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Archive for the tag “Arusha”

FAO reports on the souring food prices in the East African Countries!

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“In pastoral areas of Kenya, Somalia and southeastern Ethiopia, the widespread drought had a severe impact on pasture and water availability, and prices of livestock sharply decreased in recent months to very low levels, as livestock body conditions dramatically deteriorated. In these areas, the resulting sharp decline of terms of trade for pastoralists is severely constraining food access for large numbers of households” (FAO, P: 10, 2017).

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has this month released a report that assessed the prices and the issues concerning food prices in the nations around the world. This is the droughts, lack of rain and the problems occurring after the El Nino that hit the African continent. Therefore, the sad reality with the influx of issues and variables, the food markets in different nations has hit a snag and they have gone up. At levels that are worrying, as the markets they haven’t had the same rise in added income compared to the prices of staple foods. This hits the poorest the most and gives them a harder day to day, as their added prices makes the cost of living even more turbulent and hazardous than it already is.

Like the Maize and Beans prices in Kenya:

“Maize prices increased in January by 9-14 percent in most monitored markets, as the output of the short rains harvest, currently underway in eastern and coastal lowlands, was sharply reduced due to insufficient rainfall. Prices of maize in January were 20-30 percent higher than 12 months earlier in several markets, also as a result of a below-average long rains harvest, recently completed in high potential western areas of the Rift Valley. Sustained imports from neighbouring Uganda contained the increased in maize prices. In drought affected coastal counties, sharper year-on-year price increases are recorded, and in December 2016 prices of maize in Kwale, Kilifi, Lamu, Taraka Nithi and Embu counties were up to 40 percent higher than a year earlier. Prices of beans are also at high levels and in January they were up to 40 percent higher than their year-earlier levels. Most pastoral areas were affected by drought, and prices of livestock declined in recent months as animal body conditions deteriorated. For instance, in Marsabit, Mandera, Garissa and Tana River counties, prices of goats in December 2016 were 15-30 percent lower than 12 months earlier” (FAO, P: 3, 2017).

That the prices of maize had added about 20-30 percent in a year time is worrying for the region, as the Kenyan market and the current state before the elections. The Kenyan state is borrowing at a steady haste for bigger infrastructure investments, but isn’t using funds to secure the agricultural output. This is lacking initiative or use of government subsidises to secure enough production, as much as there are droughts that has hit areas, where the prices has risen as a cause of lacking output or none as the climate has deteriorating the soil. That not only Maize has risen on higher prices, also the hiking of prices of beans shows the incapacity of agricultural output in general and also securing cheap government imports.

Like the prices of Maize and Sorghum in Somalia:

“Prices of locally-produced maize and sorghum continued to soar in January as the output of the 2016/17 secondary deyr harvest was affected by a severe drought and is estimated at 25 percent of last five-year average. In Mogadishu, prices of coarse grains increased up to 35 percent. In most markets of key maize producing region of Lower Shabelle, maize prices surged in January by 32-41 percent. Overall, prices of coarse grains in January in key markets of central and southern Somalia were up to twice their levels of 12 months earlier. Prices are likely to further escalate in the coming months, as an earlier than usual stock depletion will be compounded by concerns over the performance of the 2017 gu harvest. In pastoral areas, drought caused shortages of grazing resources, with deterioration of livestock body conditions. Livestock prices sharply declined in recent months, especially in the south, and are at very low levels, up to 60 percent lower than 12 months earlier. As a result of declining livestock prices and increasing cereal prices, terms of trade for pastoralists sharply deteriorated over the last 12 months. The equivalent in maize of a medium size goat declined in Buale market from 114 kg January 2016 to just 30 kg in January 2017. The severe drought has also caused a sharp decline in milk production and surge in milk prices” (FAO, P: 5, 2017).

So Somalia who has just gone through an election, has had a heavy affected by the drought, as the grains and food production has been hit by it. As proven with the rising food prices in Mogadishu and the prices has doubled in Central and Southern Somalia, in only a year! That proves the dire food situation, as the fierce internal fighting, the federation food production combined with the military fighting together with a drought has the food markets and food productions. Therefore the citizens and farmers are the losers, as they cannot have peaceful production, lacking rains and also insecurity of their own safety. All these things combined with the uncertainty of the electorate and the new administration. The steady rise of food prices has surely hit a population that did not need another crisis.

Rising prices in South Sudan:

“In the capital, Juba, prices of sorghum and maize declined in January by 6 and 10 percent, respectively, partly as a result of the harvesting of 2016 second season crops in southern bi-modal rainfall areas, which improved the domestic supply situation. Prices of other staples, wheat flour, cassava and groundnuts, followed similar patterns. In markets located in central and northern uni-modal rainfall areas, prices of sorghum increased by 15-20 percent in December 2016 and January 2017, after having declined in previous months with the harvesting of 2016 crops. In January, food prices in nominal terms were between 2 and 4 times above their levels in January last year, due to insecurity, a tight supply situation, hyperinflation and a significant depreciation of the local currency” (FAO, P: 5, 2017).

In South Sudan the new crisis of internal battles hit, even after the long term peace-agreement was fresh and the battles that started in July 2016. The continued escalation has hit the country. South Sudan administration has been busy fighting the SPLM-IO. The SPLM-IO has also been busier fighting the SPLA/M. Therefore the engagement with trying to get people to live in peace and fresh produce to happen in the country has stopped. That together with the civil war the agricultural output has been lost with the fleeing civilians and burning villages. Therefore in this current state, the food prices rise as the lacking food stocks of internal produced are dwindling, as the state needs more import of foreign food. Not only the inflation rates of the currency, the food production has been unstable. Therefore the rising prices and the armed situation create the rise of food prices. So the stability of the nation will also secure the currency and also the agricultural output, as of now is more or less in need of food aid because of the current in-fighting and lack of government oversight. This is unhealthy and makes even the security of food into a limbo.

