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Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea welcomes strong resolution on HR in Eritrea (04.07.2016)

IsaiasAfwerki

NEW YORK, United States of America, July 4, 2016 The Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea welcomes resolution 32/24, which passed without a vote on Friday, 1 July during the thirty-second session of the Human Rights Council.

Resolution 32/24 commends the Commission for completing its work in a transparent, impartial and consultative manner, while regretting the lack of cooperation by the Government of Eritrea, including the denial of access to the country by the Commission.
Mike Smith, Chairperson of the Commission, said: “The Commission welcomes this Resolution which fully endorses the work we have done over the past two years. We hope that justice for the people of Eritrea who have suffered gross human rights violations over the past 25 years has now taken a step closer to being realised.”

Amongst the 19 recommendations, Resolution 32/24 reiterates the Human Rights Council’s numerous calls upon the Government of Eritrea to end the use of arbitrary detention, to put an end to the system of indefinite national service and to allow unhindered access to the country to further missions of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, including the consideration for the Office to be based inside the country.

The Commission hopes that Resolution 32/24 will provide a solid platform for the next steps to be taken by the Government of Eritrea, in partnership with the international community, and will bring justice for the Eritrean people.

The Commission also welcomes the transmission of all reports to all relevant organs of the United Nations for consideration and appropriate action.

The strong encouragement for the African Union to follow up on the report and recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry by establishing an investigation, supported by the international community, with a view to examining and bringing to justice those responsible for violations and abuses of human rights identified by the commission of inquiry, including any that may amount to a crime against humanity is also welcomed.

The Commission of Inquiry strongly endorses the decision to extend the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Eritrea for a further year.

The Commission of Inquiry is scheduled to present an oral update to the General Assembly in October 2016.

The Blame Game: Eritrea cries foul, while Ethiopia is silent; my judgement on the 12th June skirmishes and claims.

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While the Government Spokesman of Ethiopia Getachew Reda have claimed that the first shot on the border came from Eritrean forces and claimed they we’re at fault for the military operations on the 12th June 2016. This happens while the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs claim it was the TLPF that was attacking the Eritrean border forces around the Tsorona Front.

With this in mind, it is not easy when these are sending conflicting information and also using all tactics to address each other internal misgivings. Just like the recent Human Rights Violation in the United Nations Reports from the Group of Experts in June 2016. While the Eritrean are claiming the internal oppression of the Omoro people and the killing of demonstrators; also silencing of media; the issue is that both nations have their blames and violations. The Ethiopian ruling party has total control and military control of the nation, the media is controlled and bloggers are detained for questioning the government, the Omoro demonstrations are hunted down and shut down with military forces. So the Ethiopian Government is far from innocent in their internal bravery.

IsaiasAfwerki

But the Eritrean are nicknamed the “African North Korea” for a reason, all control is in the hands of the President Isias Afewerki, as the UN reports claim is that there is unlimited subscription to the army, slavery, rape and misuse of the citizens from the government officials, as the centralized power is all in the name of the president as he has control of the economy as the national budget is never released and the control of the money running of Eritrea as all under control of Afeweki. UN Report 2016 Eritrea this blog or article explains the matters of how I see on the report on the Human Rights Violations.

With all of this in mind, with the knowledge of the current affairs, and the escalation and worry of new conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, as the fellow nations has been in war before. Eritreans are the ones really blasting Ethiopia in international media and defending their ways of government, as they are blaming Ethiopia even for making the accusations that are made by the experts in the recent report. That proves the level of animosity from Eritrean government towards Addis Ababa, as they might feel left alone in Asmara.

While the Ethiopian in the 12 June military operations claimed the aggression was directed from the Eritreans. After that the Eritreans claimed it was the Ethiopians… so there are a limbo and uncertainty, especially since none of these governments are really open to the media or having press freedom in either nation; while the assurance of the reality on the ground and the intelligence is unsure as they both are secretive from the beginning.

Time Restoring Hope 1993

None of these nations are perfect, no nation in this world is, but both nations have scruples and has issues with tampering with human rights violations of different levels, they both have different supporters and allies that need the armies or alliances to mend on other issues either on the African Horn, like the Ethiopian who has soldiers in the AMISOM and other Peacekeeping missions and are an ally of the United States and their AFCON, surely as they pulled more armies from Africa after the failed “Black Hawk Down” in Mogadishu and with that in mind then President Bill Clinton pulled the army of around 1100 soldiers in 1993 from the Horn of Africa. And have been for long a steady military ally against terrorism in the region and also a place where the Americans have had military bases, as recently closed the United States Air Force base at Arba Minch in January 2016.

