Address by His Majesty Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II Kabaka of Buganda at a Special Prayer Service held on 24th May 1996 in remembrance of the 1966 attack on the Lubiri

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Your Excellency, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of The Republic of Uganda; Your Excellencies, Members of the Diplomatic Corps; My Lord Bishops; Obuganda:

We are greatly honoured to have in our midst, His Excellency Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of The Republic of Uganda; and all the guests from inside and outside Buganda and Uganda to remember the storming of the Lubiri by Uganda Army troops on the morning of 24th May, 1966.

Let me begin by once again congratulating President Museveni on his victory in the presidential elections which were concluded recently. Mr. President, may the Lord guide you as you steer the ship of state to greater peace, stability and development.

Your Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, I decided to remember the 24th May because it is of great significance to my family, Buganda and Uganda. The events of that fateful day changed our lives as a family and the lives of the Baganda and Ugandans in a fundamental way and many of us are still trying to come to terms with the changes the events of 24th May 1966 brought about.

I thank the Lord for having enabled my father, the late Ssekabaka Mutesa II and some of his aides, for having successfully fought their way from the burning palace to safety. We should remember the clergy at Lubaga for the hospitality they offered my father at his greatest hour of need and for assisting him to escape to safety. I thank his loyal subjects who assisted him on his long march to freedom. I thank the British government who agreed to accept him as a refugee and all those who supported him and comforted him in the loneliness of his London exile.

Let us remember all those who stood by him and fought by his side and died at the hands of the Uganda Army of which he was Commander-in-Chief; Let us remember all those who were imprisoned and tortured; Let us remember all those who lost their loved ones and those that had to live in constant fear of the authorities and those who were traumatised by the violence unleashed by the authorities.

This is a very sad chapter in the history of our country but we cannot skip it, because there are lessons to be learned from it that can greatly contribute to the building of a peaceful and united Uganda.

On that fateful day the Lubiri, embodiment of Kiganda culture and traditions and the very soul of Buganda went up in flames and brought to a halt almost 1000 years of history. For once in her long history Buganda was without a King. She became an ant-hill without the queen ant. We never lost hope that one day our cultural integrity as Baganda would be restored and we thank God that, that integrity which we craved and cherish was restored in 1993.

The Baganda cannot continue to mourn indefinitely for what was lost. We should not continue to labour under the burden of self pity because this self pity will destroy our soul and, therefore, our resolve to rebuild Buganda. Let me in this connection draw the attention of our people to the book of Nehemiah in the Holy Bible for inspiration. In chapter 2 verses 17-18 and I quote “Then I said to them ‘You see the trouble we are in, how Jerusalem lies in ruins with its gates burned. Come, let us build the wall of Jerusalem, that we may no longer suffer disgrace’. ….and they said ‘Let us rise up and build’. So they strengthened their hands for the good work”.

Instead of lamenting the sorry state to which Jerusalem had been reduced and stopping there, the children of Israel rebuilt Jerusalem. I would like to tell the Baganda that 30 years of mourning are enough. Now is the time to begin rebuilding Buganda with our brains and hands. No greater tribute can be paid by us to the memory of those who suffered and died at the hands of tyrants than the rebuilding of Buganda in all respects.

The place to begin the building of Buganda is the discipline of our youth. Buganda was built on discipline and I, therefore, charge parents and opinion leaders in Buganda to inculcate discipline amongst our youth. They are the ones who are going to build the New Buganda of our dreams and they must, therefore, have the discipline to do so. I ask all the leaders in this crusade to lead by example. That is the only way our youth will learn to lead disciplined lives.

It is sweat and toil that makes countries prosperous. The Baganda must, therefore, sweat and toil to make the land of their ancestors a great place to live in once again. The Baganda should stop running away from Buganda in the hope that somehow miraculously somebody else will develop the land for them to come back to when it begins to flow with milk and honey. Nobody will develop the land for you but yourselves, and this is the greatest challenge that you face. Baganda derived great pride and satisfaction in the payment of taxes in the past. Baganda were very proud of their good manners. Let us rediscover that pride and use it to rebuild Buganda and Uganda. Buganda was built on accomodation and the palaces of the Kabakas were the melting pots of nationalities and talents. Buganda still stands on her record of accomodation but what we ask for is reciprocity. Indeed Uganda would become a very strong and united nation if there was reciprocity all around.

