Who? Who elected this men in shiny suits and grins in the Capitol and who walk around like gentleman and ladies in Washington D.C. That is the question I ask today, since first the House of Representative under the key leader Paul Ryan passed the American Health Care Act (AHCA) to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This was done on the 4th May 2017 and they had such a wonderful victory speech by President Donald Trump in the rose garden. Than, after the vote, the CBO score came in and it showed no mercy to the ones who needs medical care or health care, neither was the legislation made for safety of the American people, more a tax-relief for the wealthy who pays for poor. So they can get health-care under current legislation. That is something sinister in the eyes of Republican Party in the United States. Therefore, they have behind closed doors in the Capitol or the Congress, worked to make a new Health Care Bill based on the House of Representative vote in May 2017. And by June the legislation made in the dark, has come to light. Yesterday, the leak of the “Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017” was also broke down by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), BCRA are the still an ugly duck compared to the ACA or Obama-Care. Just take look at important quotes from their report and it proves the devastating acts of the Senate and House of Representatives,
The quotes I have taken, is just like last go-around on the members of society who will be cut off from Health-Care by new legislation. How much monies the 1% saves and how much the wealthy get tax-relief is benign since it is so many lives at stake and so many more people who will not be covered or can afford a Health Care Plan or Health Insurance under the new legislation. That is more dire, than if the state saves a few billion dollars, because the rich cannot afford to have some solidarity because their need for golden showers and Bentley’s. Take a look!
“The Senate bill would increase the number of people who are uninsured by 22 million in 2026 relative to the number under current law, slightly fewer than the increase in the number of uninsured estimated for the House-passed legislation. By 2026, an estimated 49 million people would be uninsured, compared with 28 million who would lack insurance that year under current law” (CBO, P: 1, 2017).
“CBO and JCT estimate that, in 2018, 15 million more people would be uninsured under this legislation than under current law—primarily because the penalty for not having insurance would be eliminated. The increase in the number of uninsured people relative to the number projected under current law would reach 19 million in 2020 and 22 million in 2026. In later years, other changes in the legislation—lower spending on Medicaid and substantially smaller average subsidies for coverage in the nongroup market—would also lead to increases in the number of people without health insurance. By 2026, among people under age 65, enrollment in Medicaid would fall by about 16 percent and an estimated 49 million people would be uninsured, compared with 28 million who would lack insurance that year under current law” (CBO, P: 4, 2017)
“Medicaid. Enrollment in Medicaid would be lower throughout the coming decade, with 15 million fewer Medicaid enrollees by 2026 than projected under current law in CBO’s March 2016 baseline (see Figure 4). Some of that decline would be among people who are currently eligible for Medicaid benefits, and some would be among people who CBO projects would, under current law, become eligible in the future as additional states adopted the ACA’s option to expand eligibility” (CBO, P: 16, 2017).
Just think about it, 49 Million uninsured compared to 28 million. The 28 millions uninsured under current legislation should be the worry today, not make sure there are another 21 millions who joins the club of ill-health and possible side-effects of not affording to pay for their health care bills. The Republican party and the Senate, as the House of Representatives are morally bankrupt. They don’t care or have no issues making provisions for a possible 21 million citizens without health-care. That means, they can easily do so, since the donors and rich-backers needs a Tax-Holiday. That is the seriousness and the bottom-line. Nothing beautiful about this. Just hardcore tax-relief so fewer people can afford to treatment and get people healed through Health-Insurance. Seriously, who votes this gang of brothers in and who would accept this sort of treatment? Can someone please explain to me what this dude Mitch McConnell still doing in the Capitol when he can serve this sort of legislation?