Hailemariam Desalegn Ethiopia

The certainty and clarity is not here in this matter, as there are many undisclosed reports, as the battlefield are kept for the armies and the media are not free in neither Ethiopia or Eritrea, as the stages are set for propaganda from both parties, as the ones who are speaking free on their blogs in for instance in Ethiopia ends behind bars. While the Eritrean are the best news from diaspora who have trusted messengers through online forums, as the silence and fear of detaining or slavery work for questioning the regime, therefore the amount of people going into exile from Eritrea.

So with this knowledge the battle of 12th June 2016 can only be discussed and knowingly gain the needed intelligence when the men on the ground can speak freely and address thoroughly. If not they are realizing footage or pictures of the activity, while also proving the validity of the battlefield. As there will always from a warzone and skirmishes even be false statements, even wrong estimates and the reality will come closer, if not juked to fix the stages for either Eritrea or Ethiopia, as both need a straight face towards their citizens and their international allies and community.  As there reports of UAE and Yemen supporting the Eritrea, while Western nations as United States and others are supporting Ethiopia; but that is in general and their obligations world-wide and in military operations, as IGAD and others.

Therefore I cannot say who did what, as the implications of who did what is not certain. The Eritreans are the ones that beating the drum the most in international media, as they want to silence the UN report on Human Rights Violations. While the Ethiopian is easily getting the world to forget the violations against the Omoro demonstrations and Omoro Liberation Front (OLF); with these in mind, these skirmish or military operations just happen when the Eritreans wanted the world to forget the slavery and other accusations and the same with the killings of demonstrators from the Ethiopian regime. What we will not certainly know as these are actions and activity, kept behind sound minds in the central governments in authoritarian regimes who are militarized and not democratic. So the knowledge we will get is indications, but not the actual facts, as the numbers will be spoilt to make Ethiopia or Eritrea bad, the rhetoric will clearly defacing the other by all means. Though the response have been the clearest from Eritrea and accusations the loudest, that does not make it true, if it was so, then the screaming Donald Trump would be wisest politician ever; Ethiopia have another approach and more subtle, though countering the Eritrean, as they also claimed was the reason for the 12th June 2016 skirmishes.

Eritrea Ethiopia Clash

That there been rumors of a plot of taking down President Isias Afeweki of Eritrea, nothing is yet certain about that either, as the “rumored plot” have come in the waters from a unnamed source inside the military intelligence of the Ethiopian hierarchy, and for the moment it is hearsay, but the Eritrean are paranoid; so they do what they can to sell it to the world and those stories are better to sell then slavery and unlimited military subscription of their youth and citizens.

So what I said with many words, nothing is clear, there aren’t enough transparency or accountability to take a true stance, the only thing certain, is that there are taken some shots and that the armies did attack each other, too what extent is not easy to say; as the spokesmen and ambassadors are not talking about that, I am sure that is confidential at both parties. What is surely the fact is that there are fallen men and reported men taken by both armies. That Eritrea has taken Ethiopian men’s life and Ethiopian has taken Eritrean men’s life. Peace.

UN report on Eritrean Gov. oppressive behavior towards its Citizens and its Systematic Evidence of Human Rights Violations!

IsaiasAfwerki

“Eritrea will wait three or four decades, maybe more, before it holds elections. Who knows?”President Isaias Afwerki

As you read the quotes from the UN Human Rights Council on Eritrea, the amount of paperwork and people involved in the report, there we’re alone 44,000 submissions and also interviews from the Eritrean diaspora in Europe and United States. Just as the report says: “the Commission received 44,267 submissions from 39 countries. Of these, 30,517 arrived by mail and 13,750 by email. The submissions were mostly in Tigrinya and English but a sizeable number were in Arabic” (UN HRC, P: 11, 2016). So there are lots of material and an edge to the evidence in the report, it is not hearsay when those amounts of people are describing certain situations and the state of affairs in a country. I will take out what I see as most interesting findings in this report. As I am sure I am not alone in discussing the findings.

