Hall and Micthell Hall too. There are gunshots, live-bullets and tear-gas. That is done inside the halls as we speak at night. Students are targeted by armed personnel. Some says its the Special Force Command (SFC), others are saying military men in plain clothes. We cannot be certain, its not like the commander of these operations has gone public and taken credit for this assault on the student.

Its on its second week of assault, raids and violent oppression of the students at the campus of Makerere. The government persist with this and acts of indifference to the pleas of the student guild, the leadership and the needs of the students. As they want to violently overturn their voices.

They are torturing, making their homes as students into war-zones as the armed personnel barge into their lives with weapons and ammunition. We cannot know the possible damage nor the hurt this causes. Both the hurt of the flesh, but also the damage it does on the mental stability of these young students as their lives are shaken by the military presence in their homes.

This is the third raid, there are already plenty reporting on the amount of people already hospitalized and raped by the armed forces. With yet another night like this. We cannot rest assure, knowing that there will be more. Because, these men and these commander spear no-one apparently. They besiege and attack everyone into submission.

If this is what the NRA fought for, than they fought for nothing. Because this is the same old regime they overthrow. This is the same acts of brutality and insincere statehood, which the previous predecessors was known for. That is the memo the public gets from this, that the revolution eats its kids. In this instance, the youth studying at the prestigious Makerere University.

What is not yet verified is that the one leaked the video of tonight’s raid was shot and killed by the armed personnel there. We don’t know, but that is latest report on the matter. Also, that the raid is done to find the 7 ring leaders of the strike, but they cannot find them. Surely, this is a sinister act where the industrial action is not allowed and has to be treated like enemies of the state. That is the message the state is sending to these students and everyone living on campus. Peace.

Makerere University: Acting VC blames the victims for the violence…

“Management is investigating cases of violence. Students who beat their colleagues and disrupted lectures. We have received cases of students who were battered and forced out of lecture rooms by fellow students, these incidents were captured and recorded” Ag. VC Umar Kakumba (Makerere University, 28.10.2019).

This is so A-Typical the behaviour of a rouge state, where the perpetrators are walking scotch free and the ones hurt, vilified and terrorized is the criminals. In this instance, it’s the students, the ones living on campus and at the Ivory Tower. The ones living at Lumumba and so on. They are the ones who has to be investigated.

Even if the army put up a army barracks, as the photos, the video-clips and so-on shows the intention of the armed forces violating the premises, hurting the students and the police later arresting them. There was 100 students arrested, central guild leaders, some are even kidnapped and not known where they are located as I write. Therefore, the Management of the University should be a bit more careful putting the blame on the students here.

This is washing away the blame for having soldiers violating the students rights to demonstrate, the police arresting them and the court allowing them out on bail. While several are in the hospital and one reported dead after the damages done. While the real numbers from the actions made last week is yet to be known. Because, this violence and this sort of actions doesn’t come without any results.

The state went in gung-ho. They went in with fierce precision, tear-gas, raiding the homes and hostels, they arrested and tortured the students. Now, days after this, the Acting VC blames them! How dare he? They don’t have tear-gas and weapons, that is what the state has.

Let’s be serious. This is a real infliction of harm on the future generation, this is showing how remorseful the leadership of today is. That they cannot stomach demonstrations, from the hot-seat of it in the Republic. There has always been rebellion and demonstrations at Makerere. As long as I can remember, but not with the assault of armed soldiers in the harms way of the students. This isn’t common and neither common sense.

The management and the state today are now throwing shade on the ones tortured, arrested and hospitalized. They are saying indirectly its their fault. They will investigate fellow students, but not the soldiers acts of oppression. The videos has exposed this, but hasn’t been touched, because then the Management of Makerere Univeristy would challenge the government and it cannot do that.

Therefore, it is the game of blaming the victim, to make the perpetrator innocent. It’s disgusting and disgraceful. Peace.