Lastly let me make this pledge – the Mutebi reign will be one of reconciliation, unity, peace and development.

I thank all the celebrants and all those who have graced this occasion with their presence.

MONUSCO and OHCHR reports on Humanitarian Law Violations committed by the ADF combatations in the terrority of Beni, North-Kivu Province between 1. October 2014 and 31. December 2014

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Kwibuka 21 – First day of 100-days of mourning the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, with statements from John V. Karuranga and Ban Ki-Moon.

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We gather here to mourn today for every drop of innocent blood that shed, every life that was lost and every family that wept. Today, I, and my party, the Rwanda People’s Party, join millions of Rwandans and friends of Rwanda, to commemorate the 21st Anniversary of the 1994 Rwanda genocide perpetrated against the Tutsis.

My Beloved Rwandans, today, is a day to remember the 100 days of harrowing scenes and abominable, violence in which 1,000,050 Tutsis and moderate Hutus lost their lives. It is a day to share the sorrows, pains and experiences of 500,000 heroic women and girls that have lived a life with HIV-AIDS as result of brutal rapes committed during these shameful 100 days. These 45,000 females have courageously fought against the psychological pain, mental anguish, shame and prejudice that plague their lives, even today. The children they bore will grow up as orphans, not knowing their fathers; they too bear the scars of the indescribable rapes that ripped their mother’s lives apart on an industrial scale, during the infamous 100 days of genocide.

Such is the jolting truth! We grieve, today, at this horrendous calculated crime against humanity.

We remember the millions of Rwandans that survived the horrors, afflicted by permanent physical and mental disabilities. We offer our support to all those Rwandans who suffered trauma due to the tragedies of the 100 black days that destroyed our country. Today, we commemorate the 21st anniversary of the genocide of Tutsis. Today we renew our vow to all Rwandans that survived these tragedies.

We love you and that “Never, and never again” will the tragic events of the 100 days that scarred our country and left so many traumatized happen again in our beloved Rwanda. We will miss the victims of the genocide and never forget them, to this extent, our heart goes out to all our families, relatives, friends, neighbours and to Rwandans from every background that were devastated in the 100 days of grim darkness of genocide.

We are utterly at a loss to understand the genocide’s cause. Why would anyone wish to hurt the innocent, especially, pregnant women, toddlers, children, elderly, the sick and all the defenseless people that were not a part of the Rwandan civil war, in such a dreadful and barbarous way?

Fellow Rwandans, reflections on and the memories of the 2400 grim hours of the 1994 genocide of the innocent still haunt our mind. However, these dark thoughts and memories have not destroyed our moral values. Our humanity has not and never will darken our moral judgment and caused us to forget out social and political obligations. The 1994 genocide against Tutsi, it is something that we are compelled to live with on a daily basis and a burden that we must bear, during our working hours and leisure time. Our wounds are still healing but the 1994 tragedies have scared us forever.

My fellow citizens, the example of the Rwandan genocide against Tutsi, should have taught the world the dangers of lies, discrimination and hatred. Yet the world has not learned these lessons from our nation’s great tragedy. Intolerance and hate still goes on-and-about unpunished. You are all familiar with the recent incidence involving Racist soccer fans on the Paris METRO where an innocent person, who was returning home from an honest day’s work. They tormented, abused and physically prevented him from boarding a train. He did not abuse anyone, cause a disturbance or in any way provoke the attack. Fellow Rwandans, the perpetrators of that despicable crime, on the Paris METRO knew that no one would ever question their right to dispel the rights of others because they are of a different race to them. They singled out the victim, abused, tormented and endured mental rape because of the colour of his skin and this is an everyday occurrence in many so-called tolerant Western countries.

Another example of the intolerable attitude towards non-western cultures in Europe and the Western World has been the recent BBC libel on Rwanda and its deliberate distortion of our history and our sufferings. I believe, you also, were shocked at the appalling and indescribable “Rwanda Untold Story” This is a story planted and cultivated by the “A false Prophets” that has so recklessly re-opened so many old wounds. In this program, there was nothing but contempt for the Rwandan people and the BBC spat on the graves of our loved ones.