Why the information came from the Diaspora and not inside Eritrea:

“The Commission recalls that it has repeatedly sought permission from the Government of Eritrea to visit the country. The Government of Eritrea has failed to respond despite calls by the Human Rights Council to cooperate with the Commission of Inquiry. The Commission was nonetheless able to interview Eritreans in 13 countries with significant Eritrean populations” (UN HRC, P: 13, 2016).

Financial transparency:

Eritrea is one of the least developed countries in the world, and most of the country’s economic enterprises are state controlled” (…)”As Eritrea does not publish a budget, it remains to be seen whether this substantial new income will be used to enhance implementation of social, economic and cultural rights in the country” (UN HRC, P: 17, 2016). “With respect to sources of Government income, the source added “that is a mystery. Money is deposited at the National Bank. The Ministry of Finance does not know where the money comes from. Only the President knows.” (UN HRC, P: 37, 2016). “For example, witnesses told the Commission that a bank account with 40 million USD in mining revenue had been opened in Qatar in the name of the Director of the PFDJ Economic Affairs department” (…)”Other information suggests that there may be private accounts belonging to the president or members of his inner circle in the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Cyprus, and /or China” (UN HRC, P: 38, 2016).

Eritrea 25yrs

Freedom of Speech and the independence of the Media:

On Freedom of Speech and Media: “…since the media is Government-owned, you clearly are not supposed to cover anti-government issues. If interviewees say something anti-governmental, you listen but do not use it in your broadcast. A lot of items you didn’t broadcast. At first the bosses told me not to use such material, and then there’s self-censorship.” (UN HCR, P: 34, 2016). “Restrictions on freedom of speech are not limited to just those physically in Eritrea. A witness in Ethiopia told the Commission that after he had participated in a demonstration in Addis Ababa in late June 2015 in support of the Commission’s first report, his mother was arrested in Eritrea” (UN HRC, P: 35, 2016).

On Religious Freedom:

Government control of authorised religious groups also persists. The Government of Eritrea continues to detain under house arrest Orthodox Patriarch Abune Antonio, who was arrested over ten years ago for calling for the release of political prisoners and failing to excommunicate church members opposed to the Government” (UN HCR, P: 30, 2016).

On future Elections:

President Isaias Afwerki has regularly expressed his disdain for what he refers to as “western-style” democracy. In a 2008 interview with Al Jazeera, for example, the President stated that “Eritrea will wait three or four decades, maybe more, before it holds elections. Who knows?” The Eritrean delegation to the 2014 Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review stated that national elections would not be held until “the threats to national security and sovereignty had been eliminated” (UN HRC, P: 19, 2016).

asmara

Rule of Law:

“Although low level community courts exist, most Eritreans interviewed immediately dismissed any suggestion that they could file a complaint for a rights violation. There was a palpable resignation among people towards the endemic injustices in Eritrea, as well as a fear of re-victimisation. In the absence of a constitution, an independent judiciary, a national assembly, and other democratic institutions, the Commission has found no progress in establishing the rule of law” (UN HCR, P: 20, 2016). The Cost of freedom from detention: “Witnesses cited costs of avoiding imprisonment ranging from 50,000 Nakfa to 2,000, 000 Nakfa, as well as confiscation of property, including homes, suggesting that the assessment of “fines” may depend on the wealth of the family” (UN HRC; P: 40, 2016).

Military Service:

“On the issue of duration of military/national service, a witness who was conscripted in 2003 and remained in national service until he fled Eritrea in 2015 stated that: “…the national service is still for an indefinite period; in fact when I joined the national service I was never informed as to when I was going to be released from service. The Government has not announced that it will reduce the service period to 18 months; it is still indefinite and we are all very aware of this.” (UN HRC, P: 22, 2016). “According to an expert on Eritrea, those discharged from national service remain in the People’s Army or militia or “reserve army” after their discharge, and must be available at any time the Government chooses to call them. Thus, most cannot qualify for Eritrean exit visas, and those who opt to leave without such a visa remain liable for the crime of “desertion.” (UN HRC, P: 22, 2016).

Military Equipment Eritrea

Using Military Service as a Working force for the state:

“According to one witness, “the Generals receive salaries, but also receive income from agriculture [and other commodities] that is not accounted for. Production costs are low because they use free conscript labour. This income is not disclosed to the Ministry of Defence. The President knows about this but does not interfere” (UN HRC, P: 41, 2016).

