“There is nothing like a free lunch” – Milton Friedman.
Corruption! A long word I have written about for ages and it doesn’t stop. Milton Friedman is right there isn’t nothing like a free lunch. You can get kickbacks, but it’s still not right because it’s not fair, not just and not the way of dealing as a civil servant or as a business person to get a better life or deal. That is what these corruption cases are about from the Netherland, Singapore, Taiwan, and Montana in U.S.A., also Estonia and Zambia. There is all the different kinds of lunches. An all of them have been eating though one company won’t take the risk so they pull out of a market till the last story where Bishop Mambo in Zambia is telling that there is corruption in the Church. Surely their churches, the church-coffee after service must be sweetened by something stronger then sugar.
In the Netherlands the Dutch Staffing Company Brunel has pulled out its operations in Nigeria because of corruption their Chief Executive Jan Arie Van Barneveld says: “The security risk and bureaucracy make it almost impossible to guarantee the quality of our services and the safety of our workers in Nigeria in the future” (…)”If it is actually impossible to do business without breaking the rules and putting our staff in physical danger, then I’ve had it” (…)”Even if we will notice the difference in our books” (…)”We do business there with big oil and gas companies which are run by local bigwigs. They simply tell our staff that the bill won’t be paid unless a certain person is “facilitated” first. To be clear, that means to be paid” (Dutch, 2015).
In Singapore there was a former engineer who worked at the Changai Airport Group (CAG), the engineer Henry Goh Keng Hwee was sentenced to 15 months in jail on 27. August 2015 to the following counts: “three for corruptly accepting bribes and six for deceiving the Group with fraudulent quotations. Another 19 charges under the Prevention of Corruption Act were taken into consideration in sentencing” (…)”The court heard on Thursday that Goh had accepted bribes totaling S$43,780 from Dennis Kang, a director of Fire-Mech, which was in the business of providing installation, servicing and maintenance works for fire protection systems” (…)”In seeking a sentence of 20 months’ jail and S$43,780 fine, Deputy Public Prosecutor Jiang Ke-Yue submitted that Goh, “motivated by sheer greed”, had abused his position of trust and influence, as his recommendations were relied upon by Management. “This is aggravated by the fact that he had built the bribes into the contract price, effectively earning secret profits from his own employer”, DPP Jiang said” (Chelvan, 2015).
In Taiwan Mr. Huang Ching-Tai the former Keelung City Council speaker is sentenced to 20 years in prison for charges involving bribes, graft, bribery, accepting kickbacks and more. A important part of the ruling was: “The court also found Huang guilty of embezzling public funds from the city council, amounting to NT$91.46 million (US$2.79 million), through falsified receipts and forged accounting item” (Pan, 2015).
In the U.S.A. a former Montana legislator Joel Boniek has been fined for violating the campaign laws. After that and denying it, but at the same time claiming the judges for being frauds saying and calling out Judge Motl: “Motl is a political zealot on a political witch hunt,” Boniek said when reached by telephone on Monday. “Being charged with corruption by the Democrats is like Genghis Khan protesting about somebody’s doing violence” (…)”This is all politics. They don’t like people like me who stand up for freedom and small government. It’s not about justice, it’s about getting Joel Boniek” (Talwani, 2015).
In Tallinn Estonia there is a case from ISS that certain high profile workers at the port of Tallinn might be corrupted: “The Internal Security Service (ISS) have apprehended state-owned Port of Tallinn CEO Ain Kaljurand and board member Allan Kiil” (…) ““The Internal Security Police did inform myself and the ministry early on. I learned about the process shortly after taking office [in April 2015],” economy minister Kristen Michal said. According to Michal, the ministry agreed to guarantee the operation of the company once the ISS moved in. “It is in our best interests that the Port of Tallinn is able to fill and service procurements it has won,” he said, adding that this includes the internal ferry route tender, which the company recently won. It will begin to service domestic ferry routes in a year’s time and is currently in the process of acquiring four new ferries” (Laats, 2015).