Rising prices of Maize in Uganda:

“Prices of maize followed a sustained upward trend in recent months, increasing in all monitored markets by 33-58 percent between August and December 2016. Subsequently, prices followed mixed trends in January, declining in the capital, Kampala, as the second season harvest increased supplies, remaining firm in Lira market, located in a major cereal producing area, and continuing to increase in Busia, a key cross-border hub with Kenya. Overall, maize prices in January were up to 75 percent higher than a year earlier and at near-record to record levels, as the upward pressure exerted on prices by a reduced second season harvest, affected by poor rainfall in southeastern parts bordering lake Victoria, was compounded by a reduced first season harvest gathered last June/July and by sustained export demand from neighbouring countries, mainly Kenya and South Sudan. In Kampala, prices of beans and cassava flour, important staples, are also at high levels, and in January they were about 25 percent higher than 12 months earlier” (FAO, P: 6, 2017).

Ugandan government has already showed lacking instruments to the current drought and the lesser output during the election and campaigning of the current leadership. This is proven now with the monetary issues that are in dire straight in republic. The proof of the rising prices as the export of maize and others to South Sudan, as the added refugees who also needs foods and are also supported aided food. The government needs to secure added food production and development of bigger yields of the staple foods. That the food prices have sky-rocketed as the region has all been hit in corridors and districts where the dried lands have killed of livestock and others. Government has showed lacking oversight and mechanism from the government has not helped the dry-lands and the aftermath. Because of this with the added strains of a cash-strapped government after a heavy-burden state after elections, has not stagnated or had initiatives to stop the growing prices of food.

Maize prices are rising also in Tanzania:

“Prices of maize continued to increase in January in all monitored markets, as production prospects for the vuli harvest, currently underway in northern and eastern bi-modal rainfall areas, are unfavourable due to poor and erratic rainfall. Further support to prices was provided by concerns over the performance of the msimu harvest, to be gathered from May in central and southern uni-modal rainfall areas, as early-season dryness affected planting operations and crop establishment. Prices of maize in January were almost twice their year-earlier levels in Arusha, located in the northeast, while they were about 25 percent higher than in January 2016 in Dar Es Salaam, the largest urban centre” (FAO, P: 6, 2017).

That President Magufuli and his party like to be the example of the East Africa. Here the Tanzanian government are delivering the same sort of levels of rising prices. The maize prices are affected by drought and the Tanzanian government also have had to take in the refugees from other nations of late. This together with the less rainfall has pushed the prices on maize in Tanzania. Certainly the prices that doubled shows signs of lacking agricultural output and less yields as the rains and drought has happen during the last 12 month.

The numbers of rising food prices together with the lacking yields shows the worrying signs of lesser rain and longer dry seasons. This all hurt the citizens and the customers in the central regions or in urban areas who buys the foods from the agricultural districts, as much as the violence and the crisis in South Sudan and long term effects of the civil war in Somalia. This happens after the drought and other political issues, together with little efforts to add the yields, shows in the rising prices of staple foods. So now the people have to pay more for the same food they would have bought last year, in some places not only 20% added, but up to double or tripled. This is certainly added strains on the personal economy of the citizens in these nations. Peace.

Reference:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) – ‘Food Price Monitoring and Analysis – Bulletin’ (14.02.2017)

Opinion: NRM works on overtime to delegitimize the FDC though various media, since they are themselves an illegitimated regime!

fdc-01-12-2016

There are running battles between the shadows of the Movement and the Forum for Democratic Change has been going on for a while. This has happen as Secretary General Nathan Nandala-Mafabi wrote this in the EALA Nomination letter to the 10th Parliament wrote: “These clearly spell out the positions of the Ruling Party and the Official Opposition Party in the multiparty democracy. In regard to numerical strength. EAC Treaty is also clear on multiparty democracy”.

So now that the FDC is the official opposition party and not the winner of the General Election 2016, even though the rigging master Eng. Dr. Badru M. Kiggundu of the Electoral Commission and the deputy chief justice Stephen Kavuma had to ban the campaign of defiance, that was the Presidential Candidate Dr. Kizza Besigye who run hard against the ruling party and the ruling regime of President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni and his National Resistance Movement.

So with that in context, the months after has been smeared with irregularities and malfunctions as the NRM and their Police has targeted FDC with full force. This they did with detaining members and leaders without court order, house-arrests, blocking of the headquarters and all sorts of other injustices done with an ordinary fashion of contempt of the constitution and law. These have been done as the 10th Parliament was sworn-in and the President was busy having dignitaries from Turkey and South Korea.

mwenda-and-kagame

Now that 2017 has arrived and ever since December 2016 the Independent Magazine editor and founder Andrew Mwenda has gone all wild on social media. At the same time TVO has disgraced him and his magazine. The graceful attempts have not been there as the words have addressed each other in fashions that would be in bars and not all in public. So Mwenda are using all tricks with his connections as he even seemingly has traded his popularity and his work ethic for goods from the ruling regime. Because he has gone from being a fierce critic of the Movement and now he defends them.

With this in mind Mwenda has attracted and attacked with more and more staunch words, even as he becoming a laughing stock and a wild-card. Even if he would have pieces of truth, the spin and the propaganda fashion of it all is spoiling facts that might be there. Just like Uganda Media Centre and Hon. Ofwono Opondo spills the beans and defends the Movement with all means. Though his entitled way of sounding more like a NRM Spokesperson than a man who is government spokesperson is showing the transgression of the party itself; just like the NRM inner party election for the EALA done over two days there.

