MinBane

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Archive for the tag “Cuba”

Trump Administration planned from July 2017 to build a migrant tent-camp at Guantanamo, Cuba!

On the 7th July 2017 the United States Navy published a Modification Notice on the U.S. land on Cuba, the famous Guantanamo. Again, a new administration has plans to use this land and the parts of island to good use. Seemingly for other purposes than keeping non-trialed terrorist suspects. They are planning to immigrants and asylum seekers put on the Cuban. People who are fleeing camps and war-zones already to be transported to another facility under United States jurisdiction.

The Navy is planning this:

The Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast (NAVFAC SE) has been tasked to develop, solicit, and award a single-award, firm fixed-price (FFP), design-bid-build (DBB) contract for the construction of a contingency mass migration complex (Leeward South) for 13,000 migrants and 5,000 support forces, at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The estimated price range for the entire project is between $25,000,000.00 and $100,000,000.00” (…) “The scope of this project is for the construction of a contingency mass migration complex (Leeward South) for 13,000 migrants and 5,000 support forces. Provide site shaping for tents, concrete pads for camp headquarters, galleys and dumpsters, perimeter and service roads, and Mass Notification System. Supporting facilities include utility systems (electrical, water, and sanitary sewer), exterior lighting, information systems to include fiber optic cable service, expansion of the waste, vehicle parking area, storm drainage, and removal of two family housing trailer units. Measures in accordance with the Department of Defense (DoD) Minimum Antiterrorism for Buildings standards will be provided. Facilities will be designed to a minimum life of 50 years in accordance with DoDs Unified Facilities Code (UFC 1-200-02) including energy efficiencies, building envelope and integrated building systems performance. Sustainability/Energy measures will be provided” (NECO Synopsis Database – ‘Subject: Y–Contingency Mass Migration Complex, Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba’ – 07.07.2017).

So the Trump Administration together with the Navy, the other agencies really has a plan of moving immigrants and asylum-seekers to Guantanamo. To make sure their stay in the United States will be in tents, instead of trying to get them integrated into society. The ones who are worried about the public business into building of the camp and the price of installation.

That the United States can plan to move and create a temporary space for people in camps on the outside of their territory, to scare more from not coming and also making it worse for their moral obligations to facilitate for their refugees. Just like Americans has said it is problematic with the state of camps in Italy, Greece and Turkey. This one will not make it better, especially when it is a created affair and professional enterprises creating it. As the tenders and government procurement of the camp are clearly planned affairs on how the refugees will leave.

That the United States are planning a tent-camp not far from the U.S. state of Florida and on leased land on Cuba, is extremely bad and offensive. Especially, since many of the refugees are leaving from places that the Americans has attacked with military operations, where the United States has supported drones, where U.S. Soldiers has killed and created turmoil in the nations. Therefore, as moral obligations to where they sent troops and made a fuzz, they should accept that people are fleeing these wars and conflicts for a safe-haven in the Untied States.

Therefore, that the Navy and the United States government plans a tent-camp on territory of Guantanamo, Cuba for 13,000 migrants and 5,000 support personnel. This means they planning a small-town size of tents and needed necessities for them. Instead of taking care of them through more friendly neighborhood, they are now planning to drop them off in tents. Hope they get tired of the meager lifestyle to go home. Even if it means leaving peace and going back into war-zones and dictatorships.

The moral fall of the United States is clearly there. They could have used other means, used other types of facilitation for migrants. Instead of making provisions without creating a permanent tent-camp for them. Usually, they are put-up because the need for it.

Why I find it strange that UNHCR from 2007 says: “Family tents may be useful and appropriate, for example, when local materials are either not available at all or are only seasonally available or for refugees of nomadic background. The life-span of an erected canvas tent depends on the manufacturing, length of storage before deployment, as well as the climate and the care given by its occupants. Where tents are used for long durations, provisions for repair materials should be considered. Larger or communal tents may serve as transit accommodation while more appropriate shelter is constructed” (…) “In general, tents are difficult to heat as walls and roof do not provide sufficient insulation. Therefore, tents are not suitable as cold climate shelters, but if there is no choice, they can save lives and bridge the time until more suitable shelters are established” (UNHCR P: 221-222 – ‘ Handbook for Emergencies – Third Edition’ February 2007).

So, when the U.S. Government puts up a tents, that is not suitable for long-term solution. Because even the UNHCR says it is temporary, since the tents are not insulated. Therefore, Guantanamo tent-camp for the migrants coming to the US. Clearly, the US state will not build a proper place for the migrants, but the people fleeing should get proper shelter. Not be put in tents, but build more suitable shelters. Especially, when the US can build proper housing for the migrants. Since they are moving them from main-land US to the area controlled by US on Cuba. Peace.

USA: DHS Announces Implementation of Travel Restriction Provisions (29.06.2017)

U.S.: AG Sessions and DHS Secretary Kelly letter argues for the ‘Muslim Ban’ (06.03.2017)

Trump’s renewed ‘Muslim ban’ or Executive Order with more paranoia against Muslim Nations!

“If a cricketer, for instance, suddenly decided to go into a school and batter a lot of people to death with a cricket bat, which he could do very easily, I mean, are you going to ban cricket bats?”
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

The paranoid and afraid old man in the United States, President Donald J. Trump without evidence or without proof of honest judgement on the matter, has again signed a new Executive Order extending the Muslim ban from 27th January 2017. That is because Mr. Trump cannot help himself as he is afraid either in his Twinkie Tower in Manhattan or at Mar-A-Lago in Miami or Los Angeles. Therefore, the afraid-little man has to have this power to make sure the United States is safe from possible radical people, like the Ku Klux Klan and other ones, wait they are already there!

“Per the Executive Order, foreign nationals from Sudan, Syria, Iran, Libya, Somalia, and Yemen, who are outside the United States and who did not have a valid visa at 5 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on January 27, 2017, and do not have a valid visa on the effective date of this order are not eligible to enter the United States while the temporary suspension remains in effect. Thus any individual who had a valid visa either on January 27, 2017 (prior to 5:00 PM) or holds a valid visa on the effective date of the Executive Order is not barred from entry” (White House, Q&A, 2017).

Take a look: 

“Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or non-immigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.” (White House, 2017).

“Under these authorities, I determined that, for a brief period of 90 days, while existing screening and vetting procedures were under review, the entry into the United States of certain aliens from the seven identified countries — each afflicted by terrorism in a manner that compromised the ability of the United States to rely on normal decision-making procedures about travel to the United States — would be detrimental to the interests of the United States. Nonetheless, I permitted the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security to grant case-by-case waivers when they determined that it was in the national interest to do so” (White House, 2017).

It continues from where the 27th January order left off:

“In light of the conditions in these six countries, until the assessment of current screening and vetting procedures required by section 2 of this order is completed, the risk of erroneously permitting entry of a national of one of these countries who intends to commit terrorist acts or otherwise harm the national security of the United States is unacceptably high. Accordingly, while that assessment is ongoing, I am imposing a temporary pause on the entry of nations from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, subject to categorical exceptions and case-by-case waivers, as described in section 3 of this order” (White House, 2017).