The numbers themselves are insane and the other aspects of the law is bad. There aren’t any good news in this one, unless your wealthy and don’t care about the society you sponge of in general. That is what this bill does, it isn’t “Better Care Reconciliation of 2017”, so to translate to a proper name of the bill it should be named: “We don’t Care Act of 2017”. Sponsored by the honorable men and woman of the Republican Party, with they new slogan to the public: “because we don’t care! We don’t care if you cannot afford to go to the hospital, have a per-existing condition, planned parenthood or any sort of benefits because of your low-pay-grade, you are just a Smuck-On-Wheels for voting for us and we are making sure that you cannot be covered in the future”. Why you say? We the Republican’s Just don’t Care! Peace.
Congressional Budget Office – ‘H.R. 1628 Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017’ (26.06.2017)
There has been a draft release Executive Order without a date, but planned for June 2017 by the Trump Administration. The United States Government and soon the American Health Care Act (AHCA) or the Trump Care is run through the Senate after the amendments for the law after the vote in the Representatives House. So it seems like the Trump Administration trying to patch the ill-will and the gained reputation for draconian laws with a medicine and a remedy. Still, if people cannot afford health care plans or afford health-care insurance, what help is in making medicine and pills cheaper. When you cannot afford to get to the doctor, what help is that the pills and medicine cost less. Needs help from the doctor to find the needed treatment. That is simple, but forgotten math by the Republicans and the Congress these days. Not like President Trump understands that, unless tanning became more expensive for him.
While we’re at it, let’s look into major quotes from the Draft Executive Order:
“Section 1 Policy:
b) Reduce burdens caused by regulatory and administrative actions that inflate or distort prices for beneficiaries of Federal health programs or that provide more favorable pricing for intermediate actors in the medical product supply chain than the prices available to beneficiaries” (Executive Order, 2017).
So the Trump Administration plans to put down the prices and control the prices of medicine. It is special that the Administration cares about the Federal Health Programs, when the new TrumpCare laws want to relief the state of Medicaid and other supplementary subsidized programs through the Affordable Health Care Act (AHCA) or ObamaCare. Health Care News Emily Kopp: “This probably refers to the 340B program, which provides hospitals that serve low-income patients with a discount on intravenous drugs, anti-nausea drugs for cancer patients and some other outpatient drugs. Donald Trump’s interagency working group on drug prices has weighed scaling back the 340B program, KHN reported earlier this month. Critics say the discounts don’t truly benefit patients, including PhRMA, the influential pharmaceutical lobby” (Kopp, 2017). Certainly, the repeal will make sure these sort of programs get phased out as well as the pricing on the Health Care plans that the citizens has to get through insurance companies. But this draft plans to take it further do.
“c) Facilitate, where appropriate, the ability of Federal health programs to enter into reimbursement arrangements for medical products that are based on the value of such products to patients rather than the volume of such products purchased” (Executive Order, 2017).
That the State will have value-based pricing, which means that the States and Federal Government have decided prices depending on the needs and than that the patients has to cover the cost of the medicine. Which is a nice idea, but I am skeptical as before, since the reality doesn’t change, even if the State and Federal Government can control the buying-in and the prices of it. The rising prices of insurance under new law will not be helped by this remedy. Neither is this too.
“d) Ensure that the laws intended to help lower-income or vulnerable Americans and strengthen the safety net healthcare providers that serve them are carried out in such a way, that the benefits of such programs accrue primarily to the intended populations, including by the rescinding or revising of regulatory or administrative actions” (Executive Order, 2017).
This here is main reason for it in a way, if the Trump Administration did care, but if they though the world works like that and these provisions would change the ways of buying-in and research of medicine would change. Still, Health Care News Emily Kopp says this: “This probably refers to the 340B program, which provides hospitals that serve low-income patients with a discount on intravenous drugs, anti-nausea drugs for cancer patients and some other outpatient drugs. Donald Trump’s interagency working group on drug prices has weighed scaling back the 340B program, KHN reported earlier this month. Critics say the discounts don’t truly benefit patients, including PhRMA, the influential pharmaceutical lobby” (Kopp, 2017).