This is still not an issue in nation of Uganda and under the rule President Museveni, which want to be legitimate by every mean possible. Therefore he uses the media and false stories on NTV Uganda where the Party Constitution of FDC is in question. As NTV Uganda wrote yesterday:

A plan to amend the constitution of Uganda’s main opposition party, the Forum for Democratic Change could cause a huge rift among its members if it goes through. The plan is to change clauses in the constitution to allow former FDC leaders another go at the helm of the party. According to the movers, many of FDC’s past leaders have been rendered useless to the party and yet they still have a lot to offer.” (NTV Uganda, 08.02.2017). However, as the story unfolded the FDC leadership debunked the story, Besigye said he would never run as a candidate under that or heard about it. TVO came out saying it was Mwenda who was the source and Hon. Francis Mwijukye wrote this about the farce:

“ Am told that there was a confusing story on NTV last evening about ammending the FDC constitution. Will be hosted on NTV Uganda 8.00 to 8.30am today morning. Let me go and make it clear. I think I was misquoted” (…) ”We were asked about the future of former FDC leaders and party founders. All I said was that I would support an inclusion in the party constitution of a party organ to deal with a council of Elders whose sole role would be to advise where necessary and for institutional memory. There was nothing like allowing former leaders to compete for top FDC positions in the party asked to me. Otherwise I can’t support that amendment” (Mwijukye, 08.02.2017).

When the higher echelons from the FDC are addressing the matter nearly simultaneously with the clip of the story aired, there are clear indications of malpractices in the standard. The NTV surely did this for political purposes. Just as there we’re reports that NTVs Sheila Nduhukire did directly celebrate with the NRM Party when they had done their EALA Primary Elections at the State House. Certainly the media and media houses are getting to close to the ruling regime.

We can just expect that government fuel illegitimate stories in their portrayal to demoralize and legitimize their own existence in power. Because they cannot do it by their own merit anymore, that gravy train left the station long time ago. They will use all means to establish and make the blatant ignorance of Mwenda and use their connections in NTV Uganda to portray the FDC as wolfs or even better wolf in sheep’s clothing.

The NRM and the Movement cannot sell the truth at this point, because that will undress their own existence and their own established fanfare of just cause. The probable cause that has left long time ago, the decades of bribes, thieving and misgivings has now caught up with them. The rigging and ill-forced ways are now what entitles people and therefore EALA elections are ugly instead of silent shows of democratic balloting. The NRM has to use the media and spin to make their biggest threat FDC into a shambolic affair of political charade. Since they have the ability themselves to make itself look unwise.

So the spins and the lies of deception will continue to fluster from the NRM and their media hawks, but still the truth will shine in the end. Peace.

NRM EALA Primary Election at the State House Day 2: Has-beens are the Flag-Bearers this time around!

nrm-eala-08-02-2017

Banyenzaki after quitting race: “The whole system is a fraud and stage managed. I can’t submit myself to such kind of election” (NBS TV Uganda, 08.02.2017).

The National Resistance Movement had to postpone the activity for another day at the Parliament, as the NRM could not with amended rules and with problematic ballot papers as it ended in suspended election yesterday, which even got the NRM MPs mad at NRM Electoral Commission chairman Dr. Tanga Odoi. Surely, they didn’t want a second day of embarrassment at the State House of Entebbe. The famous Okello house that President Museveni himself lingers in.

The people who dropped out yesterday, went back into the fold, while some dropped out today instead, therefore the EC surely had enough work on before the ballots could be signed and delivered to be counted today as well.

The one winning was Paul Musamali was a beaten NRM MP who lost his place in Parliament before the 10th Parliament. Rose Akol, the Bukedea MP lost also her place in the Parliament before this term. Former State Minister for Agriculture Mary Mugyenyi also we’re elected. Resident District Commissioner of Lira, George Odongo was elected today. Dennis Namara is a former Chairperson NRM Youth League. The Rakai District and MP for Kakuuto County Mathias Kasamba was the last elected person from the NRM.

We can see that Democratic Party Hon. Florence Nakiwala Kiyingi and Vice-Chairman Fred Mukasa Mbidde, who was supposed to run on NRM Ticket in the EALA nominations and candidates to the Parliament. Therefore the DP Party are not getting representation through the ruling party and their ticket. Hon. Kiyingi must feel awkward as her run for candidacy didn’t go through.

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What this looks like is like there we’re talks at the State House after the General Election in 2016, as there must surely some of these former MPs and State Minister’s has made deals, as they didn’t run on Independent ticket for a Parliamentary Flag-Bearer in the county and district. This happen in the December 2015 when, surely behind closed doors in the State House and together with President Museveni to make sure they didn’t go independent or even trying to run against the NRM new MPs. With this in mind, we can question if this happen today with all the history in the room and the ones elected for the EALA candidacy in the NRM. There is only one who is a current MP and that is Mathias Kasamba, the rest is has-beens who get a good job in Tanzania.

That is enough NRM for today! Peace.

NRM EALA Primary Election at the State House, ends in fist-fights as the Movement cannot elect their own for EALA suspended until tomorrow!

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“President Museveni on EALA elections: “This is a serious matter. It is about electing people who know what is involved in integration” (NBS TV Uganda, 07.02.2017)

Yesterday, the Forum for Democratic Change (FDC), the main opposition had been able within the FDC NEC to pick their EALA candidates for the new EALA Uganda Members in the East African Legislation Assembly. As the current Members have to be elected as the new delegation will be elected for 2017, when the 3rd Assembly is done with their term. Each of the East Africa Nation has their delegation and that will change.