Makerere University letter to Guild President Kateregga (27.10.2019)

Makerere University Protests: A return of a grim past, which is now haunting the campus!

7. Functions of the Defence Forces

The functions of the Defence Forces are –

(c) to foster harmony and understanding between the defence forces and civilians” (UPDF Act 2005).

What we have seen of photos,videos and so on from Makerere University this week has been heartbreaking. Combined with the efforts of the army to console power, assault the halls of student housing on campus and done despicable acts of violence. This is soldiers in plain clothes violating students and their homes, while cracking down on their industrial action of protest against rising student fees. Therefore, we have seen insufferable levels of violence against civilians by soldiers at Makerere.

The UPDF have thrown tear-gas into rooms, raided rooms of students, raped and arrested them. They have tortured and done acts no-one should ever do. Still, they have done this on orders by the army and gotten there because the Vice-Chancellor Barnabas Nawangwe who got them to torment the students.

First I will show two statements from the last few days, than show reporting of the Idi Amin era. There been over 100 arrested, 49 students issued for release today after the Buganda Court and one confirmed dead after the last days protest at Makerere. Surely, a sign off what the government and authorities does. There also been reports of gun-shots and muffling of journalists, also road-blocks to the University. Therefore, very little information coming out from there. That’s why the verification and the total numbers after the raids, the guns, tear-gas and other violations of the University is uncertain at this point. Therefore, its fitting to show the Idi Amin era too, because there is where we are heading with this sort of mess.

Francis Zaake MP statement:

The Guild President Kateregga Julius and other concerned parties who went to check on the detained students at Wandegeya Police Station were blocked for no good reason. As a legislator, I am also concerned about why the military has of late taken over police duties whenever citizens – or students in this case – stage peaceful protests. This is not the role originally envisaged for the army when the UPDF Act was being enacted by Parliament. Ironically, almost none of the armed men responsible for today’s brutality can ably afford to educate their son or daughter at Makerere using their meagre salary” (Saabi Marvin – ‘OPINION: With the Current Tuition Trend, Students Like Suubi Won’t Dare Carry their Metallic Suitcases to Makerere in 5 Years – MP Zaake’ 23.10.2019, CampusBee).

Prof Twinomugisha statement:

What happened in Lumumba is reminiscent of Amin soldiers’ brutal treatment of students and lecturers. Anyone pretending that the situation is normal is like the proverbial ostrich hiding his or her head under the sand. Imagine your son or daughter in a room. Military thugs forcifully open the door, pull him or her out amidst beatings. Your daughter being raped, molested or assaulted! Ladies and gentlemen, this militarization of all institutions, including the Ivory Tower, the citadel of higher learning, must be condemned by all people of good conscience” (Prof Ben Twinomugisha – Statement, 25.10.2019).

Here we have seen statements made on what has happen during this week. Now we will go back in time to the authorities back-in-the-day, the ones that the President was supposed to liberate this students from.

Under Idi Amin:

His statement also coincided with reports that the vice-chancellor of Uganda’s Makerere University and two other academics had been arrested, and possibly killed; and that the elimination squads of the State Research Bureau (SRB) and Public Safety Unit (psu)—whose ranks are made up mainly of Muslim members of Amin’s own tribe, the Kakwa, and other loyal “Nubians” from the west Nile area— were once again at work among the Christians of the Acholi and Langi tribes” (Stewart Sommerlad – ‘Of course Amin must go. The question is: who’ll send him?’, 07.03.1977, Maclean’s).

Vice Chancellor Frank Kalimuzo disappeared in 1972 after provoking Amin’s wrath. In 1976, secret police shot and killed law student Paul Serwanga and dragged away the leader of a women’s dormitory, Nanziri Bukenya. Her body was found later in the countryside. Makerere students staged two major protests in 1976. The first spread into downtown Kampala and was joined by thousands of non-students. The second was confined to the campus and brutally broken up by security forces” (David Crary – ‘‘Oxford of E. Africa’ Tries to Rise Again : Uganda’s Esteemed Makerere University Crippled by Amin’s Terror, Neglect, War” 29.12.1985, LA Times).