The last case I will put the light on is the plea and sad news of corruption from Zambia from the Bishop John Mambo: “It is sad that it (corruption) is happening in churches. How can I sink so low to solicit ungodly things in the house of the Lord? I left the world and went to join the Church so that I can be corrected when I am wrong and the hospital I can go to is the Church. That Church should have people of different kinds, including journalists. The pastor is supposed to be the doctor but when you find that the pastor is sick in the way he is conducting himself, then where do we run to?” (…)”When you go to church and you are being told to do wrong things…If that is happening in the house of the Lord, people will now start going elsewhere. It is also unfortunate that state machinery is being abused by the PF” (…)”If you don’t know the language of mafias, the way they operate, you are dealt with” (…)”I would rather die for what is right than me keeping quiet. Someone told me that I have been bought by The Post but I told him that The Post does not have the money to buy everyone who is speaking out on the wrong things that are going on in the country. The government shouldn’t tell us that we should fear them. no! We should fear God. Let them take my life but that will not be the end because God is the creator of my life. The poor are becoming very poor and the rich are getting filthy rich and have forgotten that they come from Mandevu and Chainda. They think they were born on Independence Avenue” (OpenZambia, 2015).
The stories tell it explicitly themselves. The only thing that I have pound about for so long is that it’s not a local thing, it’s a global action with effects on society when civil servants take kickbacks, when businessmen take a short cut the society and government loose in the end. The way the court and rule of law has to apply to the offences and the way local business and global trade get hurt by the actions of those who use Corruption as a tool to gain advance in society. Or use it to get rich by working and giving way to business is also stealing money from the state coffers instead of going to the supposed works of the state. That is why I keep pounding on it. As it is necessary to do so! And people like me will continue. To prove that it is everywhere and greed isn’t dying, it’s moving and there are people everywhere who will take the buck, governments and laws might abide, but it’s the ethics and mechanisms of the state should be able stop it. Sometimes seems that we have to continue to shine the light on the dark side to see if the when the dust clears what monsters will arrive from our society. Wish it wasn’t like this, but with the way we trade and conduct business together and a society where governments guides and gives regulations for the activity, the sad part is that certain areas the government can be bought or set by businesses instead of the actual regulation that supposed to be in place.
Chelvan, Vanessa Paige – ‘Ex-Changi Airport engineer gets 15 months’ jail for corruption’ (27.08.2015) link: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/ex-changi-airport/2080028.html
DutchNews: ‘Dutch staffing agency Brunel pulls out of Nigeria because of corruption’ (26.08.2015) Link: http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archives/2015/08/dutch-staffing-agency-brunel-pulls-out-of-nigeria-because-of-corruption/
Laats, J.M. – ‘Authorities detain Port of Tallinn CEO on corruption allegations’ (26.08.2015) link: http://news.err.ee/v/politics/cf7d4f70-5d2b-4716-b07c-8517adbf38cb/authorities-detain-port-of-tallinn-ceo-on-corruption-allegations
OpenZambia – ‘It’s Sad That Corruption Is Happening In Churches – Bishop Mambo’ (29.08.2015) link: http://www.openzambia.com/2015/08/its-sad-that-corruption-is-happening-in-churches-bishop-mambo/
Pan, Jason – ‘Ex-Keelung speaker guilty of corruption, jailed for 20 years’ (30.08.2015 – Page 3) link: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2015/08/30/2003626536
Talwani, Sanjay – ‘Ex-Montana legislator fined for corruption, calls judges ‘frauds’ (25.08.2015) link: http://www.ktvq.com/story/29875106/ex-montana-legislator-fined-for-corruption-calls-judges-frauds
There is for some strange reason a big discussion on the matter. Since some countries have them, some don’t. It is not like every constitution should be written the same with the same accords. In my homeland for instance there is no limit on how long the Prime Minister can sit in power, but that that depends if the people of my country get tired of the PM or the party affiliated with the PM. In bigger countries like the US there is a limit of two terms and only once a President who has broken that rule, was during Second World War and that was Franklin D. Roosevelt. Who had three terms and is the only one well known.
I am sure that Greece would have seemed happy with more often change of leadership. So if they hadn’t sunk that deep with loans and debt. Then it wouldn’t matter how long a regime is in power, if it essentially good, but if it’s not. Then it would be healthy with changes, so that the government recharge and fix the issues of old. That is for check and balance, also to stop cogging the machine with nepotism and local graft from local councils and smaller government entities.