Dr. Tanga Odoi had a tentative map that was released the 30th January 2017. The National Resistance Movement we’re supposed to have picked the candidates by 2nd February 2017. The NRM Caucus was supposed to happen at the Parliament Avenue and at the Parliament on the 6th February, the same day that FDC had their election. Still, that changed.

nrm-ec-30-01-2017-eala

NRM EC and NRM CEC have had to make other decisions as the NRM Caucus for EALA happen at the State House today. Also on the 4th February at the State House, there was reported that after NRM CEC meeting in the State House, the NRM Woman’s League was also going through the vetting of the candidates at the house that day.

There was 300 NRM MPs at the State House today for the NRM EALA Primary Caucus. Each aspirant for the candidacy of the EALA Member for Uganda cost Ush. 2m, this was given as a safety and to pay for the NRM EC administration.

“NRM EALA voting cancelled. Fresh elections will be repeated tomorrow. New ballot papers will be printed too. Voting for EALA in Entebbe hits a snag after it was realised that the ballot papers were not enough. Embarrassed Party secretary general Kasule Lumumba however pledged that the exercise will be repeated tomorrow when there are enough ballot papers [2/7, 8:54 PM] Patson: The cancellation came after the tempers of MPs flared during vote counting and failure to agree on the invalid votes vs valid votes Another intimated to this online publication that the cancellation of election was due disagreements over the invalid votes” (The Interrogator UG, 07.02.2017).

There was also reports that the NRM Caucus actually had more ballots invalid than valid when the MPs where voting in this election today, therefore NRM EC leader Odoi got people mad as the questionable election was marred with irregularities. There been reported fist-fights, MPs knocking and kicking ballot-boxes. However, to see peaceful election seems too be hard for the ruling party in the Republic, when they are supposed to elect amongst their own.

nrm-eala-07-02-2017

Also a key point of concern was that just after or been released information is that of the 9 members to EALA, the amount of candidates from the NRM isn’t 7 as anticipated, instead the NRM are only to have 6 candidates from the party. That gives the NRM CEC and NRM Caucus a giant issue, if this is true, than the chaos and such is proving how fragile the internal-party is as in the last minute the Party has less slots than it was supposed to have.

There was 300 NRM MPs, but collectively the numbers supposed to be a 1,000 people there for this day and for the Caucus. Still, the NRM could not collect themselves or to get a consensus for who supposed to represent the NRM in the EALA. As the NRM was about spend about Ush.1, 6 billion on these election. That happens as from Kampala the Yellow Buses had to arrive at the Okello House, the house that the State hasn’t paid the rent for or enough for a while. Still, NRM wanted to show the world glory with a free and fair election, which yet again didn’t happen.

Since the NRM doesn’t have that ability. They need more ballot paper before tomorrow; surely they will use as much government funds tomorrow as the NRM party will continue to fight for becoming Member from Uganda in the EALA. That is a secure job for a term and you can work in peace in Arusha, then being under the wing of Museveni and never knowing what the next idea of the President. Peace.   

FDC could pick their candidates yesterday (06.02.2017). Why couldn't NRM handle it today?

FDC could pick their candidates yesterday (06.02.2017). Why couldn’t NRM handle it today?

The Oppression of the Opposition in Rwanda; the recent story of Victorie Ingabire Umuhoza; and today’s kidnapping of the person delivering food to her in prison!

The crackdown on Opposition in Rwanda is well known abroad and the FDU (Forces Democratiques Unifies) leader Victorie Ingabire Umuhoza who was in the late 2013 through a trial sentenced to jail for 15 years. She is deemed as a political prisoner and gotten the court rigged for her sentence and jailed as certain opposition of the RPF and the Presidency of Paul Kagame. Reason why the world knows little of this is because of the stranglehold the Government of Rwanda has over the media and information.

Important information about the trial of 2013:

“Gatera Gashabana stated that the witness would testify Michel Habimana discharge but this was refused by the MP. This prompted Ingabire to no longer submit to the Court. Another witness wanted his testimony to be heard without being present to the Court for its safety and this was refused. Me Ian Edward has meanwhile raised the crime of genocide denial. He reported that Ms. Ingabire said that there was a genocide of Tutsis but also Hutus are killed and this comes from their own ideas and this is allowed in the Rwandan law ; thereto, Me Ian added that Ingabire should not be prosecuted for it” (LIPRODHOR, 2013).

She appealed in December 2013:

“The Supreme Court has turned down Victorie Ingabire’s appeal against an 8-year sentence handed to her by the High Court last year” (AllAfrica, 2013). “The judge, stating that Ingabire should be serving a 27-year jail term, claimed to have shown her leniency due to the fact that this was her first conviction and because her family was based in the Netherlands” (…)”Ingabire’s trial – which saw her accused of offences related to terrorism, genocide ideology, discrimination and disseminating rumours aimed at inciting the public against the existing leadership – took place between September 2011 and April 2012, and has attracted a considerable amount of criticism from international non-governmental organization” (Joyes, 2016). ” Considering accusations against her, various identified irregularities and ignorance of due process, it has been clear that Rwandan justice system has been used by the Rwandan government as a tool to oppress legitimate and peaceful exercise of freedom of expression and freedom of association” (…)”Freedom of expression and associations are important base and foundations of a democracy. Their absences undermine one of important fundamental rights of people. This situation not only has the potentiality to cause insecurity and conflicts, in Rwanda as result of consequences of oppression, it also affects the country ability to achieve its various social and economic potentialities as result of participation of its people in environment of freedom and rule of law” Said GCRHR coordinator” (Kamuzinzi, 2016).