Again, Trump Presidency has to be self involved and not understanding the world order, therefore, this had to be inside the EO: “e) Ensure that American citizens do not disproportionately subsidize medical product innovation for the rest of the world, or allow foreign governments to unfairly devalue American innovation” (Executive Order, 2017). Again, let me quote Emily Kopp: “The Trump administration is making the implicit argument that longer monopoly rights for drugs and higher drug costs in foreign markets will lead to lower prices in the U.S. Not so, according to James Love, director of Knowledge Ecology International” (Kopp, 2017). So, in Alice in Wonderland, this sort of provision might work, even in Narnia, but I am sure it has the same effect as Wall towards Mexico or the sudden love for Solar Panel on the wall, which is insane in it self. That Trump Administration believes in this wouldn’t surprise anyone and that Sean Spicer would defend it would be field day for journalists.
Las piece of the Executive Order, that I will put forward is this one: “f) Rescind, revise or simplify regulations and other administrative actions that inappropriately or unfairly contribute to higher prices or cost-sharing for medical products for American patients” (Executive Order, 2017). Just as before, kind of hard to get lower prices if the repealing of Obama-Care law gets into effect. It like thinking you get lower cost, when the insurance sky-rockets and the 1 percent of American citizens get a giant tax-break. The relief again would only suit the ones without already hard-earned pockets, the rich would earn more and the R&D of medical suppliers would secure more funding. This would not earn the citizens in the United States.
This is maybe why this law hasn’t been signed and hasn’t been enacted, as the Senate are working on their bill and this would counter it. Secondly, the lesser prices for medicines wouldn’t help the provisions in the new Health Care law. United States would really be a place for the wealthy and the poor would suffer more. That is reality of the Health Care bill that the Senate are putting forward. This Executive Order wouldn’t help, but be a field day for the Big Pharma to get new system for subsidized medicine, so the people wouldn’t feel this. Unless, the Health Care plans inside the Senate bill would actually serve the public and not just the wealthy. Peace.
Donald J. Trump – ‘Executive Order – REDUCING THE COST OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS AND ENHANCING AMERICAN BIOMEDICAL INNOVATION’ (Draft Paper for June 2017).
Again, the House of the Representatives passed the baby of President Donald Trump and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan. This is the American Health Care Act, it was passed on the 4th May 2017 and it 20 days after it’s passing the CBO came. This shows the disregard of checks and balances of the Congress. That the Representatives couldn’t trust the results of the Act and the bill, shows the proof that there are certain damaging reports in the report. The Republican Party representatives are clearly afraid of insights into the act. Therefore, the AHCA are really explosive, even as the knowledge of certain representatives didn’t even read it before voting for it.
“Republican Rep. Chris Collins admitted Thursday that he did not read the full health care bill before voting for it. “I will fully admit, Wolf, I did not. But I can also assure you my staff did. We have to rely on our staff,” Collins told CNN’s Wolf Blitzer on “The Situation Room.” (Manduley, 2017). So when the Republicans cannot even read their legislation, the paperwork that can affect millions of citizens. It shows disregard for the public and for the ones they represent, but clearly it is more important to take the calls of donors. Than the citizens who needs health-care. So I will not go through how much monies this ACHA does, and possible change the economy. What I will look into is the estimated people who are cut-off from health-care and insurance. As the ACHA might be damaging for the people, as the former CBO on the TrumpCare was really bad. Therefore, we can expect this one to be destroying lives for the poor Americans. So here are the quotes I think is worth remembering, as this proves what the Republican Party does to the ones they represent.
“CBO and JCT estimate that, in 2018, 14 million more people would be uninsured under H.R. 1628 than under current law. The increase in the number of uninsured people relative to the number projected under current law would reach 19 million in 2020 and 23 million in 2026. In 2026, an estimated 51 million people under age 65 would be uninsured, compared with 28 million who would lack insurance that year under current law” (CBO, P: 4, 2017).