Kampala — President Amin addressed Makerere on March 8, 1976 over the shooting of law student Paul Sserwanga in Kampala. After the address, State Research agents and military policemen arrested three suspected student leaders of the anti-Amin demonstration staged the previous day” (Fred Guwedekko – ‘Uganda: 1976: Idi Amin becomes ‘Dr’, 05.07.1998, The Monitor).

We are still not at the point where the soldiers are killing and taking people away to unknown locations. But we have seen bad footage of situations, where the students are getting violated, where the soldiers are tormenting them at night. This is what the soldiers are doing to civilians or students, who are justified to raise their concerns over the raising prices of their fees. They have only a few small avenues to talk about their concerns and the best way to get one the radar of those in power. Is to actually with protests and marches.

Therefore, the answer of the state to do this to them. Is actually devastating, that the ones supposed to shield the Republic is hurting them. This isn’t enemies of the state, spies or murders even, these are average students or citizens who happen to study at Makerere. That is why this shows at what extent this government goes to silence dissidents. That they are torturing them and tear-gasing them.

The acts of Idi Amin has been said to be bad, but the acts under Museveni is clearly not better. He uses soldiers to address to students. That’s the sort of tyrant he is, he cannot listen or do the right thing.

What is more striking, that the UPDF are breaching parts of the UPDF Act of 2005. Which is too ensure harmony with civilians. What they have been doing this week is in breach of that and shows their intent. This isn’t how its supposed to be, but that is what they are doing. Instead they are inducing fear, intimidation and a violent crackdown, which haven’t been done there in years.

There are also unverified reports that today on the 25th October 2019, there are students who are killed by bullets. Shot dead by the soldiers on the campus today. “A few” students are the numbers, which cannot be specified, but surely that will come out. As every single student hurt by this is scorn for life. The state did this to them. The UPDF who supposed to keep them safe, made them unsafe and even took some of their lives.

They will known for the same acts as the ones the previous generation were known for overthrowing. That really says something about our time and how a liberator, became the same tyrant, as the ones he liberated the people from. Peace.

WikiLeaks – East Africa in the 1970s: how the tensions running high between the nations ,disbanding EAC, and US involvment.

Here is brief WikiLeaks on the rich history of the 70’s in East Africa. The interesting times and political play of an era which is now gone. What we can learn by this, is how to deal with tension between nations and also what values we should seek. Read this and hopefully you will be a bit more enlighten on some history which happened not too long ago.

Short historical pretense to the Uganda-Kenya-Tanzania tensions of the 70s:

“Kenyan press accused Ugandan soldiers of murdering and chasing off railway officials in February, 1973. Uganda claimed that it was planned by former Ugandan president, Obote and his supporters” (…)”President Amin of Uganda placed his military on alert for an invasion of British forces from Kenya as tensions grew concerning the death sentence of British journalist, Denis Hills who criticized Amin. On June 25, 1975, Amin accused Britain of sending two warships with soldiers to Kenya in preparation for an invasion. The British government called the deployment a routine visit. On July 1, 1975, Amin announced that he would grant Hills a pardon” (…)”President Kenyatta of Kenya threatened war with Uganda in February, 1976 over a border dispute” (…)”President Amin of Uganda withdrew his claims on the disputed area on Febraury 27, 1976, but tensions continued. Kenya protested the killing of a Kenyan student in Uganda on March 12, 1976” (…)”Israeli troops rescued some 100 hostages at Entebbe airport in Uganda on July 3-4, 1976, and Israeli military aircraft used in the rescue mission landed in Nairobi, Kenya for refueling before returning to Israel. President Idi Amin of Uganda accused Kenya of collaborating with Israel on July 4, 1976. Some 3,000 Kenyans fled from Uganda on July 5-15, 1976. On July 8, Kenya demanded that Uganda pay for all goods being shipped through Kenya because of the debt Uganda owed it. On July 9, Kenya restricted Uganda’s access by rail to the Indian Ocean. The Kenyan government reported on the tenth of July that 245 Kenyan citizens had been killed in Uganda” (…)”On July 16, 1976, Kenyan truck and railway workers refused to enter Uganda. Uganda promised not to invade Kenya on July 21. Uganda cut electricity supplies to Kenya on July 24. Kenya severed the supply of oil to Uganda on July 25, 1976, and President Amin retaliated by threatening to go to war with Kenya. Uganda agreed to hold negotiations with Kenya on July 30, 1976” (…)”President Amin of Uganda and President Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya signed an agreement in Nairobi on August 7, 1976, which provided for the withdrawal of troops from the border region. Kenya resumed the supply of oil to Uganda on August 11, 1976. This ended the series of conflicts that make up” (…)”Kenya and Uganda agreed to resume diplomatic relations on February 10, 1978. Kenya closed its border with Uganda in April, 1979 to stop the inflow of fleeing Ugandan soldiers fleeing from the invasion of Tanzania” (Dingu.sbs.arizona.edu)

This was the short history of the exiting times in East Africa. Here is what I found from the releases of documents on Wikileaks:  

In May 1973 Kampala Uganda, the elite or prominent people resigned their post.  Professor and Dean in Political Science, Ali Mazrui is specialized in the fields of Europe and American politics. Since the coup of 1971 he has given lectures that are pro-Amin, still with the repression of the elite has changed his views (Wikileaks, 1973). The reason why Ali Mazrui was turned against Idi Amin was the way he repressed the Acholi, the Langi, the Asians and the murders of Bendicto Kiwanuka and Vice-Chancellor Frank Kalimuzo of Makerere (Binghampton, 2011).

Ambassador Barigye resigned on the 3rd of May 1973. Julius Nyerere granted him political asylum in Tanzania. His travel paper told another story that he ended in Lusaka, because the work opportunity is supposed to be better there (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Certain diaspora in Tanzania:

Obote is reported to be in Tanzania, also with terminated cabinet ministers. Idi Amin has put new people who have to act in their position, leaving the other one to end their former minsters posts (WikiLeaks, 1973).

4th of May General Amin appointed soldiers to be Saza and Gambola Cheifs. Their training started on 7th of May which now has turned into 3 or 4 weeks. Amin told them: “When he completes reorganization and everything is seen (to be) working well, he will give six months or one year for people to prepare for general elections” (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Tentative coup plans of 1973:

The ones that were supporting this operation were the Tanzania, China and also possible USA to assist the coup in Uganda. Ugandan leaders supporting this were Ali Mazuri and Major Okoth. Richard Ojok was delivering a plan at the embassy at the 21th August (WikiLeaks, 1973). Ojok has organized a group called UNQTE. Ali Mazuri is a part of this outfit. Major Ojok has met Nyerere to get Tanzanian assistance for the coup. Chinese Millitary Attache Cho En Tieng was present and offered financial assistance. The Chinese also offered Army personnel, but Ojok was afraid that if the coup succeeded the Chinese would be tied to power. The plan for the plot was to let the army men travel in civilian at 5th of October on an East African Airlines. Mazuri has discussed the matter to a African American Arms dealer Julian Hilbert. Hilbert assistance will come if they get enough funding. Major Ojok has been into Uganda and knows that they have 200 well trained military men, with a unit of 400 Libyan troops and 21 Mirage Jet Fighters. On his assassination list is the Commander of the Simba Mechanized Regiment at Mbabara: Lt. Col. Maliyamungu. They fear him because he has control of the tank division. So UNQTE feel they need to get tanks and are trying to get funds to complete this. Former Minister Kibedi is offering a position to those who are supporting funds. Ojok is not planning to have the coup when Amin is departed trip to Algeria for a conference. It will be when he is in the country. 22th of August 1973 will Ojok be back in Uganda and stay at the Standard Hotel. Lindstrom forward all information to the Washington Agencies (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Problems between Uganda and Tanzania:

13th of July 1974 General Amin had allegation of supposed plans of a coup and invasion from Tanzania. Amin is saying that Zambia and Tanzania is wishing to get the ousted Obote back as president in Uganda. He says: “Actively supporting Dr Milton Obote to mount an invasion of Uganda” (…)” Continues to encourage and assist invasion of Uganda, battlefields will be Mwanza, Musoma, Tabora, and Dodoma. I am not going to kneel down in front of him, he must know that I am a General who can fight any war, at any time, anywhere” (WikiLeaks, 1974). Tanzanian Governement replied to Amin: “Government wants to make clear that should these allegations be used for an attack, Tanzania will be justified to take all necessary steps to defend itself”. Radio Tanzania has reported on 15. July 1974 that President SIAD has inquired to the Secretary General of the OAU to get a meeting between Uganda, Zambia and Tanzania. This tension strand from the prominent position Obote got under the 20th anniversary of TANU on 7. July 1974 (WikiLeaks, 1974).

Boycott of Ugandan goods:

Idi Amin statement: “Does not constitute apology for recent territorial claim which GOK is insisting upon before presently strained bilateral relation can be normalized”. Dockworkers in Mombasa boycott the boats with Ugandan destined cargo. This leading too delayed boats out of docks of Mombasa. Amin is waiting for a Government of Kenya (GOK) apology. This boycott could lead to Amin to cut electricity which Amin claimed was substantial for Kenya, the estimation is between 15-20%. The photographer of Jomo Kenyatta has been burned in public in Uganda (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Fuel Shortage in Rwanda:

Uganda has had economic setbacks due to the closure of borders with Kenya. This has led to the gas shortage in Rwanda – because of the Mombasa-Kampala line. Tea and coffee export is really hit by this gas shortage (WikiLeaks, 1976). Rwandan MINFIN, National Bank of Rwanda flew to Kampala with President Habyarimana on the 17. March to discuss a government deal with Amin. Amin snubbed it for three reasons:

  1. Rwandan transport is the reason why the Ugandan roads deteriorating.
  2. Rwandan economic policies are the reason why the Ugandan Shilling is weakened and making Rwandan Franc is staying strong.
  3. Amin Accused the Rwandan of selling Ugandan coffee.
  4. Amin wasn’t happy that Habyarimana met with Nyerere last month.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

President Habyarimana is sure this economic sanction from Uganda is because of his way of dealing with Amin. Also even with the new Rwandan Foreign Policy of having good relation to its neighbors. And continue with building relation with Tanzania, even hasten Mwanza-Rusumu to Dar es Salem (WikiLeaks, 1976).

MINFIN is Ministry of Finance (Worldbank, 2007).

Continuation on the tension in East Africa:

  • Nyerere is not happy about the arms deal that they have done with South Africa. Especially after the meeting between South Africa’s Heath and Zambia’s Kaunda. Nyerere said he “Put heat in the Dock”. Nyerere was now bitter about the whole affair.
  • UK was happy with the Amin coup, they supported him and to overthrow of Obote. UK wanted that Amin to get rid of Sudanese troops in the South. When OAU gave the conference to Kampala it “gave this crook continental respectability”.
  • Nyerere thought it was amusing now that UK, Israel and Kenya is now enemies of Uganda. He commented: “Jomo needs a little external trouble to reinforce internal unity right now and an external fool always help is such case” (…) “we all do sometimes”.
  • Nyerere had really not any real fear of Amin neither had Kenya. Secondly Nyerere wasn’t going to start anything.
  • What Nyerere was worried about what was US up to. Especially on sale of F-5. Since their trying to out maneuver Soviet military support to Uganda and Somalia. Secretary Rumsfeld visited Nairobi. Nyerere wished that UK and USA helped Kenya in all other ways then military operation towards Uganda as he said “Leave this quarrel to East Africa, we will take care of it”.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