So even has the Department of Homeland Affairs (DHS) did in their intelligence brighten the nonsense of the Trump administration on the alleged terrorist threat, the Trump people couldn’t hold the trigger and had to rewrite the order to fit legal paradigm that they didn’t before, there a month of work has ended in this one, that continues further the expelling of foreign nationals and unexplained handpicked nations to show the ignorant President his extent of racism to the world at large. President Trump can be the proudest ignorant executive the world has seen in decades!

The other difference than before, there provisions for the ones who had already legal rights and had a past in the United States, that means that Mo Farah and other who is also Somali international finally can travel back home. Therefore, there is an amendment who continues, but with more legal force so that the legal battles will be less this time around.

Also the Memorandum given by the President continues the fear of strangers:

“Enhanced Vetting Protocols and Procedures for Visas and Other Immigration Benefits. The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall, as permitted by law, implement protocols and procedures as soon as practicable that in their judgment will enhance the screening and vetting of applications for visas and all other immigration benefits, so as to increase the safety and security of the American people” (White House, 2017).

These is fitting to the Executive Order so the foreigners are having issues when entering as the nations and civilians who seeks refugees will be questioned, as the United States will be more and more unfriendly with the refugees and people wishing to migrate to the American Republic.

“Sec. 3. Enforcement of All Laws for Entry into the United States. I direct the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the heads of all other relevant executive departments and agencies (as identified by the Secretary of Homeland Security) to rigorously enforce all existing grounds of inadmissibility and to ensure subsequent compliance with related laws after admission. The heads of all relevant executive departments and agencies shall issue new rules, regulations, or guidance (collectively, rules), as appropriate, to enforce laws relating to such grounds of inadmissibility and subsequent compliance. To the extent that the Secretary of Homeland Security issues such new rules, the heads of all other relevant executive departments and agencies shall, as necessary and appropriate, issue new rules that conform to them. Such new rules shall supersede any previous rules to the extent of any conflict” (White House, 2017).

This is just some of the factors as there have been released on why the 6 nations was picked out and the reasons for the Trump Administration to single these nations out:

“How were the six countries designated in the Executive Order selected?

The six countries, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen, had already been identified as presenting concerns about terrorism and travel to the United States. Specifically, the suspension applies to countries referred to in, or designated under—except Iraq—section 217(a)(12) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. § 1187(a)(12). In that provision Congress restricted use of the Visa Waiver Program by dual nationals of, and aliens recently present in, (A) Syria and Iraq, (B) any country designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor of terrorism (currently Iran, Syria, and Sudan), and (C) any other country designated as a country of concern by the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Director of National Intelligence. In 2016, the former Secretary of Homeland Security designated Libya, Somalia, and Yemen as additional countries of concern regarding aliens recently present in those countries” (White House, Q&A, 2017).

Just to make sure the intent of the Executive Order is understood and what the President himself believes that this ensures or even his Bannonesque clique believes it does:

The U.S. Government must ensure that those entering this country will not harm the American people after entering, and that they do not bear malicious intent toward the United States and its people. The Executive Order, together with the Presidential Memorandum, protects the United States from countries compromised by terrorism and ensures a more rigorous vetting process. This Executive Order ensures that we have a functional immigration system that safeguards our national security” (White House, Fact Sheet, 2017).

So there you have it, the important bricks and pieces of the Muslim Ban and the newly renewed 27th January Executive Order, that has gotten new words to sufficiently get less problems in Courts and amendment it, so it was signed into decree or order today. President Trump must really, really fear these people as they are all intending to bomb his Twinkie Tower and not buy Ivanka’s jewellery; therefore, they cannot be trusted since there was one guy from Yemen and two persons from another country who did something bad on the American soil. Therefore, the Republic has to secure from all of them, because one guy from Yemen did something bad, the same with the rest of these nations that was banned in January 2017. The Trump Administration doesn’t need facts, just Bannonesque fiction to spell out their vomit to the world.

So expect more nonsense, more people suing the Trump Administration and also the criticism will not die down as the proof of not listening to DHS is evident with this one. The Intelligence report on the 27th January Executive Order we’re not concerned, as Trump and his people continued to push on their bogeyman-paradigm. Peace.

Reference:

The White House – ‘PROTECTING THE NATION FROM FOREIGN TERRORIST ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES’ (06.03.2017)

The White House – ‘MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF STATE THE ATTORNEY GENERAL THE SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY’ (06.03.2017)

The White House – ‘Q&A: Protecting The Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry To The United States’ (05.04.2017).

The White House – ‘Fact Sheet: Protecting The Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry To The United States’ (05.04.2017)

Opinion: President Trump might have the most eloquent speech yesterday, still his acts is what worries me!

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It does not matter if he has the most perfect and most suited address of internal American matters or international yesterday in the Congress. That do not affect me B. Since his Executive Orders, Internal Memo’s and all the other tools that he uses to inflict harm and destroy humanity is that concerns a fellow brother like me.

I does not matter to me if he learned a few new words, spoke with his heart and blurred out some common sense yesterday. Since the lack of respect for intelligence and the lack of understanding of the reactions to his own actions are massive. The reason for the concern is the way he can easily pick something out of context and spread it like a disease.

President Trump, your Executive Orders and Presidential Memorandum is the ones that brings fear to me. The insulting ways of not caring what the experts in fields are saying and your lack of grasping the mentality of being the man-in-charge. The title is easy to carry, but to achieve something with honour and grace seems far-fetched at this point. Therefore, we are at crossroads, the crossing has already appeared and your methods are in use.

I cannot look out say since you said something beautiful yesterday and hopeful. Believe that tomorrow you will act like a man, who respect the constitution, international order and be civil. Since your ways is not like that and seems strange if that really would happen. You have an imagination and self-drive that is out of proportion. The sense of justification for your assaults on others is because you are always the victim, even when you strike first. Which is insulting to the rest of us seeing the whole ordeal and hearing it by all cable-TV.

So that you believe in yourself that you can as a PR stunt in a first Presidential Address take away the inflicted pain and suffrage you have already caused, that is not possible. There is a long way, but your immigration rules, the way you have been fixing the ICE agents procedures and attack on anyone questioning your reasons. Does not rule high in my book of proverbs. More likely shows the lack of morals and the lack of integrity a man of Presidential stature is supposed to have.

President Trump and his administration do not care about the effects as long as the rich multi-national companies earns fortunes, if you spill oil in rivers, frack the Midwest like a Swiss Cheese or even put trade-embargoes on Mexico and Canada, who cares as long as Goldman Sachs or any other big financial organizations earns huge profits. The pain of the ordinary person is not important. Therefore if 20 million Americans lose their health insurance is not that important, but what is important is that they pay for their coverage and get rid of the ones that should not have the ability to covered anyway. That is a true American spirit and wishful society, where the wealthy get yachts and hotels, while the poor has decide if they can by McDonalds burger or medication for their daughter. What a wonderful picture of the new America First.

Certainly, Trump must be so brave to take away the help to the poorest, the ones in need so he can spend fortunes upon fortunes on ammunition, guns and hi-tech military equipment, that is how nations is built. Out of the ashes of war and despair comes the grand fortunes of corruption and multi-million progress salvage pack bought and greased by American business. A favourable package for Trump and financial market friends.

Therefore, the words and speech of hope or whatnot yesterday does not matter to me. Because I cannot believe it or think that, it is true. Since his Executive Orders is to free-market policies or to give way to deport, detain or stop immigration at a scale in modern history that cause havoc. Together with the current political climate and the scales of internal conflict, it does not serve the United States, neither the world.