““Air Force planes are outdated and there is no proper maintenance. So, the Air Force has shifted to plantation activities. For example, there was a piece of land near the airport… [The Chief of the Air Force] took that land for plantations. [He] would bring almost three quarters of Air Force conscripts to work on the plantations, and the equipment used on the plantation comes from the Air Force and Ministry of Agriculture. It was very hot on the plantations. [Conscripts] were not paid any money for this work. They were told it is part of our duties. If they refused to work there, they would be sent to the [nearby detention facility].” (UN HRC, P: 23, 2016).

Eritrea Army

Generals are handpicking woman who are on subscription to be their “Wife’s” and solitary responsibility to please the General: “One day, …a female soldier…from my unit was…assigned to General […] to prepare food and do cleaning; it was also made clear to her that she [was] supposed to please [the General] in bed whenever he wanted. […] She provided this service to [the General] for many years. [Three years after it started], she got pregnant [from] him and gave birth to a baby girl… She told me that she did not do this voluntarily but [because] she was afraid. She said she was not allowed to leave the house and sometimes she was locked up.” (UN HRC, P: 58, 2016). A former female trainee in Sawa, who described the situation of these young women stated that “[t]hey are their personal slave.” Another female military trainee reported a typical day to her friend: “Dreadful life starts in the morning: I prepare his breakfast, wash his clothes, prepare lunch, prepare coffee ceremony, prepare dinner, and then prepare to be ‘his wife’. I have had this life for the last six years.” And more from the Sawa: “We watched sexual abuses. Systematically, they forced girls to obey their instructions; to have a relationship with them. If she doesn’t obey, they find any kind of military punishment. It is commonly the [d]ivision leaders, the highest ranks who would do that. All people would go back to their [d]ivision at the end of the day. The leaders select girls personally. After six months, he would change her, take a newly arrived. The 11th grade students…have to pass their last year’s exam in Sawa. They take them. Once a woman is assigned to a General, they stay there [to] do office work, chores, etc. ‘there is no rule, no law.’ Sometimes when the girls see the car of the General approaching they hide. What if they become pregnant? […] When it happens, they make abortion traditionally. The girl doesn’t even want to let the colonel know. One of my best friends was a ‘personnel’ of the Colonel. He told me that the nick name used to get a girl is ‘goat’. Sometimes when newcomers arrive they asked assistants to bring new ones.” (UN HRC, P: 56-57).

Another said that “in 2014, there was military training. I was sick and even had papers certifying that I was sick. But they didn’t believe me and I was [detained] for six months without due process.” (UN HRC, P: 23, 2016).

What the Government says about the Military Service and their work:

“Indeed, Presidential Advisor Yemane Gebreab himself has stated that: “the challenge for us is to be able to find jobs, skills, training, and business opportunities for [conscripts] when they are released,”100 suggesting that prolonged military/national service is not, or is no longer, motivated primarily by national security concerns” (UN HRC, P: 24, 2016).

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Shoot-To-Kill Policy:

The Commission received credible evidence that a shoot-to-kill policy was issued and that it has not been rescinded. The writers denying the existence of a shoot-to-kill policy did not explain the basis on which they concluded that such a policy does not exist. Very few, for example, said that they had passed through a border without interference or without the assistance of smugglers. The Commission is aware that the policy has been implemented in a less rigorous manner in recent years” (UN HRC, P: 15, 2016). “An example of extrajudicial killing reportedly took place on 3 April 2016, as military/national service conscripts were being transported through the city centre of Asmara. When several conscripts tried to jump from the trucks, soldiers reportedly fired into the crowd, killing and injuring a considerable but unconfirmed number of conscripts and bystanders” (UN HRC, P: 32, 2016). A witness said this: ““In September 2015, the battalion commander told me if anyone attempts to cross the border to Ethiopia just shoot at them. He told us to shoot people down if we see them crossing. I couldn’t ask about this order because I would have been killed or jailed; I had to implement it. If you don’t implement it you won’t be seen again. I know 3 soldiers who spent 20 years in service. They told me I had to implement the order.” (UN HRC, P: 33, 2016).