Like the Racist Train Thugs on the Paris METRO, the culprits believe that they will remain free from punishment for their hateful and deeply offensive words. Indeed, they will never face the rule of law.

However, because of their needless agitation and rewriting of Rwandan history, to suit their taste and those with a sinister agenda, the BBC will always stand accused of malpractice and dishonesty in the eyes of all true Rwandans. The incidents on the Paris METRO and the BBC are examples of the continuing western sense of superiority towards all those who are not from the west. A streak of intolerance runs deep in the Western societies. Some of the old colonial attitudes persist with regard to non-Western people.

The twenty-one years since the 1994 genocide, have been a living hell for many of us. Yet beyond Rwanda, there are men and women that have exploited our tears, our sorrow and the victims of the genocide for their own gain. The genocide deniers and revisionists have exploited our sufferings and have been spreading their lies throughout our region and in most of the European and American capitals for their own selfish reasons. They have attacked the victims and survivors of the Genocide and they are inciting a new genocide.

Fellow Rwandans, I do not need to remind you, of those grantee men and women that permanently, live with the horrors of the genocide after being maimed or disabled. As our moral duty, we remember those who suffered because of the Genocide. We cannot endure the unbearable consequences again. Do not ignore the millions of genocide survivors who lost their beloved ones, whose wounds are just starting to heal. Groups such as the BBC, reopen the harsh chapters of life callously and maliciously.

They believe that they are always above the rule of law and morality. As long as their criminality falls on people beyond the western world, this problem remains unsolved.

Fellow Rwandans, the past 21 years have been so difficult and painful for those of us who lost our siblings, mothers, fathers, grandparents, friends and neighbours.

The campaign, to turn the victims into aggressors and twisting our history is taking its toll upon the survivors. However, I would like to tell you that this is not new. It is has been the norm and a tradition for intolerant people to deny the reality of genocides, throughout history.

Even, today, many Europeans deny that there was genocide against the Jews, such as those who vandalized and desecrated the graves of Jews some 60 years after the Holocaust. Hatred of Jews and the denial of the Holocaust are still alive and strong. Therefore, there is sadly nothing new or unique when people deny that there was genocide in Rwanda. We know the truth – our dead loved ones and those who live with the scars of the 100 days are witnesses to the reality of the genocide.

Fellow Rwandans, we all know they killed, tortured and raped our people most cruelly. They suffered many indignities. Nevertheless, today, we remember the dead with great dignity and solemnity.

Fellow Rwandans, let us not make the mistake to believe that the 100 days of shame and brutality that turned Rwanda into a vast graveyard will happen again or not remembered. Let us make this clear, that the 100 days that saw 500,000 Rwandan women raped on an industrial scale, is firmly the past, forever. Let us emphasize that those grime 100 days in which 45,000 Rwandan children were born as result of rape will never return. We must all stay alert, strong and firm so that the tragic decades when people lived in fear and terror, and were ‘labeled’ and graded into “Category one and Category two” are long gone. This ‘’labeling’’ was a feature of the White South African apartheid regime or the era of slavery where Africans were traded as commodities. Let us be clear and definite, that those terrifying times of indignities, anguish, tears, sorrows, segregation and fears are now compounded, crippled and consigned to our history and they will never return to Rwanda. No matter, the dangers or threats, we will always have the strength to prevent a repeat of that Genocide in our homeland.

Fellow Rwanda, let us stand firm to say “Never, and never again” to the politics of hate, ethnicity, fear, terror and genocide ideology that continues to be woven into the fabric of our society.
I truly believe we are at a time that represents a once-in-a-generation opportunity and that once it is taken; we will never look at Rwandan society in the same way again, and will be very different from the society of twenty-one years ago.

Fellow Rwandans, we will not fail you!

We will never turn our back on you. We will always do whatever it takes. The memory of our dead and the terrible carnage inflicted on our country and people, will always give us strength and the courage to protect our country. Fellow Rwandans, let me make a promise to you.

If we fail to preserve the dignity of the Rwandan people and the memory of the victims, if we fail to give justice to the innocent dead, if we prove unable to protect all Rwandans from any threat posed to them, then there is no legitimate reason for our desired place in public life. We will exclude ourselves from participation in the Rwandan political system. The RPP is dedicated to the protection of the human rights and freedom of all Rwandans.