You can in theory claim that a potato is not a potato, still when you look at it and touch it. You know deep in your heart it is a potato and your mind remembers how a potato feels in your hand. Even if Trump now speaks of peace, promise of better day and of another to make America First. Trust me; I do not trust him, not a single bit. That is because of his acts and the way he does not give in. That is why he has in the past always taken things to court and appealed until the others have given in to a settlement instead of what they was entitle to get in the first place. Trump have manoeuvred that way in the past. So why should the old man change now?

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I will not be shocked if read soon more disturbing Executive Orders where the Immigrants and their access to American soil is a danger to all of society, a cost and burden on all sort of employment. Therefore, I do not trust the man. Since his time as President the efforts to humans who flee wars for safe haven has been shut, the deportation with ICE agent has escalated and the reality of the economic is already starting to be shaped. A nice little speech is not changing my perspective on the man. Unless, the man retracts the Executive Orders, stops the internal memos and just stop with rhetoric of his. However, the old man will not do that, since it is not his way.

So please, do not tell me there is new Trump. Glean and Clean Trump does not exist and is not real. It fake like his tan. If there were a new Trump, it would have the changed and begged sorry to some of the people he really has offended. That is not him. We all know that my now and we know that he will not do anything about that. Unless, Bannon or one of the other wise guys at the White House says so.

Well, enough of the nonsense? Not yet! We have so many more days of this administration. Therefore, there will be more of this and this gravy train of ignorance and blatant disregard of decency will not decay, more it will sprite up some more juice and call it soup. Peace.

Trump’s Executive order on the ‘Muslim Ban’ countered by the newly produced DHS Intelligence Report!

trump-executive-order-signing

There is now a new Department of Homeland Security report that assesses the “Muslim Ban” that we’re put in place 27th January 2017. So the own state agency is putting the numbers down and show who ridiculous this Executive Order from President Donald J. Trump and his Alt-Right government. That the Bannon Inspired law and his fear of foreigners seem abysmal now, if the Trump administration cared about facts. Which I will show how little the United States has to fear, if they should impose some stronger laws it should be on their own citizens and the own native-born individuals, as they are more likely to act. This report states that there have been 82 individuals who have posed terrorist threats by all the indicators that Department of Justice and Department of State has delivered of late. Therefore when you have had 82 individuals, as imposed on 7 countries was sanction in the Executive Order. Of these there are significant few individuals who have created or possessed a threat to proud American republic. Take a look!

Scope Note: This paper was prepared at the request of the DHS Acting under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis. It assess the international terrorist threat to the United States and worldwide by citizens in Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen. Citizens of these seven countries were impacted by Section 3 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13769 “Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States”. The Assessment relies on unclassified information from Department of Justice press releases on terrorism- related convictions and terrorist attack perpetrators killed in the act, Department of State visa statistics, the 2016 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community, and the Department of State Country Reports on Terrorism 2015. This paper does not assess the threat of domestic reform” (DHS, 2017).

“DHS 1&A assess that country of citizenship is unlikely to be reliable indicator of potential terrorist activity. Since the beginning of the Syrian conflict in March 2011, at least 82 primarily US-based individuals, who died in pursuit of or were convicted of any terrorism-related federal offence inspired by foreign terrorist organization, according to a DHS study of Department of Justice press release on convictions and terrorist attack perpetrators killed in the act. Of the 82 individuals we identified, slightly more than half were native-born in the United States citizens” (DHS, 2017).

Total individuals:

“Top seven origin countries of the foreign-based individuals are: Pakistan (5), Somalia (3), and Bangladesh, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iraq and Uzbekistan (2)” (…) “of the seven countries impacted by the E.O. 13769 that are not listed above, Iran, Sudan, and Yemen had 1 each, and there were no individuals from Syria” (DHS, 2017).

Simple math:

3+2+1+1+1 = 8 individuals, as I will explain it there is three fellow humans from Somalia, 2 other humans from Iraq, one single individual from these countries of Iran, Sudan and Yemen. Therefore the total amount of individuals who is concerned from the banned entry countries is 8 (eight). That of 82 individuals, as even the report states is that slightly more than half are native-born. Which means more than 41 individuals was a United States citizen, which means if by numbers, they should channel certain credit to their own state system and their own handle of American born citizens, instead of blaming Yemen, Iran and Sudan.

There are real issues, but the Trump Administration is not fixing the issue with doing this and banning entry from these nations, than Pakistan and other nations should also been part of this. Still, one of the nations that the United States even has on the list hasn’t had any terrorist threat to the American republic; that is from the Syrian Republic’s fleeing citizens from internal civil-war. Therefore the United States current government shows more belief in bias, than in ethical and truthful numbers.

So the Trump Administration has to continue to deflect the media and their reporting, because their own agencies and department are collecting information that is equally assessed by serious civil servants working for the common good and not just for a biased idea that Trump got on InfoWars, Fox News or by Breitbart. Therefore this intelligence report shows the lacking configuration and need for this sort of order. This will not create less of terrorism, unless the United States actually does something with their native-born terrorist, but that means harder guns-laws and stricter regulations on arms. With that in mind the National Rifle Association (NRA) support of Trump and his candidacy show’s that isn’t in the mind of this administration. Therefore, there will come more U.S. native-born lone-gun men who kills innocent in the United States for either themselves as a cause or a soldier for a foreign terrorist organization.

You should also wonder with the reactions this has created, that banning Iran is because of one fellow individual, just as they do as well with Yemen and Sudan. So three persons are the reason for the whole republics are not allowed to enter into the United States under Trump, so if one of the sons or daughters of Trump breaks the law abroad, means that United Arab Emirates, Vietnam or Botswana all of sudden banned all United States Citizens from entering because Donald Trump Junior tried to smuggle ivory from Botswana. Therefore if this scenario was true, than all the US Citizens are now banned from entering the African state. That is an example of the nonsense that the U.S. government under Trump administration is in charge of!  This is the precise wording and meaning behind this sort of law and executive order of Trump.

Peace.

Reference:

Department of Homeland Security – ‘Citizenship likely an Unreliable Indicator of Terrorist Threat to the United States’ (February 2017).

Secretary-General’s message to the Sixth Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions (07.09.2016)

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[Delivered by Ms. Mary Soliman, Acting Director, Geneva Branch, Office for Disarmament Affairs]

I am pleased to greet the Sixth Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. I congratulate the Netherlands for assuming the Presidency of the Meeting and for leading its preparations. I also thank Switzerland, the host country.

Over the years, States, international organizations and civil society have worked together to establish and implement a solid legal norm prohibiting the use, development, production, acquisition, transfer or stockpiling of cluster munitions. This unity has made the Convention a success.

I congratulate Colombia, which ratified during the First Review Conference last year, as well as Cuba, Mauritius, Palau and Somalia for joining the Convention most recently, bringing the number of States parties to 100. The United Nations will continue to support all efforts aimed at the universalization of the Convention.

With the adoption of the Dubrovnik Action Plan, States parties have set an ambitious path of concrete actions and specific deadlines for the Convention’s further implementation by the Second Review Conference in 2020. Actions are to be undertaken in the crucial areas of universalization, stockpile destruction, clearance and risk reduction education, victim assistance, international cooperation and assistance, transparency and national implementation measures. Our shared hope is to achieve the destruction of additional stockpiled cluster munitions, the release of previously contaminated land for productive use and, ultimately, a reduction in the number of new victims.