This happen to some of fleeing Eritreans:

On May 22 2016, Sudan collectively expelled 313 Eritreans back to Eritrea. Another 129 were similarly sent back from Sudan several days earlier. According to UNHCR, the prior to the forcible returns, the Eritreans had been tried and convicted in Sudanese courts of “illegal entry” into Sudan. According to corroborated reports by unrelated witnesses, in the days prior to the expulsions, Eritrean authorities visited Eritreans in a Sudanese prison to register the identities of those to be returned. The witnesses also reported that upon arrival in Eritrea, the returnees were arrested and detained. They further indicated that those who were in the national service, prior to leaving the country, were detained at Adi Abeito prison on the outskirts of Asmara, and that those who had not yet undergone military training are currently detained elsewhere, including in Tessenei and Hashferay, apparently awaiting transfer to military training centres” (UN HRC, P: 25, 2016).

asmara

Afterthought:

There is so much evidence that come into a 94 page UN report; this one shows so much of it, I have focused on the witness reports and their testimonies, as this is Eritrean citizens who have fled the regime in haste to Europe or America. There even some men and woman who are creating issues for their families left behind.

The Eritrean state is all controlled around the President Isaias Afwerki, as he knows all about the finances, state media and the military. The Military or the Army is both “free working force” as the extensive breaches human rights and committed to keep away the state from lawful activities, as the Generals and Army Officials are themselves skimming of the system and use woman and men, as they please. This creates unlawfulness in the militarized society of Eritrea. The witness reports are a sad sight and the totalitarian control from the President Afwerki shows the extent to how they control their citizens and uses their manpower to earn money for the Government, but not support or being there for their citizens.

And if they try to flee or desert from the military or the country, the other army command can shoot-to-kill fellow citizens, as they do not follow orders from above, as they are in the hands of the government and the army. This together with the torture of fellow citizens; they are detained without trial and kept in jail to infinite, as there are no constitution or rule of law in the nation.

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The damning evidence is clear, the Eritrean government cannot just silence this, as there are over 400,000 who has fled from the country, and 44,000 have written in to the United Nation Human Rights Council, with their experience and witness reports shows the level of system behind these actions, it is not just one rare coincidence that certain people are detained, tortured or becoming slaves for the Generals of the Military. That even the Air-Force is so depleted that the men who are assigned work on labor unites instead of becoming air-men for the Eritrean Air-Force.

That is enough for now. It is not grand state of affairs, the level of impunity and lawlessness and the attitude of how the Eritrean State are treating their fellow citizens and keeping their records only in the hand of the President Afwerki and nobody else. Peace.

Reference:

UN Human Rights Council – ‘Detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in Eritrea’ (08.06.2016) – A/HRC/32/CRP.1

A quick look into the three persons the U.S. Treasury have sanctioned from Burundi, yesterday!

burundi-protests

The United States Department of the Treasury has yesterday stated that three Burundian persons have been put on their sanctions list. These have been decided by the Office of Foreign Asset Control. These are three persons are:

NGENDABANKA, Marius, Kinanira IV, Kinindo, Bujumbura, Burundi; DOB 25 Aug 1974; nationality Burundi; Gender Male; Commander, First Military Region; Deputy Chief of Land Forces; Burundian National Defense Forces Deputy Commander of Operations (individual) [BURUNDI].

NSHIMIRIMANA, Edouard; DOB 1970; POB Bugeni Vyanda, Burundi; nationality Burundi; Passport 089567 (Burundi) issued 10 Feb 2006 expires 10 Feb 2011; Former Lieutenant Colonel (individual) [BURUNDI].

SIBOMANA, Ignace; DOB 01 Jan 1972; POB Buhina, Kanyosha, Bujumbura, Burundi; nationality Burundi; Gender Male; Burundian Army Colonel, Chief of Military Intelligence (individual) [BURUNDI]” (U.S. Department of the Treasury, 02.06.2016).

Who are these men? That is what I asked myself, there has to be reasons for they are getting sanctioned. The American Government and U.S. Treasury doesn’t do this to candy snatchers in Mogadishu or Kinshasa, not even Belarussian citizens get this quickly. So they have to have a past or a reputation of certain actions.

Nkurunziza Military

The Rebel leader against Nkurunziza is on the List:

Let’s take the first person I will look at are Edouard Nshimirimana, have said this: “Then, we will fight until Nkurunziza is removed from power” (…)“We are on the ground and more attacks against the government will be common,” Nshimirimana said, adding that all the anti-government fighting groups have come together” (Tribune News Service, 2015). “The other objective of the new group is to protect the Arusha Agreement that limits Burundian presidents to two terms in office, said Nshimirimana. All forces against Nkurunziza are united under the Republican Forces of Burundi, Nshimirimana said. “We are calling on all Burundians who believe in the rule of law to join us,” said Nshimirimana. The rebel force was behind the recent attacks on three military camps, where they captured enough weapons to fight Burundi’s army, said Nshimirimana. “We have no choice and the world is not helping Burundians who are being killed,” he said” (Tangen, 2015). As a rebel, I am sure he is more preoccupied with finding sources to get ammunition than if he can possible use his coins on White Castle in Manhatten, New York.