Tanzania and USSR:

Nyerere will order Foreign Minister Kaduma question the USSR ambassador whom the Soviet arming Uganda against. Nyerere had done the same time before when Uganda got the military equipment called MIGS. Soviet answers said “Imperialist!” Nyerere answered “Nonsense” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Uganda – Kenya Tension continues:

It’s now 15 October 1976. Kenya has released the Bedford trucks as a quid pro quo for getting their electricity back. Still all military equipment isn’t being shipped from Mombasa. It will be that way until the OAU 6 nation based commission is put into place. There are negotiations in New York on the matter. Kenyan Foreign Minister Karithi says all non-military based deliveries to Uganda except for jet-aviation-fuel which they are holding back. Amin is more and more irritated at the Kenyan boycott of arms. This led to the point where Amin attempted to call VP Moi of Kenya to complain about the matter. Most of the members of Ugandan Defense Council are not unwilling to take action towards Kenya (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Arms from Tanzania to Uganda:

There been rumors of regular arms traffic from the Kismayu to Uganda via the Kilmanjaro International Airport without entering Kenyan Air Space. The route being: Kismayu – Somalia – Tanzania – Uganda. This been in Ugandan’s own C-130 Transport Aircraft. And an U.S. Citizen is involved in the arms trade. This increasing support of Uganda is happening, even after the assurance of otherwise from Nyerere during the last meeting in August between Nyerere and Kenyatta (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Tanzania – Kenya tensions:

Permanent Secretary of Kenya has claimed that the Tanzanian government is dealing with “trade sabotage” and also focusing funds on rebuilding Tanga and Ports of Dar-Es-Salam. They also preferred the Chinese over the Kenyan. Kenyan Foreign Minister Karithi also claimed that Tanzania doesn’t trade rightfully with Kenya. Especially when looking at the trade balance which was in 1975 2, 3 to 1, in the three first months of 1976 it’s 3 to 1. Nyerere’s answer to all this that the trade gap between Kenya and Uganda that was in 1975 20 to 1 and in 1976 became 40 to 1. Nyerere also admits that Ugandans smuggle coffee to Kenya so that distort the numbers (WikiLeaks, 1976). Tanzanian also claims that Kenya is taking the major share of the tourism. The East African Airways are supposed to lure tourist to all parts of East Africa, not only Kenya, even though the Tourist infrastructure seem superior in Kenya compared to the rest, even if the animal and nature sights in Tanzania is much greater (WikiLeaks, 1976).

1977:

5th July 1977 Amin approached Kenyan Foreign Minister Waiyaki at the OAU summit in Libreville. Amin claimed that Nyerere agreed to have a “save the EAC” meeting and Amin hoped that the Kenyan would have this meeting in Nairobi. This request comes at the time when Kenya won’t spend funds into the EAC until Tanzania reopens their common borders. Government of Kenya has also recalled their workers from the EAC headquarters from Arusha (WikiLeaks, 1977).

EAC and USAID:

Kenya already sees the EAC as and non-existent entity already at 15th of June 1977. In Kenya the EAC research programs that have been under EAC will now be under GOK (Government of Kenya). The Government desires that the aid continues and sign project agreements as soon as practical. Kenyan government has also started to convert community entities to Kenyan once. Uganda is supposed to pull unless Amin get to meet Nyerere on the 20th of July. There is no reason for that to materialize. The borders also still closed between Kenya and Tanzania (WikiLeaks, 1977).