That the ACHA is damning, is seen by just this 14 million more people will lose their insurance, in 2020 it would reach of 19 million and in 2026 would be 23 million. Therefore the estimated 51 million by 2026. With current ObamaCare it would be 28 million, which is also to many, but the new law doubles the amount of people without health insurance.
These two stats, show the damaging effects of the Republican bill, as not only massive amounts people without insurance, but also the different prices on the insurance after the repealing on the bill. These statistic is telling and the reason why the Republicans doesn’t want to understand their efforts to work of the private healthcare industry and insurance companies, instead of for the people who needs the health care. Peace.
Congressional Budget Office – ‘H.R. 1628 – American Health Care Act of 2017 – As passed by the House of Representatives on May 4, 2017’ (24.05.2017)
Manduley, Christina – ‘Congressman admits he didn’t read full health care bill before voting’ (04.05.2017) link:
The United States of America must be bankrupt, broke and in ill fatigue because it cannot afford to insure millions of citizens through medical insurance. At least that is the new report from Congressional Budget Office (CBO) on the new TrumpCare Act that Paul Ryan spoke so nicely about like it was a genuine idea from one of his donors.
This act of repealing and changing ObamaCare or the Affordable Health Care Act (ACA) is not because the Republican Party cares about the health of the United States Citizens. It is clear by the numbers that they want the health care industry and the ones selling insurance to earn more bucks on the ones who aren’t healthy and add higher price tag on their premiums.
Look at the numbers:
“CBO and JCT estimate that, in 2018, 14 million more people would be uninsured under the legislation than under current law” (…) “Later, following additional changes to subsidies for insurance purchased in the nongroup market and to the Medicaid program, the increase in the number of uninsured people relative to the number under current law would rise to 21 million in 2020 and then to 24 million in 2026. The reductions in insurance coverage between 2018 and 2026 would stem in large part from changes in Medicaid enrollment—because some states would discontinue their expansion of eligibility, some states that would have expanded eligibility in the future would choose not to do so, and per-enrollee spending in the program would be capped. In 2026, an estimated 52 million people would be uninsured, compared with 28 million who would lack insurance that year under current law” (CBO, P: 2, 2017).
So who cares about the trillions of dollars possibly saved? Certainly when the nation is so poor that it cannot secure possible health care for such amount of people. I know I proclaimed that Trump could create a Banana Republic back in November 2016. These sorts of act of injustice to millions of citizens as the state’s poverty levels are so the minority of rich can get cheap premium insurance. The others are the already healthy who can afford under the new law. Certainly this will be more costly on the ones that need insurance and the ones that is sick and need it. So if you have preconditions before signing up you are likely to pay more. This whole scheme is so the already expensive health care system can benefit more from the citizens, while the Republican government can spend more on bullets and guns. Such, wealthy and rich countries do.
It is sick and uncommon that a government wish to see more of their citizens not having the ability to get treatment and afford it. Usually it would do whatever it could to drastically make it better, if the government and the republic cared about its citizens. Apparently the Congress, the Representatives and the local government of United States, doesn’t care about the citizens and their well-being.
We can rest assured with every move President Trump does, it getting close to an America, where the Banana’s will go grow quicker. Especially, when we are considering the lack of insurance for such amount of millions that would have under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or the ObamaCare. The new America Health Care Act will hurt many people and most likely make the difference between the rich and poor even bigger.
So with the knowledge of the already rising gap between citizens, Trump’s America seems to look to make it bigger:
“The wealth disparity between upper and middle income Americans has hit a record high, according to a new Pew Research Center Report. On average, today’s upper-income families are almost seven times wealthier than middle-income ones, compared to 3.4 times wealthier in 1984. When compared to lower income family wealth, upper income family wealth is 70 times larger” (Salles, 2014).
That the wealth gap and riches is now enormous, it seems out of this world that they cannot afford to pay more in Medicaid to secure more people getting treatment. Since the rich can own bunch of cars and giant mansions, but cannot afford to pay extra tax to the IRS. That shows how poor the solidarity in the United States is. The individual can by all means take cares of only their own and the collective burden isn’t important.