Now that Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda and Burundi is following Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sudan, Zimbabwe and Uganda. They have big-men who have been sitting for ages and continue to break a certain switch of leaders. Burundi has just been through a farce of a election that brought their President Pierre Nkurunziza to his third term. Paul Kagame in Rwanda is thinking the same. Paul Biya the President of Cameroon has ruled since 1982 and is still sitting comfortable. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo has been the president of Equatorial Guinea has been in charge since 1979. Omar Al-Bashir in President of Sudan has been the chief since 1993. Robert Mugabe is the President of Zimbabawe is the big-men of the country since 1987. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni the President of Uganda has been the head honcho since 1986.
Have in mind Ben Ali in Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and Muammar Gadaffi in Libya. All of them had a hard fall during the Arab Spring. So during a short period of time these long times serving rulers was ousted by the public or militias in their countries. And those people mentioned that has been sitting since 1979 to now should have them in mind. They could be next.
Its reasons like this big-men why countries and constitutions, law and rule of laws should fix the longevity for the leaders of the countries. Even if some countries has benefited from leaders sitting long. There have been many who show other tales. That their starting and dealing with matters. Making sure that the countries are progressing, but the issue with all men, power can eat you and when it’s at your grasp you don’t want to leave it. The power corrupt and make sure your family eats and friends to. An leave the matters and supposed people your supposed to serve. That makes the basic issue of leaders who becomes the proof of states where there is “taxation without representation”. They goes from being heroes and big-men with legacy into Machiavellian and Orwellian monsters that swallows the governments, states and organizations. That evaporates and follows the pinpoints from the leaders, but not actual procedures or democratic values. Transparency does matters, checks and balance of information from the regimes dies down especially if it pokes at the government. Ethics of codes of conduct matters for the ruling party, but for the opposition is otherwise since they will be thrown into shackles and dungeons for standing up against the regimes.
There is a reason why media has to be strong against this leaders and big-men. Why term limits is a good thing? It’s because power corrupt and eat men. When you first get a spoon of the sweets they want the champagne and cocktails in the statehouses. While many of the big-men don’t strengthen the basic institutions and ministries of the countries they are in charge of. Instead they put more money into the security and armies, but not too strong because then they are worried that their general’s would make a coup d’etat, especially since some of them took power by the gun themselves. So they usually promise grand changes and grace periods where the institutions left soiling by former leaders. While they does certain things and necessary by them, if so only what needed and supported through aid or donor money they might do something more with this.
While these leaders also often toiled with multilateral organization that put strains on the economic freedoms and loans that funds the countries. The forced moves of liberate institutions instead of strengthen the powers of the nations. Free market thinking that has weakened the economies then making them stronger. So that they import more then they export. Produce simple raw material or farm products and import finished sophisticated products that give the budgets negatives for the countries and also a reason why the countries end up with loaning more money from the multilateral organization. Because of this the big-men make shady deals with international donor countries and producers that lead to more corruption. Their zealous and loyalist under-leaders get cuts and that happens as long as they follow the party lines. The sellers from abroad couldn’t care less because usually they get overpaid for the product and there wasn’t a fair process of the sale. So if there is a transparent overlook of the sale and ordering of the products to the country it wouldn’t have gotten a green light.
This thing grows and grows until it hit either the moon or the sun. The terms are what people looking at. Then you could have discussed and talked more directly about the countries that don’t have it. There isn’t like universal rules to how the constitutions should be and what countries should have in it. There is other ways around that countries has to follow the international agreements, resolutions, charters and convents they have to follow and make amendments to their existing laws. But that is whole other matter. The term limit question is more about the ethical place and trust in the big-men that is either elected or taken power on their own. And if you have issues with leaders taking power on their own, there is a slim chance of them actually caring about rule of law. Instead even if they say something they will turn against close to date of the final period of terms. Just like Yoweri Museveni did in Uganda, Pierre Nkurunziza did in Burundi, Paul Kagame in Rwanda and Joseph Kabila in Democratic Republic in Congo (DRC). They all did a turn-around in limited time right before the end of the official second term. So they could fix the laws and get an official third term.