The Application to the African Court:

“In the year 2000, she became the leader of a political party known as Rassemblement Républicain pour la Démocratie au Rwanda (RDR) (The Republican Movement for Democracy in Rwanda). She had been a member of the party since 1998” (…)”Sometime later, a merger between this party and two other opposition parties (The ADR and the FRD) led to the creation of a new political party known as Forces Democratiques Unifiees (FDU Inkingi) led by the Applicant till date” (…)”In the year 2010, after spending nearly seventeen years abroad, the Applicant decided to return to Rwanda, according to her Counsel, to contribute in nation building” (…)”She did not attain this objective because as from 10 February 2010, charges were brought against her by the judicial police, the Prosecutor and Courts and Tribunals in Rwanda” (…)”On 21 April 2010, the Applicant was remanded by the police and placed under detention” (African Courts, 2014).

In February 2016:

“Her lawyer Gatera Gashabana wrote in letters to the head of the Bar in Rwanda that “on 5 February 2016, I went to the prison to meet with my client to prepare for the hearing before the African Court on Human and People’s Rights based in Arusha (Tanzania) on 4 March 2016.” He went on to say he was told that before any visit all his documents had to be checked and that this hindrance would make it impossible to prepare for the upcoming hearing. He demanded an end to “these excessive demands and intimidations,” according to the letters released by Ingabire’s opposition United Democratic Forces (UDF) party, which is not officially recognised in Rwanda”  (AFP, 2016).

Today – FDU Supporter jailed for bring food to imprisoned Vicoire Ingaire:

“Boniface Twagirimana, FDU-Inkingi 1st vice-president of the political party of the imprisoned Victoire Ingabire, is alerting the Rwandan and international community that 15 minutes ago, Ms Gasengayire Leonille, the person in charge of bringing food to the prisoner from outside, has just been kidnapped by RPF security forces which were waiting for her inside the prison at lunch time. When she entered the prison compound, she was told to get in a civilian car with number plate RAA442M which took her rapidly to an unknown destination” (Twagirimana, 26.03.2016).

Afterthought: 

As much as the Government of Rwanda trying to silence the opposition and the leader of Victorie Ingaire Umuhoza of the FDU who has been jailed and sentenced since 2010 after her arrival back from diaspora in the Netherlands. The last straw and the recognition of the African Court, a African Court that the Government of Rwandan the Rwandan Patriotic Front and their President Kagame tries to distance themselves from or discontinue themselves from.

The proof here is how far the Rwandan Government stifle the opposition and to what extent they don’t value the democratic values, as they even now goes to the point of kidnapping the person who feeds a opposition leader in jail; who is sentenced for 15 years in jail and has not gotten her appeal accepted and also gotten refused to go to African Court on Human Rights in Arusha, Tanzania. This might be the reason for why the Rwandan Government trying to distance themselves from the African Courts as they don’t want the outside to understand their dealings or get grips to the sovereignty.

The state might be sovereign still they will have to be responsible from the actions. That is why they have ratified certain statues and Human Rights laws, even charters as they want to be legitimized internationally and that is why the Rwandan Official defended their case this week. But this kind of imprisonment of an opposition leader and using genocide as a motive for taking her in and letting her rot in prison. As she just returned from Netherlands to do her duty and for her party, not to destroy the RPF or the Government, but create and prove democratic values, as President Kagame neglect and doesn’t care about it, only that he have power and holds on to it by any means. Peace.

Reference:

African Courts: ‘Application No. 003/2014 -Ingabire Victoire Umuhoza v. The Republic of Rwanda’

AFP – ‘JAILED RWANDAN OPPOSITION LEADER’S LAWYER SAYS DENIED ACCESS’ (16.02.2016) link: http://www.newstimeafrica.com/archives/41785

AllAfrica – ‘Rwanda: Ingabire Loses Appeal, Sentenced to 15 Years’ (13.12.2013) link: http://allafrica.com/stories/201312160001.html

LIPRODHOR – ‘In the trial of Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza, his lawyers suggest the innocence of their client’ (29.04.2013) link: http://www.liprodhor.org/en/2013/04/dans-le-proces-de-mme-ingabire-umuhoza-victoire-ses-avocats-evoquent-linnocence-de-leur-cliente/

Joyes, Ben – ‘Rwandan Supreme Court Increases Sentence Against Victoire Ingabire’ (14.03.2016 link: http://arcproject.co.uk/2013/12/rwandan-supreme-court-increases-sentence-against-victoire-ingabire/

Global Campaign for Rwandans Human Rights (GCRWHR) / Kamuzinzi – ‘Rwanda: Opposition leader conviction extinguishes some hope of political freedom and put Rwanda on a dangerous path’ (13.12.2013) link: http://www.inyenyerinews.org/democracy-freedoms/rwanda-opposition-leader-conviction-extinguishes-some-hope-of-political-freedom-and-put-rwanda-on-a-dangerous-path/

WikiLeaks – East Africa in the 1970s: how the tensions running high between the nations ,disbanding EAC, and US involvment.

Here is brief WikiLeaks on the rich history of the 70’s in East Africa. The interesting times and political play of an era which is now gone. What we can learn by this, is how to deal with tension between nations and also what values we should seek. Read this and hopefully you will be a bit more enlighten on some history which happened not too long ago.