Ridding the world of heinous cluster munitions is a moral and humanitarian imperative. I wish you every success as you embark on your important deliberations.

Press Statement: First Cabinet Meeting Held on 15th January 2015 (Kenya)

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22. December 2014: Letter to Attorney General Holder Requesting Appointment of a Special Prosecutor for Torture

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WikiLeaks – The interesting times of the Derg(or the Dirg) in the 70s Ethiopia

Mengistu_Book-Cover2_inside

This is maybe my longest blogpost in history and I am sure I’m not going to compete with this one. There was just so much juicy information about a time in Ethiopian history which is not really discussed or talked about. This documents and briefing’s from the American Embassy and Reftels that was sent to the US is telling a story that is interesting today. I personally have much more knowledge about Meles Zenawi and post him, then the time before. It has been discussed in certain books that I have read on the political history on the Great Empire of Ethiopia. What often portrayed about this time is very blurry. With this stories that I have found on WikiLeaks, they might shine a light and give some of the other ones who read my blog some new insights to special time in Ethiopia. This is at the time of the rule of the Derg and the PMC Chairman Lt. Gen Haile-Mariam Mengistu!

  1. November 1974:

The DERG executed 62 civilians, military detainees and hostages. Some of this people is the once that are involved in the top officials who are supposed to topple the PMC. One of the men who is supposed to executed are General Aman former Chairman of PMC, Also Prime Minister Endalkachew Makonnen, the Emperor’s grandson Admiral Desta. The one not on the list is the former Emperor Haile Selassie (WikiLeaks, 1974).

This happened because of an inner struggle for power between General Aman and Haile Miriam Mengistu, the last mention is the one that is suspected to inherit the title after General Aman. Amans strategy has been to collect his supporters and especially from his own area in Eritrea. Second part of it Pro-Monarchist has used Aman to stage a comeback. Third is too reduce the 120-man membership to 15 best educated junior officers, this to have a Junta especially made for General Aman. Fourth strategy is the disagreement over Eritrea. Where the PMC has stepped up the military actions and the PMC is not for a separate state as a solution and has sent reinforcement to secure the military situation. Fifth strategy for General Aman struggled because of his close ties to Haile Selassie. Haile Selassie is held at the Menilik Palace. Another press report is rumored that he will be executed (WikiLeaks, 1974).

Who is Haile Miriam Mengistu?

Was the official VC in the Provisional Military Commission (PMC), he is the chairman of the Armed Forces Coordinating Committee (AFCC). This has been in control since June in Ethiopia. HMM is an ordinance officer, a training officer of the 4th division in Addis Abeba (WikiLeaks, 1974).

The thing that is fearful for the American views of what is happening in Ethiopia. Soviet is trying to supplies and arms to the country (WikiLeaks, 1974).

25th November 1974:

This power struggle that happen on the 24th November happen a fight between Aman and the PMC. The foreign policy is still not certain. But first manifestation of this is the follow up on the Soviet offer of military equipment a few months ago (WikiLeaks, 1974).

30th January 1975 – Land Reform:

In a Land Reform seminar that was a two week this was opened at the National University (former Haile Selassie I University). There was 900 civilians, 400 military participants that was briefed by 28 expert lectures and 15 other military and civilian speakers. The experts and speakers spoke on topics of socialist programs and ‘administration of land and land reform’. PMAC Mengistu termed the participants “disciples of change”. Mengistu said that all of them carried the responsibility of building a greater Ethiopia. Minister of Land Reform Ato Zegeye Asfaw said: “Socialist Ethiopia will give land to the tiller and collective farms and communes will take care of the land and its utilization for the common good of the people” (WikiLeaks, 1975).

18th February 1975:

Heavy fighting has occurred in Asmara at the 18th. The attacks we’re concentrated on the Ethiopian Military Installation but also the American-Run Electricity generator in the other side of town (WikiLeaks, 1975).

There we’re two more demonstrations for Pro-Provisional Military Government in Addis Abeba that day. One was made out of war-veterans and the second one is in benefit of OAU, but both demonstrations was for the Ethiopian Unity. PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu hold a speech in from of the veterans – where the main focus was to keep Eritrea as a region in Ethiopia (WikiLeaks, 1975).

The PMG has announced to confiscate land from 7 former Ethiopian ambassadors this include Zewde Gebre Selassie, this is because of their rejecting to move back to Ethiopia. Zedwe has now been changed with Kifle Wodajo who now is the Ethiopian Ambassador to the US (WikiLeaks, 1975).

22nd July 1975:

On the 18th of July a three day delegation led by Louis Reyes, Cuban Ambassador to Iran and EPMG official has signed a joint communique for diplomatic relations. Reyes said: “the historic victory of the Ethiopian people can serve as an example to Africa and the rest of the World”. Maj Mengistu said: “there is a lot Ethiopia can benefit from your Cuban experience” (WikiLeaks, 1975).

2nd Octorber 1975:

There is friction between Chairman Teferi Bante, First Vice-Chairman Haile Miriam Mengistu and Second Vice-Chairman Lt. Col Atafu Abate. The second echelon Viz. Major Sisay Habate and Lt. Col Asrate Desta (WikiLeaks, 1975).

In the last year there been two major coup plots. The two main people against the government, first student development campaign from E.G. Major Kiros Alemayehu and the one in charge of media – Major Nadew Zekarias (WikiLeaks, 1975).

The Derg has struggled with price-control and minerals exploration (financial restraint).The government has been civilian administrative structure down to Woreda(county level). The civilian cabinet has been stable. Below the ministers is now permanent secretary (department manager) and vice-ministers (the same as assistant secretaries). The government is still not consulting the technical experts before public policy statements. They have even announced without checking with Urban Land Reform. Future policy decisions are for rural land reform, nationalization of banks and insurance agencies etc. Also getting less technicians in government to get consensus (Wikipedia, 1975).

22nd October 1975:

Addis has been tense the last three days after rumors of tension between Mengistu and Atenafu. This has threats to dissolve the military council and either both or one of them are arrested. The view the Derg shows the picture of unity to the public (WikiLeaks, 1975).

21st April 1976:

PMAC First Vice-Chairman Major Haile Miriam Mengistu had his first national speech on both Ethiopian radio and TV.

The main points of the speech was how the feudal system of both Menelik and Haile Selassie.

  • The imperialist has used various techniques infiltrating the system with missionaries, teachers, merchants and entrepreneurs, government advisers and experts.
  • The Ethiopian Revolution have accomplished the deposition of former emperor, declaration of socialism, nationalization of means of production and distribution like rural land, urban land and extra houses. A new labor law and formation of Peasant association.
  • Mengistu announced to the public that their scientifically working on making Ethiopia a People’s Democratic Republic.
  • New national democratic revolutionary program to liberate the people from imperialism, neo-colonialism and feudalism – grant democratic freedom to friends of the revolution…
  • Addressed the Eritrean problem and called them out as exiled aristocrats and foreign imperialist, only reactionary bandits there.
  • Mengistu also addressed people in the country side and progressive workers to form a United Front to work against Anti-Revolutionaries.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

22nd April 1976: Ethiopian revolution to continue:

Vice Chairman Mengistu has asked for continuing support for it, that authority from center to the provinces. Also still no recognition of the Eritrea which is a special case.