We the people and the citizens care about our big-men and nations, about the institutions that are made to be around us and supposed to support us. As we want good leaders that actually lead and make changes, and structures to secure their people. Instead when their reign for so long that their stealing of wealth, lands and positions for loyalist can be vial and hurting the country, instead of reaching and making the place better. This could be less of a viable possibility if there were structures and codes into place that pushed leaders to leave behind a legacy and go off in grace instead of sitting into the man with a scythe coming and taking their souls to eternal rest.
If society fears that leaders will lead into nepotism, graft, corruption and other evils of long term stand still of leaders and philosophy. The journey that the political climate needs is sufficient tools to stand in rainy days and in glorious ones. Also proper training to lead the next generations into a secure place and leave a foundation that can bring something positive for the people and the nations as whole.
And it isn’t pure and true leadership if they aren’t coping with the ability of leaving the power. They know that and we the people know this. When that happens we see the issues translate into situations that nobody really wants to see. Like the failed Coup d’etat in Burundi in 2015 and the violence that has surged since. Then the failings of the ‘Walk to Work’ protest after the 2011 elections in Uganda. That only led to few fallen activists for the cause, but lead to now initial change. Also the reactions in the DRC after lawfully allowing it’s president a third term, this made people react and the #Telema uprising happened as a aftermath. This because the leaders don’t accept their reach and doesn’t step down in time, instead tries to sit until the chair is breaking. And in due time they will fall out of the chair, it’s just about how they will land and which legacy they want to leave behind.
I am Sure Honorable Mister Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe could have been a real gentleman and been in the league of freedom fighters who fought a just cause against oppression of a foreign power. He could have been seen as that if he stepped down in proper time and given security to the country. Instead he has let the economy run loose, people fleeing the country, rigging elections, letting special army and police trained by North Koreans go into villages before elections and spread fear amongst the citizens. If he had stopped before turning into a villain, he could have been seen as hero. Something that would been worthy actually of how he fought with the comrades against a far-away rulers to secure peaceful nationhood to Zimbabwe together with Joshua Nkomo. Today he will not only be remembered only for the Lancaster House Agreement! But for all of the other madness that has happen after.
The same will happen with these other leaders who might have done great things. And they have made a difference. They have made some kind of changes and progress in their countries. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda has made progress in Uganda. Even by sitting very-very long in the chair of power. After uncertainties of the 80s he has with the Movement system made the land peaceful and that has made gains in the aspect of food productions. Even with help of neighbors and the U.S. sent LRA on the run to C.A.R. where he is trying to get them again. Though with lingering into power it’s now taking a toll on the budgets, inflation levels, value of the currency and the enormous level of spending to local councils since there is new district every 5 years or so.
I could go on about every leader I have mentioned and what has happen because of their steadiness of power. How that effects and what that has led to in the countries that their leading, still. Similarities are still that the countries don’t earn much on having the same leaders reigning for many terms. Because the countries getting sucked into the system and patrons of the big-man instead of build functioning institutions and ministries to really developing the countries.
And let this be clear, I don’t want the systems of the West unto these countries that is not what I am implying. The simple thing I am pounding on is how it will be healthy for a nation to have leaders and their big-men for too long. I doubt if it is healthy. The same with MPS and Ministers, they all will eat too much and become fat, instead of serving the people. The same happens with the grand big-man; therefore the change of leadership is an essential feature to society and government.
Therefore what I am initially implying is that no matter what kind of society the human soul and body will be eaten by the power. That’s simple reason is that this is a universal issue, the location and countries could be a mayor in my town for the matter or the leader of European Union, the secondly it could be a president in South America or Asia. This is a phenomenon that is everywhere if the big-man has the possibility. Let me take a few more honorable mentions:
So thanks for reading. Hope it was worth it and that this wasn’t as long as the tenure of certain big-men. Peace.
Today is the day after we have celebrated our Constitutional Day here in Norway. This is the day after the giant national party. Last week it just happened to be an election in the small South-American state Guyana which is in-between Surinam and Venezuela. As the Corruption Perception Index shows the magnificent position that Guyana in the world that there in the place of number 124 of 175 countries. Here is the chart from Transparency International:
To follow the story, I have looked for sources and how it has gone. This I had to do after reading Chris Lang’s report ‘Why did Norway agree to pay US$40 million just before Guyana’s election?’. That he published on the internet page red-monitor.org. As a Norwegian I haven’t really heard anything about the election or the funding of the rainforest projects in Guyana. We have seen our development minister Erik Solheim travelling to Brazil and looking at the crazy animals and green trees in the rainforest. So I had to check what has been said. Here is what I have found. And hope it’s worth five minutes of your day.