Fellow Rwandans, the RPP will bring to justice those responsible for piling shame on our country and drowning our nation in blood. There is no time limit in our quest for justice. Let no one have any illusions about this. We will not rest until we have brought every murderer, rapists and criminal, especially the ringleaders, involved in the orchestrating, execution and supervising of the 1994 Genocide against Tutsi to justice.

My fellow citizens, my party and I, the Rwanda People’s Party, on the 21st Anniversary of the genocide join the citizens and friends of Rwanda to Commemorate the 21 years of the Rwandan genocide against the Tutsis.

May God bless you.
Thank you.
John V Karuranga, President
Rwanda People’s Party
http://www.rwandapeopleparty.org

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Secretary-General, in Message for Rwanda Genocide Observance, Urges Prevention of ‘Cruelty Taking Place before Our Eyes’

Following is UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s message for the International Day of Reflection on the Genocide in Rwanda, observed on 7 April:

The International Day of Reflection on the Genocide in Rwanda offers an opportunity to honour the memory of the more than 800,000 people — overwhelmingly Tutsi, and also moderate Hutu, Twa and others — who were systematically killed across Rwanda in less than three months just over two decades ago.  It is also an occasion to recognize the pain and the courage of those who survived.

Our annual sombre observance is all the more meaningful this year as we mark the seventieth anniversary of the founding of the United Nations.  We must use this occasion to look back on the past — and to squarely confront the challenges of the present, renewing our collective resolve to prevent such atrocities from happening again.

Many countries now face grave security threats.  People are being subjected to the brutality of violent conflicts and the indignities of poverty.  Discrimination persists in societies torn apart by war, as well as in democracies that largely enjoy peace.  Hatred may manifest as institutionalized racism, ethnic strife, or episodes of intolerance or exclusion.  In other instances, discrimination reflects the official, national version of history that denies the identity of some segments of the population.

I deplore the conflicts and atrocity crimes in many parts of the world that continue to divide communities, killing and displacing people, undermining economies and destroying cultural heritage.

Our first duty is always to prevent these situations and to protect vulnerable human beings in distress.  My “Human Rights Up Front” initiative seeks to prevent serious human rights violations by acting on early warning signs before they become more serious.  My Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and on the Responsibility to Protect work to advance national and international efforts to protect populations from atrocity crimes.  We aim to ensure swift and decisive action to save lives and stop abuses.

On this Day, I appeal to the international community to do more than just speak about atrocity crimes and then fail to take timely action to prevent them.  I call on all to summon the courage to act before situations deteriorate based on our collective moral responsibility.  This is critical for the maintenance of international peace and security.

As I said at last year’s commemoration in Kigali, we must exercise “Umuganda” — coming together in common purpose — to avert what can be prevented and counter the cruelty taking place before our eyes.

Statement by his Excellency Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta C.G.H. President and Commander in Cheif of the Defence Force of the Republic of Kenya on the Terrorist Attack at Garissa University College, Garissa County on 2nd April 2015

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Press Release: The African Union calls for the Universalization and full implementation of the Biological Weapons Convention (26.03.2015)

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#OpenToSyria – Amnesty International’s Chart of World Action towards the refugees of the conflict in Syria

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DSG/SM/836-SC/11735-PBC/103: Addressing Security Council, Deputy Secretary-General Calls upon Solid Commitment from All Sides to Fulfil ‘Original Vision’ for Peacekeeping Structures

14 JANUARY 2015

Following are UN Deputy Secretary-General’s Jan Eliasson’s remarks to the Security Council on post-conflict peacebuilding, in New York today:

Thank you for giving me this opportunity to brief the Council on the Secretary-General’s report on Peacebuilding in the Aftermath of Conflict.

This report reminds us that peacebuilding is at the core of the United Nations’ aims and ambitions.  The challenges and responses described in the report will directly affect the future of individuals, communities and societies and their chances of living in peace.

I would like to highlight five key features of the report.

First, peacebuilding is most effective when political, security and development actors support a common, comprehensive and clear strategy for consolidating peace.

We have seen examples of this in Guinea and Burundi.

In Guinea, the United Nations country team supported an inter-party agreement on parliamentary elections that was facilitated by the then-SRSG [Special Representative of the Secretary-General] for West Africa, Said Djinnit.  The team held public meetings with local political leaders and helped train election monitors.