Important part of the programs:

The program is based on far-left militants and also on a Marxist model, and a Workers party is created, which is supreme and has to govern operation of the government. Also the focus on class struggles.

  • Public sector is to becoming bigger and private farms will get more government support.
  • Nationalization of both production and distribution with private incentives are enhanced.
  • Veterans are now offered financial, educational and health benefits.
  • Woman are mobilized for productive work and freed from limited roles that have been available for them.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

The Ethiopians problems will be tackled from the devolution from the center of main authority. The Eritrean problem is still not questioned in a special way, it’s seen as a provincial issue. The foreign policy of Ethiopia is remained unchanged (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th April 1976:

There been unauthorized demonstration that was followed by government warning against “progressive” that takes control over shops and private business. There been attempting of looting stores and shops near Addis Abeba, in Nazareth and Debra Zeit (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Because of this Mengistu has promised free speech and freedom to demonstrate. This led to unreasonable behavior from the public that has threatened the public order. Mengistu himself has said their promoting: “raising revolutionary consciousness of the masses”. The hope is that the Ethiopian Easter weekend which is a family and religious affair which will lead to more calm and less tension – which will last over the weekend (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th May 1976:

Megistu has had a MediVac to China on the 20th May. What Haile Mariam Mengistu is expected to have it can either be gastritis which can lead to stomach cancer; he could have a brain tumor and also hurt after a gun wound. The unscheduled flight from Bole Airport went at night 22:00 – where it was reported to leave for China. Lt. Col. Atnafu returned to Addis Abeba from Gojjam (WikiLeaks, 1976).

10th September 1976 – Condolences for Mao’s Death:

The Ethiopians sent messages of condolences to Wu The and Hua Kuo Feng. The leaders of the revolution are also being in the Chinese Embassy signing in the condolence book. The message from the leaders is setting Mao on the levels of Marx, Engels and Lenin (WikiLeaks, 1976).

24th September 1976 – Assassination attempt: 

Eyewitnesses tell that there were automatic weapons firing that happened near a football Stadium at 2025 from two civilian automobiles. One was moving west from the revolutionary square. They fired both in the air until they turned south past fourth division headquarters. The followed by an explosion and another further down the road a few minutes later. A dozen store windows broken after the shooting. Following the incidence the EPMG put up a road block in the intersection surrounding the area. All vehicles and passengers are being searched. The roadblocks were taken away the day after (WikiLeaks, 1976).

25th September 1976:

Heavy military control in Addis Abeba this morning after yesterday’s incidence. There has been big patrol activity after the attempted on Haile Miriam Mengistu the day before. Rumors have it that Mengistu has been injured in either leg or foot (WikiLeaks, 1976).

26th September 1976 a staged morning Workers-Rally:

Before the staged morning Workers-Rally there been an ambush on Haile Meriam Mengistu the 23th September. Which wounded him and this lead to Peasant Associations and urban dwellers to meet in the Revolution square in solidarity. It was a four hour event, which was hold tight by armed guards where the speakers spoke on the importance of keeping up the efforts of the revolution. Next troubled date for the PMC will be the 28th when schools reopen (WikiLeaks, 1976).

CIA involvement in Anti-Regime activity:

CIA is supposed to be supporting Placards and EPRP. News broadcast is saying: “EPRP is Cia”(…)”Away with CIA agents, disguised as tourist”(…)”paid CIA agents”(…)”Yankees go home”(…)”No more chills and CIA” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

29th September 1976:

Some rumors has been spread that it was a fake assassination attempt on Mengistu. This happening after the rally is to make him a hero. Also put restraints on the EPRP as a CIA front. There is issued more strikes. It will also be occurring more executions even though none of the would-be assassins. PMAC has gotten more support from the rallies and media this is from the peasants groups and workers. The reaction to it has put EPRP who has been seen as responsible for the attempt. Students might make trouble without the EPRP assistance. The violence of this last week might end up some calm this week (WikiLeaks, 1976).

29th September 1976:

Izvestiya reports also that there was an assassination attempt on PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu. Also, there was one important sign in one of the demonstrations in Addis: “bring CIA intrigues to an end” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Mengistu

3rd November 1976 – Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization (AAPS) Conference:

At the conference it was a total of 7,000 or 8,000 peaceful Ethiopian attendance mid-afternoon rally to support and also show solidarity to Southern Africa. Chairman Ato Tesfaye Tadesse who introduced AAPS Second General Yousef El-Sabat, Iraqi Deputy Secretary-General of AASP Nouri Abdel Razzak, Secretary General of ANC Alfred Nzo, Crypriot Dr. Vasses Lyssarides, Soviet Pressidum member Figret Tabeev, Angolan representative Dr. Olga Lina, Vietnamese representative Tran Hoai-Nam, Cuban delegate Ramos Claudis, Yemen representative Anis Hassen Yahya, West German Committee of Anti-Imperialists solidarity delegate  Peter Wal and Delegate of Western European Public Organization Conon Gor (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Main rhetoric from the conference is against racism, imperialism, oppression, praising the Ethiopian socialist revolution and hospitality. We’re they also was supporting complete liberation of Southern Africa. The Vietnamese, Angolan, Cuban and the ANC did not mention the US during the conference. While other made references to the economic ties between Southern Africa and the US. The delegates from abroad are set to establish legitimacy for the PMAC and Mengistu (WikiLeaks, 1976).

2nd May 1977 – TV interview of Haile Meriam Mengistu: 

He will be interviewed by French and Swedish journalists and will be aired on French TV. One of the main questions was related to the Expulsion of U.S. Official Personnel last week. Mengstu has answered to that U.S. agencies whose activities has been terminated and were in Ethiopian on the basis of old agreements with Haile Selassie. The revolution is now clearing out the leftovers from the imperial era (WikiLeaks, 1977).

17th May 1977:

Ethiopian-Vietnamese relations are strong, especially considering the wish from the Ethiopians of getting former U.S. Military equipment from the Vietnamese. There been secret visits from Ethiopian officials to Vietnam. There is not sure if the Vietnamese will support EPMG. A support with to the Ethiopians … they can complicate their relations with PRC and the US (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th May 1977:

Claude Cheysson from the EEC and was a part of a three person delegation to Addis Abeba the 18th -20th of May. PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu signed a 30 million Birr aid accord during the visit. This aid accord was based for a rural water development project. This aid accord is part of the already with 280 million birr that will be available for the government of Ethiopia. The EEC program mission was completed in the June of 1976. Then there was put aside 100 million birr. The Amibara agriculture development project which has a aid accord accordingly to be set for a 35 million birr. The EEC follows the guidelines of determines which projects that gets funding. Foreign Affairs minister Col. Dr. Felleke Gedle-Ghorghis: “the government gives priority to rural development. Particularly agriculture, which employs vast majority of the Ethiopian people” (…)” Multi-purpose package programs which provides support to small holder farms through extension, livestock and range development projects”. The projects will be mostly into a agricultural sector, either development with infrastructure like rural roads. Also projects that are about industrial development which is focused on the output of agricultural produce. 10 percent of all the development is going to other then national development but for projects for regional projects. This kind of projects is the once that are on the Lake Rudolph and the Omo to develop tourism (WikiLeaks, 1977).

29th May 1977 – Speech to the Naval College and Military academy gradution:

(This was happing at the Jubilee Palace – Former palace of the Emperor Haile Selassie).