Short historical pretense to the Uganda-Kenya-Tanzania tensions of the 70s:

“Kenyan press accused Ugandan soldiers of murdering and chasing off railway officials in February, 1973. Uganda claimed that it was planned by former Ugandan president, Obote and his supporters” (…)”President Amin of Uganda placed his military on alert for an invasion of British forces from Kenya as tensions grew concerning the death sentence of British journalist, Denis Hills who criticized Amin. On June 25, 1975, Amin accused Britain of sending two warships with soldiers to Kenya in preparation for an invasion. The British government called the deployment a routine visit. On July 1, 1975, Amin announced that he would grant Hills a pardon” (…)”President Kenyatta of Kenya threatened war with Uganda in February, 1976 over a border dispute” (…)”President Amin of Uganda withdrew his claims on the disputed area on Febraury 27, 1976, but tensions continued. Kenya protested the killing of a Kenyan student in Uganda on March 12, 1976” (…)”Israeli troops rescued some 100 hostages at Entebbe airport in Uganda on July 3-4, 1976, and Israeli military aircraft used in the rescue mission landed in Nairobi, Kenya for refueling before returning to Israel. President Idi Amin of Uganda accused Kenya of collaborating with Israel on July 4, 1976. Some 3,000 Kenyans fled from Uganda on July 5-15, 1976. On July 8, Kenya demanded that Uganda pay for all goods being shipped through Kenya because of the debt Uganda owed it. On July 9, Kenya restricted Uganda’s access by rail to the Indian Ocean. The Kenyan government reported on the tenth of July that 245 Kenyan citizens had been killed in Uganda” (…)”On July 16, 1976, Kenyan truck and railway workers refused to enter Uganda. Uganda promised not to invade Kenya on July 21. Uganda cut electricity supplies to Kenya on July 24. Kenya severed the supply of oil to Uganda on July 25, 1976, and President Amin retaliated by threatening to go to war with Kenya. Uganda agreed to hold negotiations with Kenya on July 30, 1976” (…)”President Amin of Uganda and President Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya signed an agreement in Nairobi on August 7, 1976, which provided for the withdrawal of troops from the border region. Kenya resumed the supply of oil to Uganda on August 11, 1976. This ended the series of conflicts that make up” (…)”Kenya and Uganda agreed to resume diplomatic relations on February 10, 1978. Kenya closed its border with Uganda in April, 1979 to stop the inflow of fleeing Ugandan soldiers fleeing from the invasion of Tanzania” (Dingu.sbs.arizona.edu)

This was the short history of the exiting times in East Africa. Here is what I found from the releases of documents on Wikileaks:  

In May 1973 Kampala Uganda, the elite or prominent people resigned their post.  Professor and Dean in Political Science, Ali Mazrui is specialized in the fields of Europe and American politics. Since the coup of 1971 he has given lectures that are pro-Amin, still with the repression of the elite has changed his views (Wikileaks, 1973). The reason why Ali Mazrui was turned against Idi Amin was the way he repressed the Acholi, the Langi, the Asians and the murders of Bendicto Kiwanuka and Vice-Chancellor Frank Kalimuzo of Makerere (Binghampton, 2011).

Ambassador Barigye resigned on the 3rd of May 1973. Julius Nyerere granted him political asylum in Tanzania. His travel paper told another story that he ended in Lusaka, because the work opportunity is supposed to be better there (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Certain diaspora in Tanzania:

Obote is reported to be in Tanzania, also with terminated cabinet ministers. Idi Amin has put new people who have to act in their position, leaving the other one to end their former minsters posts (WikiLeaks, 1973).

4th of May General Amin appointed soldiers to be Saza and Gambola Cheifs. Their training started on 7th of May which now has turned into 3 or 4 weeks. Amin told them: “When he completes reorganization and everything is seen (to be) working well, he will give six months or one year for people to prepare for general elections” (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Tentative coup plans of 1973:

The ones that were supporting this operation were the Tanzania, China and also possible USA to assist the coup in Uganda. Ugandan leaders supporting this were Ali Mazuri and Major Okoth. Richard Ojok was delivering a plan at the embassy at the 21th August (WikiLeaks, 1973). Ojok has organized a group called UNQTE. Ali Mazuri is a part of this outfit. Major Ojok has met Nyerere to get Tanzanian assistance for the coup. Chinese Millitary Attache Cho En Tieng was present and offered financial assistance. The Chinese also offered Army personnel, but Ojok was afraid that if the coup succeeded the Chinese would be tied to power. The plan for the plot was to let the army men travel in civilian at 5th of October on an East African Airlines. Mazuri has discussed the matter to a African American Arms dealer Julian Hilbert. Hilbert assistance will come if they get enough funding. Major Ojok has been into Uganda and knows that they have 200 well trained military men, with a unit of 400 Libyan troops and 21 Mirage Jet Fighters. On his assassination list is the Commander of the Simba Mechanized Regiment at Mbabara: Lt. Col. Maliyamungu. They fear him because he has control of the tank division. So UNQTE feel they need to get tanks and are trying to get funds to complete this. Former Minister Kibedi is offering a position to those who are supporting funds. Ojok is not planning to have the coup when Amin is departed trip to Algeria for a conference. It will be when he is in the country. 22th of August 1973 will Ojok be back in Uganda and stay at the Standard Hotel. Lindstrom forward all information to the Washington Agencies (WikiLeaks, 1973).