Therefore, the Republic is really poor when they cannot have the funds or the laws to reassure their citizens. The people are morally poor when the riches cannot pay a little extra to help the ones in need. So the United State is doubly bankrupt and they have a reality star running the show. Surely, the losing end is the ones who is poor and the ones on the lower end of the trailing middle-class; the only one earning on Trumps America is the wealthy. They will win on this; the rest is out goose hunting. Peace.
CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE COST ESTIMATE – ‘American Health Care Act Budget Reconciliation Recommendations of the House Committees on Ways and Means and Energy and Commerce, March 9, 2017’ (13.03.2017)
Salles, Joaquim Moreira – ‘The Wealth Gap Between Rich And Poor Is The Widest Ever Recorded’ (18.12.2014) link: https://thinkprogress.org/the-wealth-gap-between-rich-and-poor-is-the-widest-ever-recorded-6e9579966adf#.s82a0l91l
We know that the Trump Administration blames everything these days on Barrack Obama and his fellow peers, because the Trump and his men are never wrong. They are fantastic and have the biggest brains. They never do anything will ill-intent, they do it all in the service of the people! Do they really? I feel they do it for someone else.
Since today I finally read a interesting piece of legislation from the Republican Representative from Oregon with the name of Greg Walden. I am sure he is kind fellow to his family and friends, an especially the super-PACs that are getting him elected to the U.S. Congress. But he does not after this wants to be affiliated with the poor and the ones who are covered through Medicaid and Affordable Care Act, the ones in need of Health Care, but through circumstances can’t afford healing or medicines. This is from the government that for all the people.
Well, let me start quoting the legislation.
‘‘Preexisting Conditions Protection and Continuous Coverage Incentive Act of 4 2017’’.
So if you have a pre-existing condition you are now acknowledge with an act and as the title is mysterious the text itself reveal more sinister foul play as the citizens themselves will suffer with this one:
“(a) GROUP MARKET.—Subject to section 103(a) of this Act, subpart 1 of part A of title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300gg et seq.), as restored or revived pursuant to PPACA repeal legislation described in section 103(b) of this Act, is amended by striking section 2701 and inserting the following:”.
Well, the repealing cannot be that right, well if not bad means that the ones on the Medicaid has to pay for the services with premium instalments instead of what they do today, you can imagine the added cost on each individual for their health services, as the United States is not known for their cheap and service friendly hospitable care of their patience, except for TV Drama shows.
‘‘SEC. 2711. GUARANTEED AVAILABILITY OF COVERAGE. ‘‘(a) GUARANTEED ISSUANCE OF COVERAGE IN THE GROUP MARKET.—Subject to subsection (b), each health insurance issuer that offers health insurance coverage in the group market in a State shall accept every employer and every individual in a group in the State that applies for such coverage”.
“SEC. 103. EFFECTIVE DATE CONTINGENT ON REPEAL OF PPACA.
(a) IN GENERAL.—Sections 101 and 102 and the amendments made by such sections shall take effect upon the enactment of PPACA repeal legislation described in subsection (b) and such sections and amendments shall have no force or effect if such PPACA repeal legislation is not enacted.
For purposes of subsection (a), PPACA repeal legislation described in this subsection is legislation that—
(1) repeals Public Law 111–148, and restores or revives the provisions of law amended or repealed, respectively, by such Act as if such Act had not been enacted and without further amendment to such provisions of law; and
(2) repeals title I and subtitle B of title II of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–152), and restores or revives the provisions of law amended or repealed, respectively, by such title or subtitle, respectively, as if such title and subtitle had not been enacted and without further amendment to such provisions of law”.
If you felt that was just a bunch of fancy words and repealing a law only gave sense. Let me show important parts of law that will be taken away and not be legislation, which would be active as this new amendment would take it away.