Chairman Lt. Col. Haile Mariam Mengistu saying: “there will be no problem with regard to arms”. Further comments from the Soviet Union and that helped and “won high benefits” because of the Ethiopian revolution. Fear from “reactionary of neighboring areas”. Mengistu focused on the responsibilities to the motherland, secure national unity and also territorial integrity. He characterized American imperialism as an arch enemy and is now in league with reactionary Arab regimes. American imperialism he says: “by cutting its arms aid” (…)”now it’s time when we have to crush anti-revolutionary encirclement with unity and determination stronger then steel and hoist a new banner of victory at price of our blood”. On Djibouti want to forge a stronger relationship with: “neighboring reactionary forces” (…)”to withstand any and every step which might be contrary to national interests of Ethiopia in Djibouti” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

30th May 1977: Meeting with the Egyptian ambassador.  

The position of Ethiopia is that Mengistu is not strong, but if he can last until September, then he can be in a stronger position. PMAC Mengistu has to be effective with the use of the peasant army which is now in training. The peasant army will not be used in Bale-Ogaden region because of the Somali tribesman and the semi-desert where the army would be a disadvantage towards them. The result of the guerrilla war has hurt Ethiopian army and the Ethiopian situation in Bale-Ogaden has been bad for them. Some even describe it as a “bloodbath”. With this situation the civilian-military relationships in Addis could become tense. The Civilians might even use the peasant military army and Kebele Defense Forces to make a move against PMAC. Mengistu went on a two-day visit Libya after being in Moscow; this was to secure funding of Soviet War Material. This is to secure shipment of heavy weaponry from Libya to Ethiopia. Also a possibility for Cuban forces into Eritrea (WikiLeaks, 1977).

17th June 1977:

The East German Politburo member Werner Lamberz together with a two Foreign Affair deputy minister Willerding, Foreign trade deputy minister Clausnitzer, Deputy Planning Commission Chairman Dieter Albrecht and several other SED-Central Committee members. They are on a visit as a delegation from the 13th to the 17th in Addis Abeba (WikiLeaks, 1977).

This delegation has had lengthy discussion with PMAC Chairman Haile Mariam Mengistu and PMAC Second Gen. Capt. Fikre-Selassie Wogderess at both FONMIN and National Palace. Also the delegation went on a inspection tour of the Siga Meda military training (WikiLeaks, 1977).

The Soviet Union has made a EPMG a priority and until this date, been spending great funds on the banking on it and hoping for solidarity, some free advice and also high levels visits. On the negative side the Ethiopian put up a front to the Somali Ambassador during the 15th July. This hasn’t served the Soviet Block interests, and can only lead to more polarization between the Soviet clients in the Horn (WikiLeaks, 1977).

22nd June 1977:

On the OAU African Refugees day on the 20th June Haile Mariam Mengistu called upon the OAU members to ratify OAU convention on African Refugees. At the same time he urged Ethiopian refugees to return home without fear of retribution. Mengistu noted that there is special cases and need efforts in Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa (WikiLeaks, 1977).

UN High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR):

There been movement from Somalia and Ethiopia. Eritrean youth, one identified as Kidane Kibrom has stayed in Hargeisa and El Garis Ethiopian Refugee Camps where has for the last 14 months. Kibrom claims 118 Ethiopians has had a hunger-strike in the camps for lack of jobs and training. UNHCR is claiming that the funds they have put for the camp is being used for other purposes then the camp (WikiLeaks, 1977).

6th July 1977 – Mengistu on the Middle East:

Mengistu on the settlement on the Middle East question is that Israel should be recognized, but also a quick withdrawal of forces from the Arab territories since 1967. Also added the Palestinian people have a right to a homeland, but must be a peaceful means in a peaceful settlement (WikiLeaks, 1977).

7th July 1977 – OAU statements: 

Lt. Col Haile Mariam Mengistu was not interested in the interference from Somalia and Sudan on Ethiopian affairs. Mengistu was committed to “special committee” on the problems between Sudan and Ethiopia. This will solve the matter in a way Ethiopia sees fit. Like on the Eritrean question: the position they have is that Sudan wants to assure them independence. Mengistu met with 5 of 9 states in the committee to discredit by most OAU. Mengistu did say at the summit that there was a difference between Sudan and Somalia as problem makers. The Somalian view on rule of law is a total disgrace and has a long standing territorial claim. Where the Ethiopian issue with Sudan is more of a Sudanese leaders where they undermine the Ethiopian unity and territorial integrity (WikiLeaks, 1977).

15th July 1977;

On the 14th of July there has been report of movements from the Ethiopian army. The reports are saying that the army has left the base of Tatek Meda Training base going to Eritrea and Ogaden. The number of army personnel is 83 bus loads of militia bound for Assab. EPMG is reported to reverse the actions in Northern Eritrea, but its most likely to be sent to Massawa. A small contingent of regular army has been sent to Asmara from Jimma in the Southwest Ethiopia. There are even reports of more army movements. The numbers of movement is 16 planeloads (some of them was aircrafts including some 720 BS), even militias are planned to be moved to Dire Dawa. Most of the bridges and highways to Dire Dawa are out of order. Therefore the trainload of 25 cars apparently left Addis Abeba but they will not come whole way directly to the destination of Dire Dawa. They have to hike the rest of the way when the rails are done (WikiLeaks, 1977).

19th July 1977:

Mengistu called in the French Ambassador after seeing the ambassadors from east European countries in Addis Abeba. In this meeting with the eastern European ambassadors he told about the bad situation in Eritrea with the fall of cities of Keren and Decamere. He even complained about the aid the Soviets did not give to Ethiopia. Mengistu also claimed that Somalia Army Units has crossed over the border into the Ogaden. The French ambassador considered the war already had begun. The Romanian Ambassador added that Mengistu had said “Opposition-Controlled the territory including the Omo-Valley and the city of Beica 50 kilometers from the Sudanese border”. Mengistu also claimed that the Eritrean “liberation forces” has gained triple strength because of support from Sudan and Saudi Arabia (WikiLeaks, 1977).

23rd July 1977:

The issues that Djibouti has by the border to Ethiopia are making a lot of trouble. From Sudan has given a non-flight and also no overflight rights for any Ethiopian Registered Aircraft (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Further PMC Lt. Col Haile Mariam Mengistu has received at Grand Palace Issa representative who has described the Somalia attacks as “calculated criminal act on the part of Mogadishu regime”. The Patriotic Media is telling victories stories of Ethiopian revolution and the continued call for voluntary contribution to the campaign (WikiLeaks, 1977).

There seems to sabotage on the Addis Abeba to Djibouti railway. After the Somalian Mogadishu based government has sent infiltrators to blow up bridges along the railway. Though the Sudanese doesn’t seem eager to comply to Mengistu accusation of closing the airspace (WikiLeaks, 1977) .

Issa representative comments: “acts of provocation for the consequence, of which Ethiopia should not be held responsible, reactionary regimes of Sudan and Somalia fully responsible for the deterioration of peace and security in Eastern Horn of Africa” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

From the 25 of June 1977: the final stages of military training of the People’s Militia to fight against the Western-Somali Liberation Front. The Ethiopian People’s Militia fights for peace and stability on the African horn. On the 25th of June the military contribution gets a one-month salary over the one year campaign (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th July 1977:

PMAC Haile-Mariam Mengistu has from the 23th of July coordinated the Armed Forces and People’s Militia. The Headquarters are set in Harar for the fighting in Eastern Ethiopia and in the northern Ethiopia are located in Asmara. Because of this there was appointed 3 new Joint Commands and 4 new division commanders (WikiLeaks, 1977).