Problems between Uganda and Tanzania:

13th of July 1974 General Amin had allegation of supposed plans of a coup and invasion from Tanzania. Amin is saying that Zambia and Tanzania is wishing to get the ousted Obote back as president in Uganda. He says: “Actively supporting Dr Milton Obote to mount an invasion of Uganda” (…)” Continues to encourage and assist invasion of Uganda, battlefields will be Mwanza, Musoma, Tabora, and Dodoma. I am not going to kneel down in front of him, he must know that I am a General who can fight any war, at any time, anywhere” (WikiLeaks, 1974). Tanzanian Governement replied to Amin: “Government wants to make clear that should these allegations be used for an attack, Tanzania will be justified to take all necessary steps to defend itself”. Radio Tanzania has reported on 15. July 1974 that President SIAD has inquired to the Secretary General of the OAU to get a meeting between Uganda, Zambia and Tanzania. This tension strand from the prominent position Obote got under the 20th anniversary of TANU on 7. July 1974 (WikiLeaks, 1974).

Boycott of Ugandan goods:

Idi Amin statement: “Does not constitute apology for recent territorial claim which GOK is insisting upon before presently strained bilateral relation can be normalized”. Dockworkers in Mombasa boycott the boats with Ugandan destined cargo. This leading too delayed boats out of docks of Mombasa. Amin is waiting for a Government of Kenya (GOK) apology. This boycott could lead to Amin to cut electricity which Amin claimed was substantial for Kenya, the estimation is between 15-20%. The photographer of Jomo Kenyatta has been burned in public in Uganda (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Fuel Shortage in Rwanda:

Uganda has had economic setbacks due to the closure of borders with Kenya. This has led to the gas shortage in Rwanda – because of the Mombasa-Kampala line. Tea and coffee export is really hit by this gas shortage (WikiLeaks, 1976). Rwandan MINFIN, National Bank of Rwanda flew to Kampala with President Habyarimana on the 17. March to discuss a government deal with Amin. Amin snubbed it for three reasons:

  1. Rwandan transport is the reason why the Ugandan roads deteriorating.
  2. Rwandan economic policies are the reason why the Ugandan Shilling is weakened and making Rwandan Franc is staying strong.
  3. Amin Accused the Rwandan of selling Ugandan coffee.
  4. Amin wasn’t happy that Habyarimana met with Nyerere last month.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

President Habyarimana is sure this economic sanction from Uganda is because of his way of dealing with Amin. Also even with the new Rwandan Foreign Policy of having good relation to its neighbors. And continue with building relation with Tanzania, even hasten Mwanza-Rusumu to Dar es Salem (WikiLeaks, 1976).

MINFIN is Ministry of Finance (Worldbank, 2007).

Continuation on the tension in East Africa:

  • Nyerere is not happy about the arms deal that they have done with South Africa. Especially after the meeting between South Africa’s Heath and Zambia’s Kaunda. Nyerere said he “Put heat in the Dock”. Nyerere was now bitter about the whole affair.
  • UK was happy with the Amin coup, they supported him and to overthrow of Obote. UK wanted that Amin to get rid of Sudanese troops in the South. When OAU gave the conference to Kampala it “gave this crook continental respectability”.
  • Nyerere thought it was amusing now that UK, Israel and Kenya is now enemies of Uganda. He commented: “Jomo needs a little external trouble to reinforce internal unity right now and an external fool always help is such case” (…) “we all do sometimes”.
  • Nyerere had really not any real fear of Amin neither had Kenya. Secondly Nyerere wasn’t going to start anything.
  • What Nyerere was worried about what was US up to. Especially on sale of F-5. Since their trying to out maneuver Soviet military support to Uganda and Somalia. Secretary Rumsfeld visited Nairobi. Nyerere wished that UK and USA helped Kenya in all other ways then military operation towards Uganda as he said “Leave this quarrel to East Africa, we will take care of it”.

(WikiLeaks, 1976)

Tanzania and USSR:

Nyerere will order Foreign Minister Kaduma question the USSR ambassador whom the Soviet arming Uganda against. Nyerere had done the same time before when Uganda got the military equipment called MIGS. Soviet answers said “Imperialist!” Nyerere answered “Nonsense” (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Uganda – Kenya Tension continues:

It’s now 15 October 1976. Kenya has released the Bedford trucks as a quid pro quo for getting their electricity back. Still all military equipment isn’t being shipped from Mombasa. It will be that way until the OAU 6 nation based commission is put into place. There are negotiations in New York on the matter. Kenyan Foreign Minister Karithi says all non-military based deliveries to Uganda except for jet-aviation-fuel which they are holding back. Amin is more and more irritated at the Kenyan boycott of arms. This led to the point where Amin attempted to call VP Moi of Kenya to complain about the matter. Most of the members of Ugandan Defense Council are not unwilling to take action towards Kenya (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Arms from Tanzania to Uganda:

There been rumors of regular arms traffic from the Kismayu to Uganda via the Kilmanjaro International Airport without entering Kenyan Air Space. The route being: Kismayu – Somalia – Tanzania – Uganda. This been in Ugandan’s own C-130 Transport Aircraft. And an U.S. Citizen is involved in the arms trade. This increasing support of Uganda is happening, even after the assurance of otherwise from Nyerere during the last meeting in August between Nyerere and Kenyatta (WikiLeaks, 1976).

Tanzania – Kenya tensions:

Permanent Secretary of Kenya has claimed that the Tanzanian government is dealing with “trade sabotage” and also focusing funds on rebuilding Tanga and Ports of Dar-Es-Salam. They also preferred the Chinese over the Kenyan. Kenyan Foreign Minister Karithi also claimed that Tanzania doesn’t trade rightfully with Kenya. Especially when looking at the trade balance which was in 1975 2, 3 to 1, in the three first months of 1976 it’s 3 to 1. Nyerere’s answer to all this that the trade gap between Kenya and Uganda that was in 1975 20 to 1 and in 1976 became 40 to 1. Nyerere also admits that Ugandans smuggle coffee to Kenya so that distort the numbers (WikiLeaks, 1976). Tanzanian also claims that Kenya is taking the major share of the tourism. The East African Airways are supposed to lure tourist to all parts of East Africa, not only Kenya, even though the Tourist infrastructure seem superior in Kenya compared to the rest, even if the animal and nature sights in Tanzania is much greater (WikiLeaks, 1976).