In Burundi, the Peacebuilding Commission and the country team supported the efforts of the UN Office in pursuit of a more inclusive political environment.  They did this by facilitating broad consultations with political parties and civil society.  This led to the adoption of a new electoral code and a code of conduct for the upcoming elections.

Second, strong and well-functioning institutions that are central to peacebuilding must be based on effective and inclusive political agreements.

Such agreements provide legitimacy and support for institutional development and reform.  Without inclusive agreements, political divisions may persist and control of the State may indeed remain contested.  Under such circumstances, nationally led peacebuilding strategies have a limited potential.  Let’s admit that we have seen this in South Sudan, where extensive investments in institution-building were lost when weak and unstable political agreements between different factions resulted in a tragic relapse of conflict.

Third, peacebuilding requires sustained international political, technical and financial support.

Regretfully, we are seeing such gaps in several places, particularly where the establishment of basic Government functions and the provision of social services are required to sustain peace.

The Peacebuilding Fund can partially address the financial gaps in the short term.  But, it remains problematic to ensure the necessary larger-scale and longer-term assistance and support.

I encourage the Peacebuilding Commission to continue its efforts to mobilize the support of Member States for the UN’s missions and mandates.  Groups of Friends and Contact Groups can play an important role.  Also, compacts between post-conflict States and key international partners can align international support with national priorities — as they did in Sierra Leone and Somalia.

Fourth, regional actors and neighbouring countries, working together with the United Nations, can play a critical role in creating an environment conducive to sustainable peace.

The Peacebuilding Commission can help support such efforts, as it has done recently in the Central African Republic and Guinea-Bissau, by convening meetings with regional organizations, neighbouring States and international partners.

This underlines how conflicts in today’s world more and more take on a regional dimension, which I am sure you in the Council have noted in your deliberations on so many issues.  This regional dimension, in my view, should be better reflected in how we in the future deal generally with both conflict resolution and post-conflict peacebuilding.

Fifthly, and lastly, at this part of my presentation — promoting inclusion means that we must ensure women’s equal participation in post-conflict political and development processes.

The Secretary-General’s report details innovative approaches from Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kyrgyzstan and Liberia, including an initiative in Guinea called the Women’s Situation Room.  This provided support to a network of local women’s organizations, enabling women to play a crucial role as election monitors.  It also facilitated inter-party trust and strengthened women’s political participation.  We need more initiatives like this, and I particularly would like to say that this could be very valuable this year when we mark the 20 years after the important Beijing conference.

I would on this occasion like to present the Council with some reflections and thoughts on the important review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture that was launched by the General Assembly and the Security Council last month.

It was my privilege, as President of the General Assembly 10 years ago, to be part of the creation of the peacebuilding structures — the Peacebuilding Commission, the Peacebuilding Fund and the Peacebuilding Support Office.  You may recall that this work was in response to the troubling phenomenon at the time of frequent relapses into conflict.

Since then, we can see that peacebuilding efforts are more necessary than ever.  In the recent past, the Central African Republic and South Sudan have tragically fallen back into conflict.

The three Ebola-affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, are all on the Peacebuilding Commission’s agenda.  In addition to the large and tragic loss of life, the epidemic has also had a dramatic impact on social cohesion and State institutions.  As the Peacebuilding Commission noted in its early meetings on the epidemic, there is a need for comprehensive support that will ensure the resilience of State institutions and of course rapid recovery.

The United Nations’ involvement in peacebuilding has evolved considerably since 2005, with broader mandates and more actors, working in ever more difficult environments.  Our peacekeepers and special political missions are often in these situations called upon to support inclusive political processes and to build effective rule of law and security institutions, together with UN agencies, funds and programmes.

The Peacebuilding Commission was intended to be a diverse, flexible and dynamic political forum, which would focus sustained international attention on the challenges for countries at risk of relapse into violence.  Although the Commission has made some important progress, many now agree that its structure and working methods need review, improvement and adaptation to a rapidly changing environment.  Here, I would like to commend the efforts of the Permanent Representative of Brazil, Antonio [de Aguiar] Patriota, who has been Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission and set the direction in a very positive way, as also the new Head of the Peacebuilding Support office, Oscar Fernandez-Taranco, who is behind me, and his predecessor.  So, we are on the right track and I think we need to go with an open mind into this work.