The loyal soldier of Nkurunziza:

Here is the second person I look into, her is some information him, by decree of the Burundi Government he was promoted on the 6th May 2014 to be appointed as the Commander of the First Military Command. As his serial number is 0244 of the Military Commando. After this have also achieved this as Military leader:  “Colonel Marius Ngendabanka , commander of the 1st Military legion , close subordinates, he “pushed” the Cibitoke assailants last December , struggled against the coup-makers and protected television and national radio. He got the Order of Patriotic Merit, Commander Class 2 million frbu and a certificate of honor” (Isanganiro, 2015). So he surely have to answer for his actions at one point, but if he cares about the sanctions from the U.S. is doubtful.

burundi-soldiers-archive

The Intelligence officer of Nkurunziza:

Here is the third person and the last one who is also a loyal subject of the Nkurunziza reign, this been said about him: He became a part of a military commission that set up two military camps in May 2015, one in Musaga in central part of Bujumbura, the second camp would be set up in Muzinda in Bubanza province; this relocations of Military camps happen after the coup d’état. He became a part of the 9 person commission, here is what being said: “commission to execution this project has already been implemented. It would be composed of 9 officers, mostly from the former Armed Movements and Political Parties (PMPA). Among these, we can cite Colonel Ignatius SIBOMANA charge of military intelligence technically called G2 army” (Jeudi, 2015). Here is another report: “Ignace Sibomana was one of drugs’ traders named as “Kanyanga” for three years ago in Rwabinagu Village. He told his neighbors that Rwabinagu Centre was the focal point of drugs and he hopes that with the sensitization people will positively change step by step. Ignace Sibomana assumed that narcotic business impedes the development process and he recommended parents to give advice to some of inhabitants who don’t respect the assigned rules”(Ntakirutimana, 2012). This here been said at a later stage: “Colonel Sibomana Ignace head of department in charge of intelligence to the joint chiefs of staff general of the national defence force: (G2) SS 0174 of the serial number. He’s taking it out on a daily basis to the officers ex-FAB, he is behind almost all undue imprisonment of military and former military ex fab. His last find, spying on his fellow officers tutsi of staff general with microphones posed quietly in their offices!!!” (Burundi Journalistes et Société Civile, 20.02.2016). So the former drug-dealer turned Chief of Intelligence, that is surely a case of corrupted mind, hat the U.S. wants to sanction. As he is parts of the central leadership in the Nkurunziza military organization, so he surely have a say and makes important orders in the unrest and crisis.

This is enough for now. Peace.

Reference:

Isanganiro, Pacifique Cubahiro – ‘53ème Anniversaire de l’indépendance du Burundi : Des militaire et policiers contre le putch manqué ovationnés par le président Pierre Nkurunziza’ (01.07.2015) link: http://infosgrandslacs.info/productions/53eme-anniversaire-de-lindependance-du-burundi-des-militaire-et-policiers-contre-le

Ntakirutimana, Faustin – ‘“Drugs inhibit the development of the country”, Claudine UWINEZA’ (25.01.2012  link: http://www.southernprovince.gov.rw/index.php?id=56&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=207&cHash=3a0a224dd7e644c5acc2f27bf4174bd9

Jeudi – ‘Démantèlement ou simple délocalisation de camps militaires?’ (12.09.2015) link: http://www.rpa.bi/index.php/component/k2/item/1326-demantelement-ou-simple-delocalisation-de-camps-militaires

Tribune News Service – ‘Burundian rebels unite, declare war on President Nkurunziza’ (23.12.2015) link: http://www.pressherald.com/2015/12/23/burundian-rebels-unite-declare-war-on-president-nkurunziza/

Tangen, Ole Jr. – ‘New rebel group vows to overthrow Burundian president’ (25.12.2015) link:  http://www.dw.com/en/new-rebel-group-vows-to-overthrow-burundian-president/a-18942114

U.S. Department of Treasury – ‘Burundi Sanctions Designations’ (02.06.2016) link: https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/OFAC-Enforcement/Pages/20160602.aspx

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