1977:

5th July 1977 Amin approached Kenyan Foreign Minister Waiyaki at the OAU summit in Libreville. Amin claimed that Nyerere agreed to have a “save the EAC” meeting and Amin hoped that the Kenyan would have this meeting in Nairobi. This request comes at the time when Kenya won’t spend funds into the EAC until Tanzania reopens their common borders. Government of Kenya has also recalled their workers from the EAC headquarters from Arusha (WikiLeaks, 1977).

EAC and USAID:

Kenya already sees the EAC as and non-existent entity already at 15th of June 1977. In Kenya the EAC research programs that have been under EAC will now be under GOK (Government of Kenya). The Government desires that the aid continues and sign project agreements as soon as practical. Kenyan government has also started to convert community entities to Kenyan once. Uganda is supposed to pull unless Amin get to meet Nyerere on the 20th of July. There is no reason for that to materialize. The borders also still closed between Kenya and Tanzania (WikiLeaks, 1977).

US African Affairs – DRC’s Mobutu and Uganda’s Amin:

Mobutu responded positive to our request of approaching Amin. The matter at hand is if we’re give Amin something then Mobutu need something as well. We have been using Mobutu to deal with Amin, but we can’t expect him do the deals with him without some gestures from our part. The message US African Affairs sent Mobutu in September 1977:

  • We are pleased by Mobutu’s prompt, public support of our proposals on Zimbabwe settlement.
  • We appreciate also Mobutu’s intervening with Amin on Humanitarian grounds, and recognize the difficulties posed for him by this and other interventions he has made on our behalf.
  • We value Zaire’s continued corporations and wish to stay in close touch on issues of common concern.

(WikiLeaks, 1977)

Kenya trusted American ally:

Ministry of Defense briefed them on their situation:

  • Kenya is surrounded by alien ideologies and Soviet and PRC influence, and its economic development and political stability that have caused envy and hostile neighbors.
  • Somalia is recruiting actively guerrillas against Kenya. This in a so called Ogaden style to carry out the claims for the North-Eastern Kenya. The Guerrilla has now a force of up to 10 000. This with the training from North Korea and Cuba since 1969. With the expulsion of Soviets, this might lead to a better friendship between them. But Somalia has not renounced the territorial claims. The Kenya-Somalia relationship can be described as “No Peace, No War”. Kenya would not be offended by a tighter relationship with Mogadishu; they know that Somalis will not talk to the Americans since they have their relations with Soviet and Ethiopia, who provide those arms and aid.
  • Uganda is an unstable neighbor. And has threats to attack Kenya. The lifeline for Kenya is that if Somalia attacks North-East, then Amin might be tempted to go in the Western. Because Amin would like to upset Kenyan stability.
  • Tanzania hasn’t been an issue not until 1977. When they closed down the EAC and also their borders. Also with incursions from Tanzania with killings and cattle rustling. It seems as Tanzania now works more closely to Zambia and Mozambique.
  • Ethiopia because of Somalia is a reliable ally. Though if it is so in future, they are not so sure. This be given the Soviet and Marxist believes in the country.
  • Because of this, Kenya needs to strengthen its borders. Particular Uganda and Somalia.

(WikiLeaks, 1977)

Links:

Binghampton.edu – ‘IN PURSUIT OF PERSONAL EXCELLENCE: THE DECLINE AND REVIVAL OF ALI A. MAZRUI’: Second Draft (10.2011) Link: http://www.binghamton.edu/igcs/docs/In%20Pursuit%20of%20Personal%20Excellence-The%20Decline%20and%20Revival%20of%20Ali%20A.%20Mazrui.pdf

Dingu.Sbs.Arizona.edu – ‘Rivnotes’ Link: http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~ggoertz/rivalry/cmv5.10/cm500501v5.10.txt

WikiLeaks – ‘MAZRUI RESIGNS; SOLDIERS REPLACE CHIEFS’ (05.05.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973KAMPAL01538_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA COUP PLANS’ (21.08.1973) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973NAIROB05577_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘NEW PROBLEM IN TANZANIA-UGANDA RELATIONS’ (15.07.1974) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1974DARES02360_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PRESIDENT NYERERE ON KENYA-UGANDA QUARREL’ (19.07.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976DARES02606_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘UGANDA: AMIN SNUBS RWANDA ON PETROL CRISIS’ (30.03.1976) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976KIGALI00245_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘KENYAN-UGANDAN RELATIONS’ (15.10.1976) Link:

https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1976NAIROB11323_b.html

WikiLeaks – ‘FUTURE OF U.S. AID PROGRAM TO EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY’ (26.07.1977) Link: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977NAIROB09350_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘CODEL PRICE CONSULTATION WITH BOK’ (18.11.1977) Links: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977NAIROB15006_c.html

WikiLeaks – ‘PROPOSED MESSAGE FOR MOBUTU’ (10.09.1977) Link:

https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1977KINSHA08671_c.html

WorldBank – ‘FINANCING AGREEMENT’ (05.02.2007) Link: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2010/06/03/54A8AF4762E6EA70852572A600670F84/2_0/Rendered/INDEX/FA01Conformed1010Corrected.txt

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