We need a forum that can act quickly to mobilize the collective support of Member States for the UN’s mandates and missions.  We also need to consider the circumstances in which the Peacebuilding Commission can be particularly useful.  A more flexible, more dynamic and strategically oriented Commission could be more relevant to a broader range of situations in today’s world.

These and other ideas are included in the UN system’s input to the review.  I hope you will give them your serious consideration.  The UN system is committed to increase its support to and engagement with a dynamic, flexible and focused Peacebuilding Commission.

Your review will coincide with the Secretary-General’s review of peace operations and the Global Study to assess progress in implementing resolution 1325 (2000).  The work and outcomes of these three reviews, and their follow-up, should be complementary, and in my view, mutually reinforcing.

These reviews come at a time of complex threats to peace, security and development.  They provide us with an important opportunity to sharpen and re-shape our thinking and our actions.

We owe it to the people we serve to ensure that we are bold, ambitious, and above all, effective in our approach to modern-day peacebuilding.  I urge Member States to be open, candid and constructive in their assessment of the peacebuilding challenges and potentials.

I would just like to add that, when we look at a conflict, the life of a conflict, we have a tendency to focus on the middle section of that life of a conflict — when you are at the “CNN stage” — when you are at the stage of suffering and taking urgent decisions on missions — peacebuilding and peacekeeping operations.  I think we need all to think of extending that attention to the pre-stage and the post-stage.  The life of a conflict which is discovered at the first vibrations on the ground — that is when we should start to act.  And then, like the convalescence of a patient, at the end of a conflict with ceasefires and so forth, we need to know that there is post-conflict work to be done, so that we don’t get back to the vicious cycle of conflict.

We need a solid commitment from all sides to fulfil the original vision for the peacebuilding structures and to improve the UN system’s support for countries emerging from conflict.

This could make the difference, the crucial difference, between peace or continuing conflict for millions of people around the world.  This is an opportunity the United Nations and its Member States should not miss.

Winston Churchill – Christmas Message 1941

24. December 1941 – Washington DC, USA. 

I spend this anniversary and festival far from my country, far from my family, yet I cannot truthfully say that I feel far from home.  Whether it be the ties of blood on my mother’s side, or the friendships I have developed here over many years of active life, or the commanding sentiment of comradeship in the common cause of great peoples who speak the same language, who kneel at the same altars and, to a very large extent, pursue the same ideals, I cannot feel myself a stranger here in the centre and at the summit of the United States.  I feel a sense of unity and fraternal association which, added to the kindliness of your welcome,  convinces me that I have a right to sit at your fireside and share your Christmas joys.

This is a strange Christmas Eve.  Almost the whole world is locked in deadly struggle, and, with the most terrible weapons which science can devise, the nations advance upon each other.  Ill would it be for us this Christmastide if we were not sure that no greed for the land or wealth of any other people, no vulgar ambition, no morbid lust for material gain at the expense of others, had led us to the field.  Here, in the midst of war, raging and roaring over all the lands and seas, creeping nearer to our hearts and homes, here, amid all the tumult, we have tonight the peace of the spirit in each cottage home and in every generous heart.  Therefore we may cast aside for this night at least the cares and dangers which beset us, and make for the children an evening of happiness in a world of storm.  Here, then, for one night only, each home throughout the English-speaking world should be a brightly-lighted island of happiness and peace.

Let the children have their night of fun and laughter.  Let the gifts of Father Christmas delight their play.  Let us grown-ups share to the full in their unstinted pleasures before we turn again to the stern task and the formidable years that lie before us, resolved that, by our sacrifice and daring, these same children shall not be robbed of their inheritance or denied their right to live in a free and decent world.

And so, in God’s mercy, a happy Christmas to you all.

Merry Christmas in rememberence of 1914 Truce of the trenches

A hundred years ago in the midst of war between all the empires of Europe. There was a standstill at the Western Front. Where Germans, French and British soldiers made a truce on this day, that day was 24. December of 1914. I don’t really have words to describe the astonishing feeling of such an act in the midst of all the bloodshed. The pictures I will add and old articles and letters will tell it better than I am able to. Nevertheless, Merry Christmas! And never forget those who fought for our rights of today. Peace.

Let us never forget!