The Representative Walden want’s for instance this part of Public Law 111-148 to not remain anymore:
“(c) Section 9010(e)(1) sets an applicable fee amount for each year, beginning with 2014, that will be apportioned among covered entities with aggregate net premiums written over $25 million for health insurance for United States health risks. Generally, each covered entity is liable for a fee in each fee year that is based on its net premiums written during the data year in an amount determined by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) under the rules of this part”.
This is so dangerous that the Federal State offers funds for Health Care Insurance, that Medicaid and ObamaCare would take care of over the Premium Fee that each individual had to pay. So the repealing of this, means that the Premium will still be there, but the funds from Federal Government to cover the balance of the real cost of the Insurance will now all be placed on each individual. That means the true cost will end on each Premium and each person’s own Health Care Insurance. The Public Law 111-152 which is the legislation putting into law how Medicaid is supposed to work. Key part of this law is repealed in this act.
For instance this part:
“(42 U.S.C. 1395w–152) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
‘‘(c) COVERAGE GAP REBATE FOR 2010.—
‘‘(1) IN GENERAL.—In the case of an individual described in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of section 1860D–14A(g)(1) who as of the last day of a calendar quarter in 2010 has incurred costs for covered part D drugs so that the individual has exceeded the initial coverage limit under section 1860D–
2(b)(3) for 2010, the Secretary shall provide for payment from the Medicare Prescription Drug Account of $250 to the individual by not later than the 15th day of the third month following the end of such quarter.
‘‘(2) LIMITATION.—The Secretary shall provide only 1 payment under this subsection with respect to any individual.’’.
This is just a small section as the whole Medicaid legislation and law directs all sort of treatment and coverage of it in the public sphere through the 111-152 (B) that the Representative of Oregon Walden certainly disapprove of or his donors through Super-PACs that want him to enact. Certainly this is going to hit many people in his own home state where in January Governor Brown of Oregon said there we’re 1 million users of it in the state alone. That means the ones on the Oregon Health Plan, has to reconfigure the funds and the state health care plan as the Medicare and ACA will be repealed. The Republican Congressman of Oregon Walden will hit a 1 million of his own base and citizens. That is impressive how much damage he wants to do to his own.
We can certainly know with this sort of legislation that the Representatives and Congressmen are not there for the ones that elected them; this is to foot the bill to the public and give nothing back. This is to make the people pay even more health-care and also bill them for it, as the funds through Medicaid will go to build a wall or deport the people from concerning nations. Whatever it doesn’t do, is to go to help people be able to fund their health care and they have to be billed directly through the health care insurance that will have higher premiums for the citizen’s as the laws are repealed and given freedom to the companies to do as they please. Peace.
115th Congress – Congressman Greg Walden, Oregon – ‘Draft: Amend of Public Health Service Act’ (26.01.2017)
Simultaneously, industry has been increasing its investment in AI. In 2016, Google Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Sundar Pichai said, “Machine learning [a subfield of AI] is a core, transformative way by which we’re rethinking how we’re doing everything. We are thoughtfully applying it across all our products, be it search, ads, YouTube, or Play. And we’re in early days, but you will see us — in a systematic way — apply machine learning in all these areas.” (White House, 2016).
Present AI-enabled Products:
“Currently relevant examples of the regulatory challenges that AI-enabled products present are found in the cases of automated vehicles (AVs, such as self-driving cars) and AI-equipped unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, or “drones”). In the long run, AVs will likely save many lives by reducing driver error and increasing personal mobility, and UAS will offer many economic benefits. Yet public safety must be protected as these technologies are tested and begin to mature. The Department of Transportation (DOT) is using an approach to evolving the relevant regulations that is based on building expertise in the Department, creating safe spaces and test beds for experimentation, and working with industry and civil society to evolve performance-based regulations that will enable more uses as evidence of safe operation accumulates” (White House, 2016).