5th August 1977: U.S. Arms assistance to Somalia:

PMC Haile Mariam Mengistu is not happy with the arms supply of Somalia which is seen as a foreign threat. Mengistu stated that the U.S. relationship had with previous government – described as a close cooperation in economic and defense. He had no intention of criticizing the US Government. US failure takes seriousness of Ethiopian security. In Emperors time with Sudan Government used Socialist arms from USSR and China to support secessionist movements in the North. Somalia was amassing arms from the USSR, they have 300 tanks. When Ethiopia asked for help from US Government they got empty handed. Ethiopian has reserved and has no actions towards US. What damaged Ethiopian image was the example of Spencer and Levine who helped Anti-Revolutionary feudalists to flee to Sudan and supplying them with American arms. Mengistu said that EPMG can no longer rely on US supplies. This is to protect independence and national integrity and will look elsewhere for arms. Ethiopia sees this to keep territorial integrity and fear of aggression from its neighbors that the US Government now supports (WikiLeaks, 1977).

8th August 1977:

Former Ethiopian Foreign Minister Kifle Wodajo together with ex-minister Gedamu Tesfare thinks that the west is judging Soviets possibilities to settle the differences between Somalia and Ethiopia. What is important for Mengistu is the power and not Ethiopian nationalism, even with the growing pressure from the Soviet. Even the agents within the Revolutionary Council are partly open to give up parts of the Ogaden. Somalia claims to a larger area then only Ogaden. The set up will be to give the most of of the Ogaden. Kifle believes that the Soviet can on the contrary to the western believe that the war between Somalia and Ethiopian can be solved to Soviets advantages. Even the regimes terror tactics is silences the public (WikiLeaks, 1977).

9th August 1977:

Moscow is seeking to save the Pro-Soviet regime of Lt.Col. Haile Meriam Mengistu from being overthrown or collapsing, especially with last military defeats like the ones in the Northern Province of Eritrea and the disputed region of Ogaden along with the Somalian border. There is a claim is that the Soviet has a deal in order for both Somalia and Ethiopia. This deal will give the most of Ogaden to the Somalia but the significant towns of Harrar and Dire Dawa gets to stay Ethiopian. There has been reaction on the issue from the Somalia President Mohamed Siad Barre. Instead it seems more like the Western Somalia Liberation is supported by the Somalian Government. On next Thursday there will be a special mediating committee of 10 African countries in Libreville, Gabon, where delegation from both Somalia and Ethiopia. Spokesman from Western Somalia Liberation Front says: “we do not expect any pressure and even if they do this, we will not accept it” (…)”out lands extends up to the Awash river and we are not going to compromise. We are going to take back all of our land” (…)”under no circumstances can we stop before taking Harrar and Dire Dawa” (…)”today that Somali territorial claims covered all of the Ethiopia’s four southeastern provinces of Bale, Sidamo, Arrusi and Harrarghe and are not limited to Ogaden region itself”. The disputed area of the Somalia and Ethiopia is 1/3 of the land mass Ethiopia and the equivalent of half of Somalia. The issue that Soviet has that they want to continue two have to Marxist states and not lose either. And with the nationalism in both countries it will be a feat to keep Mengistu in power when losing all that land. Ethiopia claims that Somalia has gone in will full-scale invasion from regular Somali Army Units. The Somalian Government denies this but says that the Front’s army is 30,000-man guerrilla. At the same time the goals and claims of territory from Somalia is the same from both government and the guerrillas (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th August 1977:

Chairman Lt. Col Mengistu said during a patriotic rally on 24th August. That Ethiopian revolution is supposed to bring equality, justice, democracy and a classless society. Mengistu was also addressing certain groups as masquerading as progressive but in reality is “anti-people” the groups is expected to be EPRP and EDU. Also he was direct on the Eritrean secessionist which he called aristocratic and ex-patriotic control over Eritrean production. External enemies are set to be Bare and Somalis (WikiLeaks, 1977).

29th August 1977:

Outtake from the Ethiopian Herald August 28th:

“It sad commentary that even USA which championed Ethiopia’s rights in 1935, has today betrayed its own cardinal principles, and reward aggression by refusing to deliver weapons bought by Ethiopia for it own defence. Such attitudes will only add fuel to the flame and disturb international peace and security. Indeed it is an unwise act from so great a height” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

If the US Government wishes to have a normalized bilateral relationship with the Ethiopian government, then it has to become a link between two. Especially with Ethiopian sending a ambassador they intend to send to Washington (WikiLeaks, 1977).

31th August 1977:

There have recently been small insurgencies from Somalia in Ogaden region. Ogaden region is in flames. Policies been announced on the 10th and 17th from the State Department Spokesman. The ambassador (the U.S.) is refraining from supplying arms to Somalia. Further on thinks the ambassador that the U.S. government should not take sides in this dispute between Ethiopia and Somalia. Berhanu Bayeh says that the immediate concern is that US Weapon and spare parts. The holdings of arms have been occurring during the last ten years. Because of that the people of Ogaden has suffered because of this. The Ethiopian Army has gone after the invaders, but has issues with having equipment. Now lacking the defensive arms that Ethiopian army gotten earlier from the US Government. Mengistu wasn’t in the way of ordering new shipments of arms. This was more honoring older contracts and sending both ammo and spare parts to the Ethiopian Army. Also, that the arms would be delivered and resumed immediately (WikiLeaks, 1977).

There has been official Ethiopian Ambassador in Washington, USA. This is since 10. February 1975 (WikiLeaks, 1977).

19th September 1977:

There been rotations and new appointments in the government there is 32 who are both civilian and military that are changing positions. This is three ministers, an Armed Force Chief, Air Force Commander and 16 Ambassador-designated (WikiLeaks, 1977).

4th October 1977:

The Nigerian Federal Commissioner for Internal Affairs Alhaji Umaru Shinkafi was in Addis Abeba the 3rd October. The Nigerian President Gen Olusegun Obasanjo sent a special message to PMAC Haile Mariam Mengistu. In that message it was details on his mission to establish normal relations between Somalia and Ethiopia. Make sure that they follow the good progress for the meetings in Gabon in August and follow up these. Still with these negotiations happening there is still heavy fighting in the Ogaden. Ethiopia will like the Nigerian efforts both for Inter-African but also on an international perspective (WikiLeaks, 1977).

31st October 1977:

Cuban Foreign Minister Malmierca is reporting that Mengistu will shortly take a trip to Cuba to meet Castro. This will escalate the presence of Cubans in Ethiopia and might make a difference in the friendship between the nations. This visit from Mengistu might not deliver any change to the relationship if the comments from US Policy Advisor Alfredo Ramirez Otero. Even Castro doesn’t have a specialty for Africa in any way politicially. The Cubans has already a tiny presence in 300 “teachers”. There is a big possibility that the Cubans have forces fighting the Somalian for the Ethiopians. The Cubans want to have talks between the Government of Somalia and the Government of Ethiopia. It is accepted that the Soviet and Cubans have told Mengistu has to show moderation towards the US. The Cubans are opposing the struggle against the Ogaden and the Eritrean. Malmierca has said “that the Ethiopian and Somalian should get into some talks” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

25th November 1977:

The Ethiopian Foreign Minister Felleke Gedle-Ghiogis will be in Sierra Leone for a OAU Ethio-Sudan Committee meeting (WikiLeaks, 1977).