US African Affairs – DRC’s Mobutu and Uganda’s Amin:

Mobutu responded positive to our request of approaching Amin. The matter at hand is if we’re give Amin something then Mobutu need something as well. We have been using Mobutu to deal with Amin, but we can’t expect him do the deals with him without some gestures from our part. The message US African Affairs sent Mobutu in September 1977:

  • We are pleased by Mobutu’s prompt, public support of our proposals on Zimbabwe settlement.
  • We appreciate also Mobutu’s intervening with Amin on Humanitarian grounds, and recognize the difficulties posed for him by this and other interventions he has made on our behalf.
  • We value Zaire’s continued corporations and wish to stay in close touch on issues of common concern.

(WikiLeaks, 1977)

Kenya trusted American ally:

Ministry of Defense briefed them on their situation:

  • Kenya is surrounded by alien ideologies and Soviet and PRC influence, and its economic development and political stability that have caused envy and hostile neighbors.
  • Somalia is recruiting actively guerrillas against Kenya. This in a so called Ogaden style to carry out the claims for the North-Eastern Kenya. The Guerrilla has now a force of up to 10 000. This with the training from North Korea and Cuba since 1969. With the expulsion of Soviets, this might lead to a better friendship between them. But Somalia has not renounced the territorial claims. The Kenya-Somalia relationship can be described as “No Peace, No War”. Kenya would not be offended by a tighter relationship with Mogadishu; they know that Somalis will not talk to the Americans since they have their relations with Soviet and Ethiopia, who provide those arms and aid.
  • Uganda is an unstable neighbor. And has threats to attack Kenya. The lifeline for Kenya is that if Somalia attacks North-East, then Amin might be tempted to go in the Western. Because Amin would like to upset Kenyan stability.
  • Tanzania hasn’t been an issue not until 1977. When they closed down the EAC and also their borders. Also with incursions from Tanzania with killings and cattle rustling. It seems as Tanzania now works more closely to Zambia and Mozambique.
  • Ethiopia because of Somalia is a reliable ally. Though if it is so in future, they are not so sure. This be given the Soviet and Marxist believes in the country.
  • Because of this, Kenya needs to strengthen its borders. Particular Uganda and Somalia.

(WikiLeaks, 1977)

Links:

Binghampton.edu – ‘IN PURSUIT OF PERSONAL EXCELLENCE: THE DECLINE AND REVIVAL OF ALI A. MAZRUI’: Second Draft (10.2011) Link: http://www.binghamton.edu/igcs/docs/In%20Pursuit%20of%20Personal%20Excellence-The%20Decline%20and%20Revival%20of%20Ali%20A.%20Mazrui.pdf

Dingu.Sbs.Arizona.edu – ‘Rivnotes’ Link: http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~ggoertz/rivalry/cmv5.10/cm500501v5.10.txt

WikiLeaks – ‘MAZRUI RESIGNS; SOLDIERS REPLACE CHIEFS’ (05.05.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KAMPAL01538_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA COUP PLANS’ (21.08.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973NAIROB05577_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NEW PROBLEM IN TANZANIA-UGANDA RELATIONS’ (15.07.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974DARES02360_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PRESIDENT NYERERE ON KENYA-UGANDA QUARREL’ (19.07.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976DARES02606_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA: AMIN SNUBS RWANDA ON PETROL CRISIS’ (30.03.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976KIGALI00245_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘KENYAN-UGANDAN RELATIONS’ (15.10.1976) Link:

https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976NAIROB11323_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘FUTURE OF U.S. AID PROGRAM TO EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY’ (26.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977NAIROB09350_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CODEL PRICE CONSULTATION WITH BOK’ (18.11.1977) Links: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977NAIROB15006_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PROPOSED MESSAGE FOR MOBUTU’ (10.09.1977) Link:

https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977KINSHA08671_c.html

WorldBank – ‘FINANCING AGREEMENT’ (05.02.2007) Link: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2010/06/03/54A8AF4762E6EA70852572A600670F84/2_0/Rendered/INDEX/FA01Conformed1010Corrected.txt

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