The now former president of the Republic of Guyana H. E. Donald Ramotar on the 5th payment on the 7th of May 2015 stated this: “Fellow Guyanese, I am pleased to announce today that Guyana has received a payment of $8 billion (Guyana) from the Government of Norway. This is a billion more than last year’s payment, and brings the total received from Norway to $38 billion” (…) ”All Guyanese should feel proud of the vote in confidence expressed by Norway in announcing that they are willing to pursue a second agreement up to 2020, a policy that only the PPP/C supports in Guyana. And all Guyanese should feel proud that we have earned the most money from a forest partnership in the world, after Brazil. Money that is being directly spent on the people” (…) ”the LCDS has done a lot. Guyana has now deployed US$120 million into projects, which are enabling the rehabilitation of Cunha canal that will protect Georgetown, and the communities and farms along the Mahaica River from floods like we saw back in 2005” (…) ”First, the opposition tried to stop Norway from paying Guyana the money that we earned from keeping our forests standing. When the opposition failed to achieve this, they tried to stop us from spending this hard earned money on the Guyanese people by cutting the entire LCDS budget!” (…) ”we have always been fighting to protect our nature so that we can leave an even more beautiful Guyana as a legacy to our children – and today we are leading the world in showing how finances can flow to forest countries. Guyana was once known for rigged elections and economic decay – today we are known for global environmental leadership. The benefits are for all our people, and we must not throw them away”.
On the 8th May “The Government of Guyana this morning announced the receipt of US$40 million from the Government of Norway for maintaining low deforestation rates and improving forest governance” (PRNewswire).
To the Antigua Observerer President Ramotar is quoted on the agreement with Norway: “(This is) a policy that only the PPP/C (People’s Progressive Party/Civic) supports in Guyana. And all Guyanese should feel proud that we have earned the most money from a forest partnership in the world, after Brazil, money that is being directly spent on the people.” (…) “believe that not a single Guyanese living on the coast should need to worry when there’s heavy rainfall that their community will flood. And not a single Guyanese in the hinterland should need to worry about not having water during droughts. Nor should any Amerindian community need to worry about having enough economic opportunities to support their development.” (…) “Today, Guyana is one of the leading countries in the world in managing natural resources sustainably. And every Guyanese is benefitting from this. Our most recent deforestation rate was even lower than the previous year.” (…) “All Guyanese should feel proud of the vote in confidence expressed by Norway.” (…) ““I urge every Guyanese to think hard about what is at stake and to make the best decision next Monday to continue down a path of development and progress,” (Antigua Observerer).
On the 12th May reports was saying: “Guyana has received $40 million for climate services and intends to use part of the money for a transformational hydroelectric project in order to reduce the cost of electricity” (…) “The payment was made by the Government of Norway and represents earnings from the Guyana-Norway partnership which in total now amount s to $190 million out of a potential $250 million” (Caribbean News Service).
On the 16th May this new has arrived: “HIS Excellency, Brigadier (rtd) David Arthur Granger, is Guyana’s duly elected and sworn 8th Executive President, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Head of State of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. President Granger was administered the Oath of Office yesterday at the Public Buildings by Chancellor of the Judiciary, Carl Singh, in the presence of the thousands that converged to witness history. The Oath was administered following the reading of the Official Proclamation by Chairman of the Guyana Elections Commission (GECOM), Dr. Steve Surujbally” (…) “The official Inauguration Ceremony for the new Government is slated for May 26, at the Guyana National Stadium, and as had been promised by then coalition presidential candidate, Brigadier (rtd) Granger, Guyanese will celebrate the nation’s 50th Independence Anniversary from its colonial masters, under an APNU+AFC Government of National Unity” (Eleazar).