Recommendation to the States:
“Recommendation 1: Private and public institutions are encouraged to examine whether and how they can responsibly leverage AI and machine learning in ways that will benefit society. Social justice and public policy institutions that do not typically engage with advanced technologies and data science in their work should consider partnerships with AI researchers and practitioners that can help apply AI tactics to the broad social problems these institutions already address in other ways.
Recommendation 2: Federal agencies should prioritize open training data and open data standards in AI. The government should emphasize the release of datasets that enable the use of AI to address social challenges. Potential steps may include developing an “Open Data for AI” initiative with the objective of releasing a significant number of government data sets to accelerate AI research and galvanize the use of open data standards and best practices across government, academia, and the private sector” (White House, 2016).
Recommendation to the Federal Government:
“Recommendation 3: The Federal Government should explore ways to improve the capacity of key agencies to apply AI to their missions. For example, Federal agencies should explore the potential to create DARPA-like organizations to support high-risk, high-reward AI research and its application, much as the Department of Education has done through its proposal to create an “ARPA-ED,” to support R&D to determine whether AI and other technologies could significantly improve student learning outcomes.
Recommendation 4: The NSTC MLAI subcommittee should develop a community of practice for AI practitioners across government. Agencies should work together to develop and share standards and best practices around the use of AI in government operations. Agencies should ensure that Federal employee training programs include relevant AI opportunities” (White House, 2016).
“Over the past several years, in particular, issues concerning the development of so-called “Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems” (LAWS) have been raised by technical experts, ethicists, and others in the international community.79 The United States has actively participated in the ongoing international discussion on LAWS in the context of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW),80 and anticipates continued robust international discussion of these potential weapon systems going forward.
State Parties to the CCW are discussing technical, legal, military, ethical, and other issues involved with emerging technologies, although it is clear that there is no common understanding of LAWS. Some States have conflated LAWS with remotely piloted aircraft (military “drones”), a position which the United States opposes, as remotely-piloted craft are, by definition, directly controlled by humans just as manned aircraft are. Other States have focused on artificial intelligence, robot armies, or whether “meaningful human control” – an undefined term – is exercised over life-and-death decisions. The U.S. priority has been to reiterate that all weapon systems, autonomous or otherwise, must adhere to international” (White House, 2016).
US Government and the DoD:
“The U.S. government is also conducting a comprehensive review of the implications of autonomy in defense systems. In November 2012, the Department of Defense (DoD) issued DoD Directive 3000.09, “Autonomy in Weapon Systems,” which outlines requirements for the development and fielding of autonomous and semi-autonomous weapons. Weapon systems capable of autonomously selecting and engaging targets with lethal force require senior-level DoD reviews and approval before those weapon systems enter formal development and again before fielding. The DoD Directive neither prohibits nor encourages such development, but requires it to proceed carefully and only after review and approval by senior defense officials. Among other things, the DoD Directive requires that autonomous and semi-autonomous weapon systems are rigorously tested and that personnel are trained appropriately in their use to advance international norms pertaining to armed conflict” (White House, 2016).
“Recommendation 23: The U.S. Government should complete the development of a single, government-wide policy, consistent with international humanitarian law, on autonomous and semi-autonomous weapons” (White House, 2016).
These findings are showing how the current Obama Administration has worked on the matter and studied the use of AI in workforce and military. Together with the DoD, the DoD and usage of the AI and UAS. United States Government has made decisions, but has not apparently a current vision on how to use or how regulate the technology of the moment. What is problematic is that there are no common ground for the Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS), neither the DoD Directive neither prohibits nor encourages such development, but requires it to proceed carefully and only after review and approval by senior defense officials. This shows the importance of the current regulations and how to develop the technology to use it in combat and in private sector in the US.
Certainly the Trump Administration has to work on this, but they will surely use this for their benefit. We can all wonder what they will use of this technology and the AI and UAS. Peace.
United States White House – ‘Science and Technology Council PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council Committee on Technology’ (October, 2016)