28th November 1977 – Italian Communist Party visit Addis:

The Italian Communist Party has favored the Ethiopia over Somalia. Italian Communist leader Giancarlo Pajetta a MP in Italy has visited Ethiopia. The plan was made by Berlinguer and a Derg Representative. It was on the 60th Anniversary celebration in early November in Moscow. The Italian Communist Party has been unsure about the Ogaden war and the Ethiopian Revolution. The Italians have traditionally supported the Somalia’s and the road to Socialism and the alliance with Moscow. Because of the visit they now show their full support of Ethiopians. Pajetta feels the PMC Mengistu devotion to the world communist cause. The Italians has tried to get the Ethiopians to have talks with the Somalis. The Ethiopians will not discuss anything with them until the forces from Somalia are out of the territory. Pajetta had hope that the friendship with Ethiopia would open it up talks. The visit of Pajetta most important effect is that the PMC will have the Moscow support of EPMG and also support the Eritrean liberation force PLF. They want to give them autonomy from Addis. There have also been no words that Pajetta also went to Mogadishu (WikiLeaks, 1977).

14th December 1977:

Haile Mariam Mengistu told two U.S. congressmen: “it is not our objective to cross our borders once we have thrown the Somalis out of Ethiopia. We intend to repeat the same mistake as the Somalis”. Mengistu stated further: “Policy of non-aligment” (…)”Peace, equality and social justice” (…)”A struggle is going on at every level between those who would like to see the old reinstituted and those who are determined to protect the revolution” (…)”intent and the objective of the revolution have been remain the restoration of Human Rights to the greatest majority of the Ethiopian people”. Representative Bonk from the congress is hoping for a peaceful solution in the Ogaden region, the Chairman of the PMC Mengistu said it wasn’t necessary to involve the OAU in the conflict (WikiLeaks, 1977).

24th December 1977:

Said Barre went on a visit to Madagascar where he hold a speech at the international airport in Antananarivo where the message was “Other party (Ethiopia)” should also come to Madagascar. Barre said the talks with the Madagascar government officials where he said: “the great questions of today notably concerning eastern Africa, the Somali-Ethiopian conflict, Somali-Malagasy relation” (WikiLeaks, 1977).

Hope this have given you some insights and been inspiring!

Peace!

Links:

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIA AND CUBA ESTABLISH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS’ (22.07.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS08717_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SHAKE-UP IN TOP MILITARY COMMAND STRUCTURE’ (25.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04505_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NEW HIGH-LEVEL CIVILIAN AND MILITARY APPOINTMENTS’ (19.09.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05529_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘LAND REFORM SEMINAR OPENS IN ADDIS ABABA’ (30.01.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS01173_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘REPORTS OF MILITIA MOVEMENTS TO COMBAT AREAS’ (15.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04332_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NIGERIAN EFFORT TO MEDIATE HORN CONFLICT’ (04.10.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05786_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PROPOSED ITINERARY FOR VISIT TO THE HORN: ETHIOPIA’ (25.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06574_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF SOMALI PRESIDENT TO MADAGASCAR;’ (24.12.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ANTANA02363_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN REACTION TO MAO DEATH’ (10.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10196_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SOVIET PRESS SUMMARY – SEPT 29’ (29.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976MOSCOW15363_b.html

WikiLeaks –‘SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AS OF 1500 HOURS (EST) FEB. 19, 1975’ (19.02.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975STATE036564_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VIETNAM MESSAGE OF SUPPORT FOR ETHIOPIA’ (17.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03091_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONVERSATION WITH EGYPTIAN AMBASSADOR’ (30.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03366_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘EAST GERMAN PARTY-GOVERNMENT DELEGATION VISIT TO ETHIOPIA’ (17.06.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03805_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS DENIES’ (09.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977STATE187303_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF EEC REPRESENTATIVE – CLAUDE CHEYSSON’ (26.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03305_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ENCIRCLEMENT CONSPIRACY CONDEMNED AS DEFENSE CAMPAIGN PREPARATIONS CONTINUE’ (23.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03917_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘FRENCH AMBASSADOR IN ADDIS ON MENGITSU BRIEFING’ (19.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977MOSCOW10403_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘THE HORN AS SEEN BY FORMER ETHIOPIAN OFFICIAL’ (08.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977PARIS22990_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘VISIT OF HIGH-LEVEL ETHIOPIAN DELEGATION’ (31.10.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977HAVANA00485_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘TENSIONS AGAIN PEAKING IN THE DIRG?’ (22.04.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS12499_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘SITUATION IN ADDIS’ (24.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04909_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘AFTERMATH OF SEPT 26 RALLY’ (29.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10614_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ITALIAN COMMUNIST PARTY DELEGATION AFFIRMS SUPPORT OF ETHIOPIAN SOCIALIST REVOLUTION’ (28.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06603_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘INR/AF ASSESSMENT OF ETHIOPIAN SITUATION’ (25.11.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974STATE259383_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN POSITION ON MIDDLE EAST SETTLEMENT’ (06.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04154_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘WOUNDED VICE CHAIRMAN GIVES PRESS CONERENCE’ (25.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10518_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ETHIOPIAN VIEWS ON REFUGEES’ (22.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03887_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC FIRST VICE CHAIRMAN ADDRESSES THE NATION/ SUMMARY’ (21.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04821_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MEETING WITH MENGISTU’ (29.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05172_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC CHAIRMAN MENGISTU SPEAKS MIND’ (25.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05132_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘AAPSO MASS RALLY AND DELEGATE MEETINGS WITH PMAC FIRST VICE-CHAIRMAN , MAJOR MENGISTU’ (03.11.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS11444_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘IS FIRST VICE-CHAIRMAN MENGISTU ILL?’ (24.05.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS06257_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MEETING WITH MENGISTU’ (31.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS05227_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘REPORTED ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON MENGISTU’ (24.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10506_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MENGISTU SPEECH AND PROPOSALS AT OAU SUMMIT’ (07.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04183_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CHAIRMAN’S SPEECH AT NAVAL COLLEGE AND MILITARY ACADEMY GRADUATION’ (01.06.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS03435_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC CHAIRMAN PROTESTS US ARMS ASSISTANCE TO SOMALIA’ (05.08.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS04752_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PRESS RELEASE OF CODEL TSONGAS/BONKER FOLLOWING’ (14.12.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS06851_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘MENGISTU’S TV INTERVIEW’ (02.05.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977ADDIS02738_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘ANTI-CIA PLACARDS AGAIN EVIDENT DURING EPMG-STAGED SOLIDARITY RALLY’ (27.09.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS10527_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PMAC’S NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONARY PROGRAM: EMBASSY’S INITIAL COMMENTS’ (22.04.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976ADDIS04881_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CONG. TESTIMONY: AF CONTRIBUTION TO Q AND A’S’ (28.11.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974STATE262329_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘THE DIRG AND THE GOVERNMENT’ (02.10.1975) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1975ADDIS11773_b.html

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