Newly elected David Arthur Granger said on the inauguration: “I extend the arm of friendship to former president, Donald Ramotar, and the members of the PPP to join this great movement of national unity.” (…) ”let us embrace each other regardless of religion, regardless of race, regardless of class, regardless of occupation…as fellow Guyanese let us work together to realise our inspiring national motto, One People, One Nation, One Destiny” (…) ”Guyanese, the elections are over, the people have chosen their representatives, the Constitution has been respected, our democracy has been fortified, let us now put past rivalries behind us and work in unity to banish poverty, ignorance, fear and hatred” (Eleazar).
Tweedie of the Morning Star tells the story of how close the election in Guyana really was: “GUYANA’S ruling party has alleged fraud in the general election, with just 43 votes separating the two main presidential candidate” (…) “It claimed that the opposition Partnership for National Unity and the Alliance For Change (APNU+AFC) received almost twice as many votes as there were voters in some regions” (…) “The PPP also expressed concern over the “extremely high” number of rejected ballots and accused the APNU of intimidating its representatives and chasing them away from polling stations” (…) “And the APNU declared victory for its candidate David Granger on Tuesday, long before the vote was complete” (Tweedie).
Former Speaker of the National Assembly, Ralph Ramkarran has commented: “No longer motivated by his high ideals, it (the PPP/C) allowed one-man rule, arrogance, crime, corruption, nepotism and high living to flourish and become dominant features of its governance” (…) “Ramkarran said that the PPP/C ignored the fact that it lost a significant percent of its support at elections held in 2011. “It deluded itself by a self-serving analysis that apathy caused its supporters to stay away from the polls in 2011. This prompted an expectation that elections with a divisive political strategy will restore its majority. Thus it rejected any idea of a coalition government.”(Rockecliffe).
If this isn’t getting your minds to think and I understand the thoughts of Chris Lang and Redd Monitor. I am just thinking. What is the real measure of the money spent into the saving of the rainforest? How will this sizeable funding scheme really be governed? We now can read reports of possible election frauds in Guyana, also considering the number and place of the country considering their position as the 124 of 175. There are expected that the former President will be happy for the agreement between Norway and Guyana. This is the 6th Payment and also building a Hydroelectric plant in Guyana for 40$B. If this doesn’t make your mind boggle a bit and how this doesn’t seem right. I get worried when the politicians and campaign talks about this funding of deforestation. If you don’t mind I will snip out the most questionable quotes from the ‘Joint Concept Note’ that both government agreed on 6th May 2015. Also the letter from Guyana Forestry Commission from 13. Januar 2015. Hope you enjoy! Peace.
The letter from Guyana Forestry Commission:
PS: If that wasn’t cool enough for you. Peace!
Antigua Observer – ‘Norway pays over $8B to Guyana – signals willingness to partner with Gov’t until 2020’ (08.05.2015) Link: http://antiguaobserver.com/norway-pays-over-8b-to-guyana-signals-willingness-to-partner-with-govt-until-2020/
Caribbean News Service – ‘Guyana $40 Million Fund to Help Develop Hydroelectric Project’ (12.05.2015) Link: http://caribbeannewsservice.com/now/guyana-40-million-fund-to-help-develop-hydroelectric-project/
Eleazar, Gary – Guyana Chronicle Online – ‘David Arthur Granger sworn in as Guyana’s 8th Executive President …extends ‘Olive Branch’ to ousted PPP/C administration …says let us put past rivalries behind us and work in unity’ (16.05.2015) Link: http://guyanachronicle.com/david-arthur-granger-sworn-in-as-guyanas-8th-executive-president-extends-olive-branch-to-ousted-pppc-administration-says-let-us-put-past-rivalries-behind/
Rockcliffe, Abena – Kaieteur News – ‘A Guyana void of poverty, corruption and nepotism awaits – Ramkarran’ (18.05.2015) Link: http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2015/05/18/a-guyana-void-of-poverty-corruption-and-nepotism-awaits-ramkarran/
Tweedie, James – Morning Star – ‘Guyana Election: Ruling Party Alleges Fraud as Candidates Lie 43 Votes Apart’ (15.05.2015) Links: http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/a-81e1-Guyana-elections-Ruling-party-alleges-fraud-as-candidates-lie-43-votes-apart
PRNewswire – ‘Guyana receives US$40 million payment from Norway for climate services and continued low deforestation’ (08.05.2015) Link: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/guyana-receives-us40-million-payment-from-norway-for-climate-services-and-continued-low-deforestation-300080282.html#